Influence of Age and
Fitness on the Blood
 Pressure Response
  to Two Modes of
  Dynamic Exercise

      Dustin Grinnell
 ...
Outline
•   Scope of the Problem/Significance
     – Aging and blood pressure
     – Aerobic fitness and its influence on ...
Aging and Blood Pressure
• It is well known that age is
  associated with a rise in resting
  and exercise blood pressure....
Fitness and the Blood Pressure
          Response in the Aged
• We know: age is associated with a higher resting and
  exe...
Blood Pressure and the Active Muscle
                Mass
• Research has shown that the blood pressure
  response to exerc...
Background
• Blood Pressure with Graded Exercise
    – Systolic blood pressure: after initial rapid rise from resting leve...
Background
• Graded Exercise Tests
  – Can be used to evaluate functional capacity
  – Usually given on a motorized treadm...
Background
Large vs. Small Muscle Dynamic Exercise




                    Knee Extension Exercise
 VO2max Test
Introduction
• Purpose:
  • To explore the blood pressure responses to two modes
    of dynamic exercise.
• Question #1
  ...
Methods
• Six groups of subjects recruited for “fitness study”:
  • Younger men and women (20-30 yr)
  • Older high and lo...
Question #1


   Does aging affect the pressor response?

How does the response compare between large
          and small ...
Question #1: Results
                                                            Treadmill Exercise
                      ...
Question #1: Results
                                                             Treadmill Exercise
                     ...
Question #1: Results
                                                                Knee Kick Exercise
                  ...
Question #1: Results
                                                                Knee Kick Exercise
                  ...
Question #1: Results
• Question #1 – Age Effect?
• During large muscle exercise
  • SBP - Old men show a heightened SBP re...
Question #2

Are the heightened BP responses in older individuals fitness
                        dependent?

Does an incr...
Question #2: Results
                                                                         Treadmill Exercise
         ...
Question #2: Results
                                                                      Treadmill Exercise
            ...
Question #2: Results
                                                                     Knee Kick Exercise
             ...
Question #2: Results
                                                                         Knee Kick Exercise
         ...
Question #2: Results
• Question #2 – Fitness Effect?
• During large muscle exercise
  • SBP - Both low fit older men and w...
Question #3

Is the pressor response determined by the
             active muscle mass?

I.e. is the pressor response heig...
Question #3: Results
                                                               Systolic Blood Pressure
              ...
Question #3: Results
                                                              Diastolic Blood Pressure
              ...
Question #3: Results

• Question #3 – BP Response determined by the active
  muscle mass?
  • SBP – significant mode-speci...
Summary
• Question #1: Age Effect
   – SBP - Heightened exercise SBP only with old men during treadmill and
     old women...
Acknowledgements
Research Team
David Proctor, PhD (PI)
Joaquin Gonzales, PhD (Postdoc)
Sandy Smithmyer (Study Coordinator)...
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Age And Fitness On The Pressor Response In Elderly

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Age And Fitness On The Pressor Response In Elderly

