Social media in the public sector south korea twitter
Virtual Knowledge Studio (VKS) Social Media in the Public Sector: South Korea’s Twitter use -CeDEM Asia 2102 Workshop Asso. Prof. Dr. Han Woo PARK CyberEmotions Research Institute Dept. of Media & Communication YeungNam University 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 Republic of Korea http://www.hanpark.net http://eastasia.yu.ac.kr http://asia-triplehelix.orgMany thanks to Chung Joo Chung, Seung-Eun Cho,Feroz Khan, Yenn-Ok Lee, Ho-Young Yoon, and my research assistants.
Rationale for the panel• E-government has been variously conceived and justified• In nations with more open and democratic political systems, for example, e-gov initiatives are largely portrayed as a more cost-effective model of government, a mechanism for improving governance by facilitating citizen feedback and input, and a means for improving democratic practices.• In more authoritarian nations, however, e-gov initiatives employ some of the same technologies, with similar goals, but with the overall goal of enhancing the government’s dominance over potential economic or political threats.• Given these widely divergent views of e-governance, there is a significant need for analysis of recent and current e-government initiatives, as well as further exploration of newer models of e- governance which employ mobile and social media.• This panel will present e-government initiatives in Asia-A workshop proposal written by Randy Kluver
Muneo Kaigo is an Associate Leslie Tkach-Kawasaki is an Professor of Communication and Associate Professor of Politics and Media in the Graduate School of Political Communications in the Humanities and Social Sciences Graduate School of Humanities and the College of Comparative and Social Sciences. Her research Culture at the University of involves political communication Tsukuba. His research involves through the Internet and online social and psychological impacts methodologies. She is currently in relation to communication working on a project involving technology and two-way online and offline media audiovisual communication. He is utilization in local elections in also the Asian Media Information Japan. and Communication Centre country representative for Japan.
Introduction New challenge for public administration The interactions between governments and their citizens e-Government Creating an online presence Allowing citizens to transact with the government electronically Integrating scattered systems
Introduction Engagement of citizens High quality online experiences Citizens, partners and co-creators of information and services. Web 2.0 conditions to improve transparency and foster innovation Interactive, context-rich, & easy-to-use applications
Social Media Use in the Public Sector Attention toward and expectations for social media adoption by the government Previous research of the government’s use of social media is restricted to Democratic participation Transparent information sharing Better communication with the public
Social Media Use in the Public Sector The social media use of government agencies worldwide USA: More than one social media account The U.K.: Adopted guidelines for social media of government agencies South Korea: Promoting the guidelines of the public sector Australia & Japan: Planning to use social media as an emergency communication channel
Social Media Use in the Public Sector Theoretical frameworks under discussion a) updating news & relevant videos b) building relationships with the target audience, interest groups, & social influentials c) acceptance of an unofficial voice Government-User interaction Users participate in a conversation on a topic which has been specified through the government’s social media The government directly listens to individuals’ informal human voice
Social Media Use of Korean Government Agencies Relationship with the public Decision-making process of public policy Recently, the Korean government has announced a policy of employing an online spokesman (e.g., twit-master, twit-reporter) Constant attention and immediate responses Successful interaction relies on the individuals with whom the government usually interacts
Social Media Use of Korean Government Agencies Power A-list social media users Represent the potential power of information distribution Adoption of new media Requires the public organization to make further efforts Practical needs Adopting social media, with apparent advantages Yet additional effort is required
Lacuna in prior literatureA growing interest in how social media can be betterunderstood theoretically and empiricallyHowever, most research has been conducted in aWestern context, with very few Asian or cross-culturalstudiesWithin the small body of literature on social mediaoutside the Anglophone world, social media has almostinvariably been presented in the light of politicalopposition
Project overview To address this lacuna, this research will explore how Korean government has embraced social media as a public communication channel Its focus lies on interaction patterns- between gov. agencies and the public- among gov. agencies in Korea- between Korea agencies and other countries
Mixed webometrics methods Decomposing every network is necessary to provide a holistic view- Information sources (URL parsing)- Tweet messages (semantic analysis)- Channel couplings (colink diagram)- Online connections (following relation)- Focus interview
“Webometrics refers to a set of research methods thatillustrates texts and their web linkages as a network andquantitatively examine the spreadable aspects of web-mediated communication activities of social actors andissues (Jenkins, 2011), in comparison to traditionalmethods (Savage & Burrows, 2007; Salganik & Levy,2012). ” (by Han Woo Park)
Seminal publications Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, B. (1997). Studying online social networks. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(1). Wellman, B. (2001). Computer networks as social networks, Science, Vol. 293, Issue (14), pp. 2031- 2034. Park, H. W. (2003). Hyperlink network analysis: A new method for the study of social structure on the web. Connections, 25(1), 49-61 . Park, H. W., & Thelwall, M. (2003). Hyperlink analyses of the World Wide Web: A review. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8(4).
