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Knowledge Cafe Workshop May 2008


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Knowledge Cafe Workshop May 2008

  1. 1. Gurteen Knowledge Café Workshop May 2008 David Gurteen Gurteen Knowledge
  2. 2. Begin with the end in mind <ul><li>Raise awareness of the role of conversation in your business lives </li></ul><ul><li>To teach you about Knowledge Cafes and how to run them </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage you to create more opportunities in your organization for creative conversation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>09.00 - 12:00 Basics + Knowledge Cafe </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 - 13:00 Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>13:00 - 15:00 Advanced </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basics (morning) <ul><li>09:00 – 09:15 Introductions (15 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>09:15 – 09:45 Business is a Conversation (30 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>09:45 – 10:15 Knowledge Café Process (30 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>10:15 – 10:45 Coffee (30 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>10:45 – 12:00 Run a Knowledge Cafe (75 mins) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advanced (afternoon) <ul><li>13:00 – 13:15 Review of morning (15 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>13:15 – 13:45 More on the process (30 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>13:45 – 14:00 Other Formats & Uses (15 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>14:00 – 14:15 Coffee (15 mins) </li></ul><ul><li>14:15 – 15:00 Café review of the day (45 mins) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introductions
  7. 7. David Gurteen <ul><li>Independent knowledge advisor and facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Website </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Community/Letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>154 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Café Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>London, New York, Adelaide, Zurich </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Speed Networking <ul><li>A simple technique that can be used in a variety of settings to bring a group of people together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to start to get to know each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or get to know each other a little better </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How do you Speed Network? <ul><li>Break into pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find someone you don’t know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two minutes to chat then move on to another person </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your partner something unusual about yourself </li></ul><ul><li>When I blow my whistle once - move on </li></ul><ul><li>When I blow my whistle twice - its all over! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Business is a Conversation
  11. 11. Business is a conversation Business is a conversation because the defining work of business is conversation - literally. And 'knowledge workers' are simply those people whose job consists of having interesting conversations. David Weinberger The Cluetrain Manifesto <ul><li>Conversation is central to all that we do </li></ul><ul><li>Its our job! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conversation is a meeting of minds Conversation is a meeting of minds with different memories and habits. When minds meet, they don't just exchange facts: they transform them, reshape them, draw different implications from them, engage in new trains of thought. Conversation doesn't just reshuffle the cards: it creates new cards. Theodore Zeldin Conversation <ul><li>Theodore in an Oxford Historian </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation is creative </li></ul>
  13. 13. KM is about understanding For all our knowledge, we have no idea what we're talking about. We don't understand what's going on in our business, our market, and our world. KM shouldn’t be about helping us to know more. It should be about helping us to understand. So, how do we understand things? It's through stories that we understand how the world works. David Weinberger, The Cluetrain Manifesto <ul><li>Its about understanding & sense making </li></ul><ul><li>Through conversation & storytelling </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conversation “A mechanistic and unproductive exchange between people seeking to defend their own views against one another” “A frank exchange of ideas or views on a specific issue in an effort to attain mutual understanding” Debate or dialogue?
  15. 15. Dialogue <ul><li>When we engage each other in dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we enter into a conversation with a view to learn from each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rather than impose our views on the other. </li></ul></ul>The kind of conversation I’m interested in is one in which you start with a willingness to emerge a slightly different person. Theodore Zeldin, Historian
  16. 16. Principles of Dialogue <ul><li>Suspend assumptions, do not judge </li></ul><ul><li>Observe & listen to one another </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome differences & explore them </li></ul><ul><li>Allow taboo subjects to be raised safely </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to your inner voice </li></ul><ul><li>Slow the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Search for the underlying meaning </li></ul>Dialogue is based on the work of the physicist David Bohm
  17. 17. Dialogue Suppose we were able to share meanings freely without a compulsive urge to impose our view or conform to those of others and without distortion and self-deception. Would this not constitute a real revolution in culture. David Bohm, Physicist
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Business is a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation is creative </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding is more important than knowing more </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue is the key to quality conversations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gurteen Knowledge Café Process
