Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

What is

842 views

Published on

Bill Schapaugh, Kansas State University Department of Agronomy - Presentation at the 2015 Women Managing the Farm Conference

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

What is

  1. 1. What is a GMO? Bill Schapaugh, Professor and Soybean Breeder Dept. of Agronomy Kansas State University Manhattan, KS wts@ksu.edu
  2. 2. • Define GMO • Traditional Breeding • Describe GMO Development • GMO Oversight/Assessment • Discuss GMO Products • Questions/Comments Today’s Plan
  3. 3. What is a GMO? • A GMO is a living plant, animal, or microbe that incorporates laboratory-made recombinant DNA. • Same as “transgenic”. Genetically Modified Organism
  4. 4. What is DNA? •http://maswheat.ucdavis.edu/ • shorthand for deoxyribonucleic acid • chemical substance of genes • genes contain the genetic code • assembly instructions for proteins • the instruction code is universal !!!!
  5. 5. Recombinant DNA + = Cut and pasted artificially in the lab by molecular scissors Organism 1 DNA Organism 2 DNA Combined DNA
  6. 6. Soybean Variety Development • Most cultivars developed through hybridization – Cross two parents (A X B) – Grow F1 generation and allow to self pollinate – Continue selfing in following generations to produce genetically stable lines (homozygous, pure lines) – Extensively test lines for yield, maturity, lodging, disease and insect resistance, etc. over several years and many environments • Final product: Homozygous – ie. AABBccDDeeFFggHHIIJJkkllMM, etc. – This is why seed can be saved from one generation to another to maintain the variety • Complete process from hybridization to release requires 5 to 8 years • Process would be similar in wheat
  7. 7. RRqq Parents rrQQ Rq rQPossible Gametes RrQq (F1 Hybrid - all resistant, high quality) R = disease resistance Q = high quality RrQq X RrQq
  8. 8. RQ Rq rQ rq RQ Rq rQ rq RRQQ RRQq RrQQ RrQq RRQq RRqq RrQq Rrqq RrQQ RrQq rrQQ rrQq RrQq Rrqq rrQq rrqq
  9. 9. Corn Hybrid Development • Female Development – Cross two parents (A X B) – Grow F1 generation and self pollinate – Continue selfing and evaluation in following generations to produce genetically stable, desirable lines (homozygous, pure lines) – Product: new female parents Part 1: Line (Parent) Development Part 2: Hybrid Evaluation • Cross Female Parent X Male Parent Extensively test F1 HYBRIDS for yield, maturity, lodging, disease and insect resistance, etc. over several years and many environments To create a commercial hybrid, may have to have male sterility system (female - male sterile, male – male fertile with genes that will restore fertility in hybrid). Complete process requires 6 to 10 years. Final product: Heterozygous – ie. AaBbCcDdFfGg, etc. Process would be similar in sorghum. • Male Development – Cross two parents (C X D) – Grow F1 generation and self pollinate – Continue selfing and evaluation in following generations to produce genetically stable, desirable lines (homozygous, pure lines) – Product: new male parents
  10. 10. From Genotype (DNA) to Phenotype (Traits) Phenotype (Trait)
  11. 11. Agrobacterium Particle gun Plant Transformation
  12. 12. Crown Gall Disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefacians
  13. 13. Bacterial Plant Left border Right border
  14. 14. Particle Bombardment Nucleus Target Cell Metal particle DNA
  15. 15. http://www.moyoway.com/images/gmo-food-corn1.jpg
  16. 16. Induction ProliferationDevelopmentGermination Plant Recovery Starting Material Maize Cloning
  17. 17. Biotech Regulatory Oversight Is it safe to grow? Is the GMO plant any different than a conventional plant except for the expected trait inserted? Safe for the environment? Safe for consumption by humans and livestock? IBC or “Institutional Biosafety Committee” Is the research being conducted safely?
  18. 18. Biotech Regulatory Oversight In US -coordinated approach several agencies share responsibilities -each product is regulated on a case-by-case basis -government exercises oversight through a consultative process USDA-APHIS • Environmental EPA • Plant Pesticides FDA • Food •Livestock feed USDA-APHIS-Regulation of confined Trials NIH and Institutional Biosafety Guidelines Research & Development Confined field trials Food, Feed, & Safety Assessment 7-10 yrs Commercialized
  19. 19. IBC or “Institutional Biosafety Committee” • Every university, government facility, and private biotech company is required to have a committee as mandated by federal laws and regulations • Committee is typically composed of representatives from research, administration and the public • The committee is responsible for oversight of all activities involving research with microbiological agents, toxins of biological origin, or recombinant DNA http://osp.od.nih.gov/office-biotechnology- activities/oba/rac/guidelines_02/NIH_Guidelines_Apr_02.htm
  20. 20. Field testing of transgenic crops USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) is the Federal agency that regulates field testing - Approval is on a case-by-case basis - Field trials are granted by permit or notification - Researchers must submit a “standard of performance” (biological confinement ) - Trials are subject to inspection by both state and federal officials - APHIS oversees transport of seed to and from trial site - For pesticidal plants > than 10 acres, EPA registration required http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wps/portal/aphis/home
  21. 21. Food and Feed Safety Assessment Before a GMO crop can be grown on a wide scale or sold commercially, its developers need to petition APHIS for “determination of non-regulated status” 1. Purpose of intended modification 2. Complete a molecular characterization of GMO plant 3. Information on expressed proteins 4. Information on known or suspected allergenicity and toxicity 5. Information on compositional and nutritional characteristics 6. For foods known to be allergenic, any change in endogenous allergens 7. Comparisons of feeding studies comparing GMO and non-GMO Solicitation of public comments in the Federal Register
  22. 22. Environmental Risk Assessment Before a GMO crop can be grown on a wide scale or sold commercially, its developers need to petition APHIS for “determination of non-regulated status” 1. Description of biology of non-modified plant 2. Complete a molecular characterization of GMO plant 3. Relevant data and references 4. Detailed differences in genotypes between GMO and Non-GMO 5. Detailed differences in phenotypes between GMO and Non-GMO 6. Agricultural practices 7. Effects on non-target organisms 8. Indirect plant pest effects 9. Gene transfer potential between species which cannot interbreed Solicitation of public comments in the Federal Register
  23. 23. http://www.isaaa.org/default.asp
  24. 24. https://isaaa.org/gmapprovaldatabase/cropslist/default.asp
  25. 25. GMO Web Sites Acknowledgement: Thanks to Dr. Harold Trick, Kansas State University, for providing many of the slides used in this presentation. http://factsaboutgmos.org/ http://www.nongmoproject.org/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/ http://academicsreview.org/reviewed-content/genetic-roulette/ http://intelligencesquaredus.org/debates/past-debates/item/1161- genetically-modify-food

×