  1. 1. Influence of Age and Fitness on the Blood Pressure Response to Two Modes of Dynamic Exercise Dustin Grinnell Physiology Department Pennsylvania State University
  2. 2. Outline • Scope of the Problem/Significance – Aging and blood pressure – Aerobic fitness and its influence on blood pressure in the aged – Active muscle mass and the blood pressure response • Background – The blood pressure response to two modes of graded dynamic exercise • Introduction – To three main questions we proposed. • Methods – Proctor lab fitness study • Results – To three main questions • Summary – What age, fitness, gender and mode of exercise conclusions can we draw?
  3. 3. Aging and Blood Pressure • It is well known that age is associated with a rise in resting and exercise blood pressure. • Hypertension afflicts between 33 and 57% of men and 25 and 60% of women between ages 45 and 74. • Resting: • 20 mm Hg systolic and 10 mm Hg diastolic increment increase in blood pressure from age 30 to 65 years. • Exercise: • Many studies show that there is a heightened blood pressure response in the aged to graded dynamic exercise.
  4. 4. Fitness and the Blood Pressure Response in the Aged • We know: age is associated with a higher resting and exercise blood pressure • Regular aerobic training • Reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure during rest and sub-maximal exercise. The largest reduction occurs in systolic blood pressure. • Exercise training and hypertension • For hypertensive older men and women, 9 months of low- intensity, aerobic exercise lowered SBP by 20 mm Hg and DBP by 12 mm Hg.
  5. 5. Blood Pressure and the Active Muscle Mass • Research has shown that the blood pressure response to exercise is determined by the active muscle mass. • Relationship • The magnitude of the pressor response is inversely related to the size of the active muscle. • Therefore the blood pressure response to the use of a large muscle mass has been shown to be less pronounced when compared to small.
  6. 6. Background • Blood Pressure with Graded Exercise – Systolic blood pressure: after initial rapid rise from resting level increases linearly with exercise intensity. – Diastolic blood pressure: remains stable or decreases slightly at higher exercise levels. – During maximum exercise by healthy, fit men and women, SBP may increase to 200 mm Hg or higher despite significantly reduced total peripheral resistance. • The Pressor response – The increase in blood pressure response to an exercise stress. – We are defining it as the rise in blood pressure with increasing workload, or multiples of metabolic rate (MET).
  7. 7. Background • Graded Exercise Tests – Can be used to evaluate functional capacity – Usually given on a motorized treadmill or bicycle ergometers. – Workload intensity (how hard the subject is working) is adjusted by progressively increasing the speed and incline/resistance on the machine. – The test starts at a low intensity and continues until a prespecified workload is achieved physiologic symptoms occur, or the subject is too fatigued to continue.
  8. 8. Background Large vs. Small Muscle Dynamic Exercise Knee Extension Exercise VO2max Test
  9. 9. Introduction • Purpose: • To explore the blood pressure responses to two modes of dynamic exercise. • Question #1 • Does aging affect the pressor response? • How does the response compare between large and small muscle exercise? • Question #2 • Does fitness affect the pressor response in the aged? • How does it compares across exercises? • Question #3 • Is the pressor response determined by the active muscle mass?
  10. 10. Methods • Six groups of subjects recruited for “fitness study”: • Younger men and women (20-30 yr) • Older high and low fit men (60-79 yr) • Older high and low fit women (60-79 yr) • Non-obese, normotensive • n= 5-10 per group • All subjects performed: • A large muscle exercise, a VO2max treadmill running test. – Treadmill speed and incline is increased every three minutes until exhaustion. • A small muscle exercise, a one-legged knee extensor exercise. – Work rate is increased in a graded fashion (every 3 minutes, 5W and 10W increments for women and men, respectively) until the participant cannot maintain the knee kick cadence (40 kicks per minute). • Variables recorded: • Pulmonary gas exchange (VO2) using a metabolic cart • Blood pressure via auscultation • Heart rate via ECG
  11. 11. Question #1 Does aging affect the pressor response? How does the response compare between large and small muscle exercise?
  12. 12. Question #1: Results Treadmill Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Men Women 18 18 16 16 14 14 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 P = 0.03 P = 0.24 0 0 YW OW (LF) YM OM (LF) Age Group Age Group SBP SBP
  13. 13. Question #1: Results Treadmill Exercise Diastolic Blood Pressure Men Women 2.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) 0.5 1.5 0.0 -0.5 1.0 -1.0 0.5 -1.5 0.0 -2.0 YM OM (LF) YW OW (LF) Age Group Age Group DBP DBP
