Production planning Production control Factory building. Provision of plant services Plant layout Physical environment Method study Inventory control Quality control Product department
Reduction of cost Reduction of loss by in time availability of resources Saving by proper assigning and scheduling of man, machine and material Effectively assigning task an managing Improve decision making Overall improvement of production related activities.
Poor customer performance Too much stock Shortage of components and raw materials Fall in demand Excessive expenditure and transportation cost Delay payment Wrong decision Selection design Problem of plan layout Priority is not clear Lack of equipment
Product- meet need and wants – performance – aesthetics– quality – reliability- quantity – production cost– delivery dates Plant – layout , equipment, offices maintenance – health and safety – environmental issue Processes – available capacity – skills- type of production – layout of plant and same. Programs – purchasing patterns – cash flow – need for – avalabitlity of storage – transportation. People – wages and salaries – safety and training – work condition – leadership – motivation – communication – unionisation
Location of facilities 2. Plant layouts and material handling 3. Product design 4. Process design 5. Production and planning control 6. Quality control 7. Materials management 8. Maintenance management.
Proximity of market Integration with other parts of the firm Availability of labour & skills Availability of amenities Availability of transport Availability of inputs Availability of services (electricity, drainage, water, disposal waste) Suitability of land & climate
Regional regulations Room of expansion Safety requirement Site cost Political Social & Economic situation Special grants, regional taxes & Import Export barriers.
It is layout that deals with low-volume, high variety production in which like machines and equipment are grouped together. Here each product undergoes a different sequence of operations. A good example of process layout ins Hospital and clinic. Advantage- it’s flexibility in equipments & labour assignment. Break down in one machine will not hold the entire process.
It is suitable specially for goods handling the manufacturing of parts in small batches or job lots and for production of variety of parts in different size or forms. Disadvantage- orders can take more time to move through the system because of changes in steps and unique material handling. It is based on general purpose machine which in turn requires skilled workers, and their wages charges are higher.
When process layout is design the most common tactic is to arrange department so as to minimize cost of material handling. It tries to minimize loads, times distance related costs.
The graphic approach is fine for small problems, it cannot however suffice for larger problem. This program often add sophistication with flow charts, multiple story capability, storage and container placement, material volumes, time analysis and cost comparisons. Such programs include CRAFT(computerized relative allocation of facilities technique), ALDEP(automated layout design program), CORELAP(computerized relationship layout planning) & factory flow.
It is organized around products of families of similar high-volume, low variety of product. Repetitive production and continuous production use product layouts. Assumption are- Volume adequate for high equipment utilization. Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment is specialized equipment. Product standardized a phase of its life cycle that justifies investment in specialized equipment.
Two types of product oriented layout- fabrication and assembly line. Fabrication line- a machine paced, product oriented facility for building components, such as metal parts of refrigerator. Assembly line- an approach that puts fabricated parts together at a series of workstation; used in repetitive process.
Assembly line balancing- obtaining output at each workstation on a production line so delay is minimized. Advantage- Low material handling cost Rapid throughput Easier training and supervision Reduced work-in-process inventories
Disadvantages- High volume required because of large investment needed to establish the process. Work stoppage at any one point ties-up the whole operation.