  20. 20. Background <ul><li>Coffee Machine talks </li></ul><ul><li>Chairing conferences </li></ul><ul><li>My dislike of ‘chalk & talk’ presentations </li></ul><ul><li>My desire for people to engage with the subject and to learn through conversation </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is a Knowledge Café? <ul><li>A knowledge café brings a group of people together to have an open, creative conversation on a topic of mutual interest to surface their collective knowledge, to share ideas and to gain a deeper understanding of the issues involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately leading to action in the form of better decision making and innovation and thus tangible business outcomes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are the outcomes? <ul><li>Real outcomes are what you take away in your head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deeper understanding of the issue discussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A deeper insight into other people’s perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A better appreciation of your own point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better position to make more informed decisions and to take action! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What is the history? <ul><li>The term Knowledge Café has been around for the last 7 years or so </li></ul><ul><li>Only in the last 2 or 3 years has the term come into common use </li></ul><ul><li>Roots in work of David Bohm, William Isaacs, Juanita Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Roots in Open Space Technology which goes back to 1989 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Is it a talking-shop? <ul><li>No its NOT a talking-shop. A talking shop is normally used pejoratively and implies no useful outcome other than the airing of ones own ideas </li></ul><ul><li>A Knowledge Caf é is different in that everyone leaves enriched by a deeper level of understanding of the subject in question and is often inspired to act </li></ul>
  25. 25. Why is the Knowledge Caf é important? <ul><li>The world is a more complex place than it used to be - at times even chaotic - it is not always clear what is going on - we need to take time to UNDERSTAND </li></ul><ul><li>We do not find the time to have open conversations, we are under pressure to make quick decisions </li></ul><ul><li>KM for example should not be about creating and sharing ever increasing knowledge but understanding more fully the knowledge that we do have! </li></ul>
  26. 26. What does a Knowledge Café do for the individual? <ul><li>The Caf é assumes we have within ourselves a greater level of insight than we are conscious of </li></ul><ul><li>The Caf é helps tease this out </li></ul><ul><li>You hear yourself say things in Café conversations that you did not know that you knew </li></ul><ul><li>It crystallises our knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas are sparked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh perspectives emerge ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With increased observation and reflection comes understanding – this paves the way for change </li></ul>
  27. 27. What resources are needed to run a Knowledge Caf é? <ul><li>Not a lot! </li></ul><ul><li>A group of people </li></ul><ul><li>A facilitator or host </li></ul><ul><li>A room with plenty of space </li></ul><ul><li>Tables & chairs to seat about five people per table </li></ul>
  28. 28. What do you need in the room? <ul><li>Some formats have special requirements such as round tables, paper table cloths, felt tip pens, flowers on the table and coffee & biscuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gurteen Knowledge Cafés need none of these props but of course you could use them if available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refreshments help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aim is to create a good ambience </li></ul><ul><li>Unthreatening and hospitable environment </li></ul>
  29. 29. How do you run one? <ul><li>Knowledge Cafés can be run in different ways </li></ul><ul><li>I use a simple format </li></ul><ul><li>Runs for 90 minutes to a couple of hours </li></ul><ul><li>Work best with between 25 and 35 people </li></ul><ul><li>Can run a dozen people or as many as 100 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But with some modifications </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. What's the process? <ul><ul><li>Facilitator takes 5 - 15 minutes to introduce the Knowledge Caf é and the theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Knowledge Caf é is made clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator poses an open ended question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants form into small groups of 4 or 5 to discuss the subject for 30 - 60 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change tables 1,2 or 3 times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The group re-assembles for an exchange of ideas as a whole for 15 - 30 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What subjects are covered? <ul><li>Any subject can be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Explore questions that matter to the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Normally explore only one theme </li></ul><ul><li>And pose only one question </li></ul><ul><li>A Knowledge Caf é is not a debating forum </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT about decision making </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is the role of the facilitator? <ul><li>Facilitator need not be a specialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nor disciplined in facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply a good listener and chairperson skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitator should not take a lead in the discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Should wander around and listen into the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Should listen out for problems and remind people gently of the rules of ‘dialogue’ </li></ul>
  33. 33. What’s the role of the individual? <ul><li>Theodore Zeldin : to be prepared to emerge a slightly different person </li></ul><ul><li>To see people with different views not as adversaries but as resources from which we can learn </li></ul><ul><li>To enter into open conversation </li></ul><ul><li>To listen more than speak </li></ul><ul><li>To welcome differences </li></ul><ul><li>To withhold judgment </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid position taking </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid being too politically correct </li></ul>
  34. 34. How do things work within the small groups? <ul><li>Don’t appoint a leader or chairperson </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should be equal and fully engaged in the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t appoint a note taker either </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can make their own notes if they want to </li></ul><ul><li>People share their perspectives with the group only if they wish to </li></ul>
  35. 35. How does the large group sit? <ul><li>Bring everyone back into a relatively tight group so that every one can easily see and hear each other </li></ul><ul><li>Only use microphones if absolutely necessary as they inhibit the natural flow of the conversation </li></ul>
  36. 36. How does the whole group work? <ul><li>Individuals asked to remember that their comments are for the whole group and not for the facilitator. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective is to hold a ‘group conversation’ </li></ul><ul><li>The facilitator needs to work at encouraging this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a low key role – not the expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn away, even hide! </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. How does the facilitator work with the whole group? <ul><li>The group should be doing the work with minimal intervention from the facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator needs to encourage participation </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator needs to ensure that no one person or group dominates the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Connects diverse perspectives </li></ul>