  14. 14. Question #1: Results Knee Kick Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Men Women 35 35 30 30 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 P = 0.02 0 0 YM OM (LF) YW OW (LF) Age Group Age Group SBP SBP
  15. 15. Question #1: Results Knee Kick Exercise Diastolic Blood Pressure Men Women 25 25 20 20 DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) 15 15 10 10 5 5 P = 0.13 P = 0.03 0 0 YM OM (LF) YW OW (LF) Age Group Age Group DBP DBP
  16. 16. Question #1: Results • Question #1 – Age Effect? • During large muscle exercise • SBP - Old men show a heightened SBP response compared to young men. No significant difference in women. • DBP - Both sexes show no age difference in DBP response. • During small muscle exercise • SBP - Old women show a heightened SBP response compared to young women. No significant difference in men. • DBP – old women show a greater DBP response compared to young women. No significant difference in men.
  17. 17. Question #2 Are the heightened BP responses in older individuals fitness dependent? Does an increase in fitness level normalize or “correct” the heightened blood pressure response seen in older men and women? How does it compare across exercises?
  18. 18. Question #2: Results Treadmill Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Men Women 18 18 16 16 14 14 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 P = 0.20 P = 0.20 0 0 OM (LF) OM (HF) OW (LF) OW (HF) Fitness Level Fitness Level SBP SBP
  19. 19. Question #2: Results Treadmill Exercise Diastolic Blood Pressure Men Women 2.5 1.0 0.5 2.0 DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) 0.0 1.5 -0.5 1.0 -1.0 0.5 -1.5 0.0 -2.0 OM (LF) OM (HF) OW (LF) OW (HF) Fitness Level Fitness Level DBP DBP
  20. 20. Question #2: Results Knee Kick Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Men Women 40 35 30 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 30 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 25 20 20 15 10 10 5 P = 0.15 0 0 OM (LF) OM (HF) OW (LF) OW (HF) Fitness Level Fitness Level SBP SBP
  21. 21. Question #2: Results Knee Kick Exercise Diastolic Blood Pressure Men Women 16 25 14 20 DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) 12 10 15 8 6 10 4 5 2 P = 0.004 P = 0.13 0 0 OM (LF) OM (HF) OW (LF) OW (HF) Fitness Level Fitness Level DBP DBP
  22. 22. Question #2: Results • Question #2 – Fitness Effect? • During large muscle exercise • SBP - Both low fit older men and women exhibited greater SBP responses compared to high fit, but not statistically significant. • DBP - Both sexes show no fitness effect in DBP response. • During small muscle exercise • SBP - Both sexes show no fitness effect in SBP response. • DBP – low fit old men show a much higher DBP response when compared to high fit older men. No difference in women.
  23. 23. Question #3 Is the pressor response determined by the active muscle mass? I.e. is the pressor response heightened with the knee extensor exercise vs. the treadmill?
  24. 24. Question #3: Results Systolic Blood Pressure Men Women 35 40 30 SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) SBP Slope (SBP vs. MET) 30 25 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 YM OM (LF) OM (HF) YW OW (LF) OW (HF) Age Group Age Group Treadmill Treadmill Knee Kick Knee Kick
  25. 25. Question #3: Results Diastolic Blood Pressure Men Women 25 25 20 20 DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) DBP Slope (DBP vs. MET) 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 YM OM (LF) OM (HF) YW OW (LF) OW (HF) Age Group Age Group Treadmill Treadmill Knee Kick Knee Kick
  26. 26. Question #3: Results • Question #3 – BP Response determined by the active muscle mass? • SBP – significant mode-specific response, i.e. SBP response was more pronounced during small muscle knee kick exercise compared to the large muscle treadmill running exercise. – Except for young women group. • DBP – Significant mode-specific response. – Except for high fit older men.
  27. 27. Summary • Question #1: Age Effect – SBP - Heightened exercise SBP only with old men during treadmill and old women during the knee kick exercise. – DBP – Greater DBP response only seen in old women during the knee kick exercise. • Question #2: Fitness Effect – SBP – no fitness effect for both sexes and both exercises. – DBP – Heightened exercise DBP only in older men during knee kick exercise. • Question #3: Size of the active muscle mass – The pressor response during small muscle exercise, during knee extension, exceeded the response seen in exercise using many large muscles, during treadmill running. • SBP – except for young women. • DBP – except for high fit older men.
  28. 28. Acknowledgements Research Team David Proctor, PhD (PI) Joaquin Gonzales, PhD (Postdoc) Sandy Smithmyer (Study Coordinator) Julie Miedlar (Doctoral Candidate) Collaborators GCRC (University Park, Hershey) Funding Training Grants in Physiology, Seed Grant in Gerontology Gerontology

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