Kurhekar Introduction to Nanotechnology-vit-08-08-2011


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Kurhekar Introduction to Nanotechnology-vit-08-08-2011

  1. 1. Introduction To Nanotechnology <ul><ul><ul><li>A Presentation By- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. S. Kurhekar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http/sites.google.com/site/anilkurhekar100/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What is nanotechnology and why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>Some history and characterization techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of nanomaterials, research, applications, and </li></ul><ul><li>emerging trends </li></ul><ul><li>Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Final (opening) motivation and advice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Nanotechnology is the ability to understand, control, and manipulate matter at the level of individual atoms and molecules as well as at the “supramolecular level” involving clusters of molecules, in order to create materials, devices, and systems with fundamentally new properties and functions because of their small structure . The definition implies using the same principles and tools to establish a unifying platform for science and engineering at the nanoscale, and employing the atomic and molecular interactions to develop efficient manufacturing method </li></ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation (NSF) </li></ul><ul><li>National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) </li></ul>
  4. 4. How big a nanometer is ?
  5. 5. Beneath 1 millimeter
  6. 6. Opportunity
  7. 7. Need: education <ul><li>A key challenge for nanotechnology development is the education and </li></ul><ul><li>training of a new generation of skilled workers in the multidisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>perspective necessary for rapid progress of the new technology. The </li></ul><ul><li>concept at the nanoscale (atomic, molecular and supra-molecular </li></ul><ul><li>levels) should penetrate the education system in the next decade in a </li></ul><ul><li>similar manner to how the microscopic approach made inroads in the </li></ul><ul><li>last forty to fifty years… </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that about 2 million nanotechnology workers will be </li></ul><ul><li>needed worldwide in 10-15 years. </li></ul><ul><li>0.8 million in US </li></ul><ul><li>0.5 – 0.6 million in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>0.3-0.4 million in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>0.1-0.2 million in Asia/Pacific region excluding Japan </li></ul><ul><li>and more in other regions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nano-manufacturing <ul><li>Realize the breadth and accelerating pace of nanotechnology and the imperative for nano-manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the fundamental properties of nanostructures, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., nano-particles, nano-tubes, and nano-wires </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how nanostructures interact with one another and the surrounding medium …the physics of interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to make nanostructures </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to assemble nanostructures, e.g., top-down </li></ul><ul><li>vs. bottom-up , 1D, 2D, and 3D </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the properties of nanostructures scale with </li></ul><ul><li>assembly methods, and how interactions govern suprananoscale </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nano-manufacturing Goal <ul><li>Learn how to design and manufacture new materials and devices by harnessing the special properties and interactions of nanostructures </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance our ability to define important research questions, critically judge their validity based on fundamental principles, and design experiments to answer these questions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nanomaterials are not “New” <ul><li>It is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. </li></ul><ul><li>The Lycurgus Cup that was manufactured in the 5th to 4th century B.C. It is ruby red in transmitted light and green in reflected light, due to the presence of gold colloids. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1857, Faraday reported the formation of deep red solutions of colloidal gold by reduction of an aqueous solution of chloroaurate (AuCl4) using phosphorus in CS 2 (a two-phase system) in a well known work. </li></ul><ul><li>Faraday investigated the optical properties of thin films prepared from dried colloidal solutions and observed reversible color changes of the films upon mechanical compression (from bluish-purple to green upon pressurizing). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ability to be nanoscientists is new <ul><li>So, nanomaterials are definitely not new! </li></ul><ul><li>but our ability to be nanoscientists is new , because we’ve created instruments and machines for controlled characterization and fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>these enable nanotechnology </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Electron Microscope Goodhew, Microscopy and Microanalysis
  13. 13. Scanning probe microscopes invented by Young and colleagues, NIST, 1972 Binnig and Rohrer, Nobel Prize, 1986 Binnig, Quate, Gerber, 1986 Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) Atomic force microscope (AFM)
  14. 14. Nano-scale <ul><li>Nanotube on a </li></ul><ul><li>scanning probe tip </li></ul>This is about how big atoms are compared with the tip of the microscope
  15. 15. Current resolution limits approach visibility of individual atoms and defects
  16. 16. Building blocks Nanoclusters / Nanoparticles Magic #’s of atoms 100s-1000s of atoms ≤ 1 nm size ~1-100 nm diameter Nanowires / Nanotubes Filled Hollow ~1-100 nm dia, up to mm long and beyond!
  17. 17. Semiconducting Nanocrystals: “Quantum Dots” photo by F. Frankel, MIT Hodes, Advanced Materials, 19:639, 2007 . <100> CdSe <001> CdSe
  18. 18. Nanowire chemical sensors <ul><li>- Molecule-sized binding sites = high S/N </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer binding to be molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Arrays can be multiplexed to detect lots of markers </li></ul><ul><li>Patolsky and Lieber, Materials Today,2007. </li></ul>Principle of carrier injection
  19. 19. CNT Based Memory Reversible electromechanical junction Rueckes et al, Science 289, 2000; http://www.nantero.com
  20. 20. Nanogold <ul><li>Well… strange things happen at the small scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you keep cutting until the gold pieces are in the nanoscale range, they don’t look gold anymore… They look RED! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, depending on size, they can turn red, blue, yellow, and other colors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different thicknesses of materials reflect and absorb light differently </li></ul>12 nm gold particles look red Other sizes are other colors
  21. 21. Fabrication Methods <ul><li>Atom-by-atom assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like brick-laying, move atoms into place one at a time using tools like the AFM and STM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chisel away atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a sculptor, chisel out material from a surface until the desired structure emerges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up an environment so atoms assemble automatically. Nature uses self assembly (e.g., cell membranes) </li></ul></ul>IBM logo assembled from individual xenon atoms Polystyrene spheres self-assembling
  22. 22. Example: Self Assembly By Crystal Growth <ul><li>Grow nanotubes like trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put iron nanopowder crystals on a silicon surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in a chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add natural gas with carbon (vapor deposition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon reacts with iron and forms a precipitate of carbon that grows up and out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of the large number of structures you can create quickly, self-assembly is the most important fabrication technique </li></ul>Growing a forest of nanotubes!
  23. 23. An SiO 2 Micro-cantilever
  24. 24. Collaborate and learn from others <ul><li>“ The thing I want to say is collaborate. Collaborating with </li></ul><ul><li>talented people is not easy, but it’s the way to really shine – you </li></ul><ul><li>shine brighter if you are working with really great people. The </li></ul><ul><li>important thing in the end is not that you are proved right every </li></ul><ul><li>time, the important thing is that the music is the best that it can </li></ul><ul><li>be. I want to wish you all that you would find your own voice. </li></ul><ul><li>But if you are so disposed that you would find collaborators to </li></ul><ul><li>work with, that you would shine as you could never shine on </li></ul><ul><li>your own.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dave “The Edge” Evans (U2), at Berklee College of Music </li></ul><ul><li>Commencement, Boston, MA, May 2007. </li></ul>
  25. 25. A Quiz !!! <ul><li>1. How big is a nanometer compared to a meter? List one object that is nanosized, one that is smaller, and one that is larger but still not visible to the naked eye. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Name two properties that can differ for nanosized objects and much larger objects of the same substance. For each property, give a specific example. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe two reasons why properties of nanosized objects are sometimes different than those of the same substance at the bulk scale. </li></ul><ul><li>4. What do we mean when we talk about “seeing” at the nanoscale? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Choose one technology for seeing at the nanoscale and briefly explain how it works. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Describe one application (or potential application) of nanoscience and its possible effects on society. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Thank You. </li></ul>