  38. 38. How do you record the outcomes of a Knowledge Café? <ul><li>If you record things you should avoid disrupting or influencing the conversation in anyway </li></ul><ul><li>You could make audio or video recordings but I would advise against it </li></ul><ul><li>Participants should not be burdened with recording as they need to be fully engaged in the conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Best to appoint an external person to take notes </li></ul>
  39. 39. Discussion
  40. 40. Coffee
  41. 41. Lets run a Knowledge Cafe
  42. 42. Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>Sharing knowledge is not about giving people something, or getting something from them. That is only valid for information sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge occurs when people are genuinely interested in helping one another develop new capacities for action; it is about creating learning processes. </li></ul>Peter Senge
  43. 43. Personal Reasons for Sharing <ul><li>To help other people & to help ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Other people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get things done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To build relationships so they in turn help us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get things done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to be gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is perishable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone else will make our knowledge productive first </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Barriers to Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>A silo mentality </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is power </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge sharing processes </li></ul><ul><li>No time allowed </li></ul><ul><li>No knowledge sharing by executives </li></ul><ul><li>Managers do not walk the talk </li></ul><ul><li>Poor IT systems </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change by managers </li></ul>Karl-Eric Sveiby
  45. 45. The Challenge of Knowledge Sharing What prevents us from sharing our knowledge more effectively? How might we overcome these barriers?
  46. 46. The Role of Conversation What is the role of conversation in our business life and why is it important?
  47. 47. Lunch
  48. 48. Afternoon Agenda <ul><li>More on the process </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of the Cafe </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion circle </li></ul>
  49. 49. More on the process
  50. 50. The theme <ul><li>Topic that everyone feels passionate about </li></ul><ul><li>Complex issues </li></ul><ul><li>Only ONE question </li></ul><ul><li>Open ended question </li></ul>
  51. 51. The conversation <ul><li>The question is only a seed </li></ul><ul><li>OK to go off topic </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation as close to a conversation at the pub or over dinner </li></ul>
  52. 52. The speaker/facilitator <ul><li>Speaker and facilitator need not be the same </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator: involved/not involved </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers can be controlling or dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often run over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to brief and handle carefully </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. The facilitator <ul><li>Important to be yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Do not control </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment a little </li></ul><ul><li>Take some risks </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid of silence </li></ul><ul><li>If you let people talk and leave them alone you cannot go far wrong </li></ul>
  54. 54. The venue <ul><li>Need not be a room </li></ul><ul><li>Boat on Thames </li></ul><ul><li>Canal Boat (long boat in Amsterdam) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Walk/BBQ (Greenwich) </li></ul><ul><li>Pub (Stavanger) </li></ul><ul><li>Outside under sunshades (Scottsdale) </li></ul><ul><li>An actual café (London & Barcelona) </li></ul>
  55. 55. The room <ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><li>Small, cosy </li></ul><ul><li>Paper/toys on tables </li></ul><ul><li>Small round tables </li></ul><ul><li>Good acoustics </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture theatre? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Holding in a lecture theatre <ul><li>Difficult but not impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of moving between groups </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of whole group conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reporting back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for microphones </li></ul>
  57. 57. Using microphones <ul><li>Avoid if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Will need them if group is larger than 40 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe less if poor acoustics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People hold on to them </li></ul><ul><li>Kills the flow of conversation </li></ul><ul><li>One for yourself and at least 2 roving mikes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fixed mikes (Jakarta) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Knowledge circles <ul><li>Greenwich Story </li></ul><ul><li>KM World </li></ul><ul><li>Jakarta Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Not as difficult as it seems </li></ul>
  59. 59. Small group <ul><li>Ask people to sit with others they do not know </li></ul><ul><li>Change groups once, twice at most 3 times </li></ul><ul><li>People do not like changing groups </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t force them! </li></ul><ul><li>Kuala Lumpur story </li></ul>
  60. 60. Whole group <ul><li>Where you need facilitation skills </li></ul><ul><li>People will report back out of habit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or ask you questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In some cultures best to let them </li></ul><ul><li>Even for some groups let them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central bank librarians story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unless in expert mode do not join in too much </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate silence – pause and wait </li></ul>
