The use of information and communication technology for developing democracy (time limited) changed


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The use of information and communication technology for developing democracy (time limited) changed

  1. 1.   Behnam Faghih International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government 2014 (CeDEM14 )
  2. 2. Marx  Democracy means free participation of people to display democracy and giving opportunity to minority to have the chance to become the members of the majority  As long as private ownership of properties exists, the owner of this class uses this freedom for their personal objectives  So the majority will be prevented The dictatorship of bourgeois (Ashouri, 1994)
  3. 3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau  Four conditions to implement democracy (Rousseau, 1950): 1. A very small state, where the people can readily be got together and where each citizen can know all the rest with ease 2. Great simplicity of manners, to prevent business from multiplying and raising thorny problems 3. A large measure of equality in rank and fortune, without which equality of rights and authority cannot long subsist 4. Little or no luxury-for luxury either comes from riches or makes them necessary
  4. 4. Plato (Wolff, 2002, p. 29)  Denies democracy completely  The health of the state is of no less importance than the health of the individuals within that state. Taking a vote on matters of state is just as mad as taking a vote on matters of health. Democracy, then, is utterly irrational  Example: imagine that you have a serious problem with one of your hands and you are not sure whether or not you should let the doctors cut it
  5. 5. In Plato's view point, it should be considered that although ordinary people would not be able to have a viewpoint as good as a specialist, but they could have some experiences which can be considered as valuable knowledge. If a sick person goes to see one hundred non-specialist people M agreements N disagreements And also see 5 doctors X agreements Y disagreements Comparing M+X (the number of agreements) N+Y (the number of disagreements) Comparing (N×1) + (Y×15) and (M×1) +(X×15)
  6. 6. The coefficients can become more accurate Dividing five doctors into five categories: Specialist=30 Academic doctors=25 Senior doctors=20 Junior doctors=15 Medical students=10 Ordinary people should be divided into different categories Have experienced the same disease, Have experienced some similar diseases Do not have any experience at all To have a better choice if other parameters: Number of books Number of papers Number of similar patients and result of their treatments
  7. 7.  Importance of people in a society differs in different matters  The model can be expanded to all important decisions in the whole world
  8. 8.  Realization of democracy in the truest sense of the word (rule of the people)  Reduction of the gap between government and citizens  Power structure based on knowledge  Integration of the world  The candidates cannot use demagoguery method to get people’s vote
  9. 9. Participation of people in different decisions (but not every simple decision) being made all over the world, that influence their lives (directly or indirectly), specifying the coefficients of voters by considering knowledge and amount of impact of decision on them, and these coefficients can be positive, zero or even negative, and also coefficients of each voter can be different in different decisions.
  10. 10.  Specifying the subjects that people should make decisions themselves instead of the deputations  Specifying the fields that make differentiation among people. In other words the options that show importance of each voter should be specified  Experimental implementation of the model in sub systems to evaluate and clarify related statistics  Diagnosing the importance of this method of voting in different nations and the amount of usability and uselessness  Investigating the interaction between countries and investigating the methods that other nations would be able to participate in important voting of other countries that influence their lives
  11. 11.  Ashouri, D. (1994). Encyclopaedia of Politics (Persian: Dānesh-nāme-ye siāsi). Tehran: Morvarid.  Rousseau, J. J. (1950). The Social Contract and Discourse. (H. G. Cole, Übers.) New York: E. P. Dutton.  Wolff, J. (2002). Are we good enough for democracy? Think, 1(2), 29-34.
  12. 12. Thanks