DNA:  Deoxyribonucleic Acid<br />Image from http://www.pratt.duke.edu<br />
What do you know about DNA?<br />My 10 year old says “Mom, everyone knows all about DNA.”<br />OK… so what do you know?<br...
The Double Helix<br />Another image from GATTACA …<br />Image from www.movieforums.com<br />
A=T and G-C<br />The Double Helix is held together by “Hydrogen Bonding” <br />Gives the Helix specificity<br />Chargaff’s...
A Closer Look at the Anatomy of the Double Helix<br />While the base pairs are holding things together in the middle…<br /...
Structure : Function<br />The DNA Double Helix is wound around a set of proteins call “Histones” which allow for efficient...
Replication<br />The structure of the double helix provides a means for Replication<br />DNA copied into more DNA… exactly...
Transcription<br />One strand of the DNA is copied into an RNA strand<br />The RNA strand serves as a messenger (mRNA) tha...
Translation<br />The RNA is translated into Protein<br />Proteins are NOT nucleic acids... They are made of amino acids<br...
Not to over simplify…<br />This image shows that Translation occurs outside the nucleus<br />And that tRNA is involved in ...
? HeLa Cells<br />Cancer<br />Uncontrolled cell growth due to errors in regulation<br />Errors could be in any part of the...
Virus<br />Virus are nucleic acids – HPV, HIV, polio, herpes, adenovirus (cold) etc…<br />They are received into a cell wh...
Gene Therapy<br />DNA can be inserted – therapeutically – into a cell in order to cause the cell to synthesize a missing o...
Genetic Engineering(Transgenics)<br />Insert DNA from one species into another species in order to acquire a new trait or ...
DNA …<br />
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Dna

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Dna

  1. 1. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid<br />Image from http://www.pratt.duke.edu<br />
  2. 2. What do you know about DNA?<br />My 10 year old says “Mom, everyone knows all about DNA.”<br />OK… so what do you know?<br />By the way… I “googled” the term DNA and it returned<br />2.6 MILLION images!<br />Image from www.blockbuster.com<br />
  3. 3. The Double Helix<br />Another image from GATTACA …<br />Image from www.movieforums.com<br />
  4. 4. A=T and G-C<br />The Double Helix is held together by “Hydrogen Bonding” <br />Gives the Helix specificity<br />Chargaff’s Rule (1950): <br />[A] = [T] and [G] = [C] refuted the previously held understanding of the “Tetranucleotide Hypothesis”<br />Images from:<br />The Creative Science Quarterly: www.scq.ubc.ca and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebus_Levene<br />
  5. 5. A Closer Look at the Anatomy of the Double Helix<br />While the base pairs are holding things together in the middle…<br />the sugars and phosphates are holding things together along the sides.<br />The strands in the Double Helix are “antiparallel”<br />The sugar in DNA is “DEOXYRIBOSE”<br />Image from: http://whyfiles.org<br />
  6. 6. Structure : Function<br />The DNA Double Helix is wound around a set of proteins call “Histones” which allow for efficient packaging of the DNA into Chromosomes<br />The Chromosomes are then packaged into the Nucleus of the Cell<br />
  7. 7. Replication<br />The structure of the double helix provides a means for Replication<br />DNA copied into more DNA… exactly the same<br />Watson and Crick: 1953 paper in Nature described not only the double helix structure but MORE IMPORTANTLY identified the double helix as a mechanism for replication<br />The mechanism (“semi-conservative replication” was not proven experimentally until 1957, by Meselson and Stahl.<br />"It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing that we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material."Nature171, 737–738 (1953)<br />Image from healthanddna.com<br />
  8. 8. Transcription<br />One strand of the DNA is copied into an RNA strand<br />The RNA strand serves as a messenger (mRNA) that goes out into the cytoplasm to direct the synthesis of the corresponding protein<br />RNA’s and their function studied in the late 1950’s and well into the 1960’s <br />http://www.dnai.org/timeline/<br />Image from http://www.le.ac.uk/ge/genie/vgec/he/expression.html<br />
  9. 9. Translation<br />The RNA is translated into Protein<br />Proteins are NOT nucleic acids... They are made of amino acids<br />Notice that the Ribosome (the blob here) is focused on three nucleotides – that is the “CODON”<br />Image from http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk<br />
  10. 10. Not to over simplify…<br />This image shows that Translation occurs outside the nucleus<br />And that tRNA is involved in the protein synthesis process<br />REGULATION – or Gene expression can be controlled at many different stages of the process<br />
  11. 11. ? HeLa Cells<br />Cancer<br />Uncontrolled cell growth due to errors in regulation<br />Errors could be in any part of the process<br />Errors are called Mutations<br />Mutations can be genetic, environmental (virus, carcinogen, or various forms of energy); damage to the DNA can be cumulative<br />In the case of HeLa, the cervical cancer was caused by a Human Papillomavirus (HPV-18) which integrated itself into a normal gene and then caused five different mutations including “numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations”<br />Image from www.smithsonianmag.org<br />Quote from Cancer Res.59 (1): 141–50<br />
  12. 12. Virus<br />Virus are nucleic acids – HPV, HIV, polio, herpes, adenovirus (cold) etc…<br />They are received into a cell where they insert their viral genetics into the cell’s normal routine and take over<br />New virus are produced, killing the cell, taking over more cells, and wearing down the immune system<br />
  13. 13. Gene Therapy<br />DNA can be inserted – therapeutically – into a cell in order to cause the cell to synthesize a missing or dysfunctional protein.<br />Gene therapy has been used successfully in clinical trials for Cystic Fibrosis, some eye diseases, lung cancer, melanoma …<br />Still in development<br />
  14. 14. Genetic Engineering(Transgenics)<br />Insert DNA from one species into another species in order to acquire a new trait or characteristic.<br />Common today in agriculture for improving yield (anti-pest genes) and marketability (harvest time, shipping, storage, shelf-life)<br />
  15. 15. DNA …<br />

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