  61. 61. Culture <ul><li>I have run the Cafes in many different countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK, Spain, Norway, Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuala Lumpur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UAE </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Cultural issues <ul><li>Jakarta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Café </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kuala Lumpur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Won’t change tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won’t go for coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bangkok </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flee, video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dubai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report back </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scottsdale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iranians </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Language issues <ul><li>Ideally one common language </li></ul><ul><li>Let people speak in their own language in small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t listen in! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common language (English) in whole group </li></ul><ul><li>Even own language in whole group </li></ul><ul><li>Use of translators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial or concurrent </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Listening in <ul><li>If expert mode then join in </li></ul><ul><li>If facilitation mode then try not to </li></ul><ul><li>Wander around and actively listen </li></ul><ul><li>Observe for issues </li></ul><ul><li>Watch, think, be prepared to adapt </li></ul>
  65. 65. Wrap up <ul><li>No need to summarise at length </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it short and simple </li></ul><ul><li>Thank people </li></ul>
  66. 66. Other Café Formats and Conversational Tools
  67. 67. Other Conversational Tools <ul><li>Gurteen Knowledge Café </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Knowledge Café </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip charts, capture, report back etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak, conversation, Q&A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reverse Café </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Dinner </li></ul><ul><li>World Cafe </li></ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdote Circles </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry </li></ul>
  68. 68. How is the Cafe different from Open Space Technology? <ul><li>Process is more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Used other than to gain mutual understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. problem solving and defining agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meetings tend to be larger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often 100s of people compared to dozens for the Café </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meetings tend to last longer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often days rather than hours </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Uses of the Cafe
  70. 70. When would a Knowledge Café be run? <ul><li>Surface and share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Surface problems & opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Get networking going </li></ul><ul><li>Gain new perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Gain new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Help form a team or community </li></ul><ul><li>Gain insight into a complex problem </li></ul><ul><li>Better understand an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain buy-in for a new project </li></ul>
  71. 71. Where is it used? <ul><li>I use it in public forums such as conferences and within companies to explore complex issues </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Society for the Arts uses a form of Knowledge Cafe in conjunction with Starbucks in the UK to discuss social issues relevant to the societies aims </li></ul><ul><li>Many organizations quietly use it especially in SE Asia. </li></ul>
  72. 72. ISN Knowledge Café The knowledge café has led to a dramatic improvement in terms of inter-team dialog, collaboration and knowledge sharing. Many internal work processes are now being overhauled for the better as a result of these knowledge cafes and we have seen an explosion of new ideas and initiatives on the part of staff at all levels of the organization. Simply put, the knowledge cafe format has empowered all our staff to speak up and take the initiative in ensuring the successful development of the ISN. Chris Pallaris, Chief Editor ISN, Zurich
  73. 73. Café for a UK government body <ul><li>Day long workshop </li></ul><ul><li>3 presentations on social tools </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge Café </li></ul><ul><li>Future leaders in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Future leaders determine an action plan </li></ul>
  74. 74. Canal Boat Café <ul><li>On canals in Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>At end of week of workshops & visits </li></ul><ul><li>To help summarise the week </li></ul><ul><li>And develop plan for action </li></ul>
  75. 75. Trinidad & Tobago Oil and Gas <ul><li>Expert talks </li></ul>
  76. 76. StatoilHydro <ul><li>Series of Cafes to bring experts who were leaving together with younger members of organization to transfer knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a café on an allotment (Brita) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geophysicists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion of preferred technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange views on experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Run by Monica Haga) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But not called a Knowledge Cafe </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Coffee
  78. 78. Conversation <ul><ul><li>How could Knowledge Cafes and similar conversational techniques be used for good purpose within your organization? </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Where can I learn more about Knowledge Cafés? <ul><li>There are a lot of resources on the web </li></ul><ul><li>My website contains a vast amount of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The World Café </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book The World Café: Shaping our futures through conversations that matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Society for Philosophical Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Summary <ul><li>Business is a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue not debate </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Café: simple process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But a lot to learn to run them well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Powerful learning & creativity tool </li></ul><ul><li>Can be adapted to varying situations </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost to run </li></ul>
  81. 81. Thank you!
  82. 82. David Gurteen Gurteen Knowledge Tel: +44 1252 812 878 Email:
  83. 83. Licence <ul><li>You may use these slides under the following Creative Commons Licence </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>