Recent special issues Special issues - Social Science Computer Review, 2011, 29(3) Theme: Social Networking Activities Across Countries - Asian Journal of Communication, 2011, 21(5), Theme: Online Social Capital and Participation in Asia- Pacific - Scientometrics, 2012, 90(2) Theme : Triple Helix and Innovation in Asia using Scientometrics, Webometrics, and Informetrics - Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2012, 17(2) Theme: Hyperlinked Society
Selected publications Recent publications- Park, H. W., Barnett, G. A., & Chung, C. J. (2011). Structural changes in the global hyperlink network: Centralization or diversification. Global networks. 11 (4). 522–542- Lim, Y. S., & Park, H. W. (2011). How Do Congressional Members Appear on the Web?: Tracking the Web Visibility of South Korean Politicians. Government Information Quarterly. 28 (4), 514-521.- Sandra González-Bailón, Rafael E. Banchs and Andreas Kaltenbrunner (2012). Emotions, Public Opinion, and U.S. Presidential Approval Rates: A 5-Year Analysis of Online Political Discussions Human Communication Research- Sams, S., Park, H. W. (2012 forthcoming). The Presence of Hyperlinks and Messages on Social Networking Sites: A Case Study of Cyworld in Korea. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication- Nam, Y., Lee, Y.-O., Park, H.W. (2013, March). Can web ecology provide a clearer understanding of people’s information behavior during election campaigns?. Social Science Information.
Types of SNA data• Whole-network method- Measuring all connections with others in group- Population• Ego-centric method- Snowballing- Sample• A combined method
Between Korea gov. agencies & the public• 23 out of 32 ministries opened accounts in 2010.• Governments displayed high levels of reciprocity.• Generalized regression model: The most important factor positively influencing the number of followers was whether an institution has a full-time staff to manage a twitter account. January to August in 2011.
71.8% of Korean28.1% government agencies have recorded more 40.6% than 80% of reciprocal relationship. 40.6% of the institutions have15.6% recorded more than 95% 15.6% reciprocal rate. 95% 90% 80% Below 80% January to August in 2011.
Overall use of twitter in Singapore For Singapore, three out of 17 have no following. Only Singapore Civil Defense Force (@sCDF), have more than 10 percent reciprocity (87.9%). The department of Urban Redevelopment Authority (@uRAsg) displays 9.6 percent, the department of Health Promotion Board (@ hPBsg) displays 5.4, and the department of Reaching Everyone for Active Citizenry Home displays 4.0 at reciprocity rate. The rest of them were lower than 4.0 percent at their reciprocity rate. August 2011 to January 2012
What about other countries? Except for Korean departments, the rest of departments from other countries displayed low levels of reciprocity rate in Twitter connection. In particular, Japan and Singapore conservatively manage government’s Twitter accounts in that they generally have a few number of following, compared to the number of followers. Can a reciprocity rate be a proxy indicator for a government’s willingness for interactive communication with the public overall? August in 2011 to January 2012
Between Korea gov. agencies & the public Words such as “service”, “safety”, “support”, and “policy” are prevalently used and entangled with other socio-political words in RTed messages by government institutions. Words such as “health”, “education” and “agenda” are also occasionally used but these words are not frequently linked with other socio-political words. Words frequently RTed by many institutions tend to be general information of governments related to the public support and safety rather than institution-specific information. January to August in 2011.
Visualization: Co-occurrence Words Network of RTed Tweets by Government Institutions Economic & Welfare related : Triangle & PurpleJanuary to August in 2011. Socio-Political related : Square and Yellow Etc : Circle and Green (1) At least by two governments (2) At least by six governments
Among gov. agencies in Korea Diverse subjects and a large cluster representing Blue House speeches. Other clusters for the Korean government addressed mainly environmental issues such as nuclear power plant accidents in Japan and domestic construction around the four rivers that the Blue House promoted. For example, the bottom left corner includes the words “bicycle” and “way” among others, referring to the construction of bicycle lanes around the rivers.
Keywords shared by 40 gov. agencies (Korea) between February and August 2011
Keywords shared by ministries (USA) In the case of the U.S., RTed keywords were clustered according to policy areas such as the economy, health care, and the space-program, although most keywords were related to domestic politics with respect to White House speeches (top left corner). The words “congress,” “bill,” “pass,” and “support,” among others, indicate President Obama’s efforts to gain cooperation from the U.S. Congress, and the words “tax,” “plan,” “economy,” “change,” “need,” and “work,” among others, the policy realm of these efforts.
Keywords shared by 40 gov. agencies (U.S.) between February and August 2011
Between Korea agencies and other countries - Twitter networks among governmental agencies in seven countries• The U.S. is the most central.• None of the Japanese governments is connected with U.S.• Contrast with the followings from various countries, only one U.S. department follows one account of U.K. and Singapore government accounts, respectively. August in 2011 to January 2012
Twitter networks among governmental agencies in seven countries* indegree/outdegree values are normalized August in 2011 to January 2012
Domestic administration Public welfare International relations President Health Foreign PrimeMin Labor Defense Finance Gender Education FairTrade Justice CivilRight/Welfare Culture VeteransAgriculture and Food Economy/Energy Environment Categories by departments Tax Customs Statistics Security Land/Region Communication Information
Networks among the departments of domestic administration• Only one connection: from the department of Agriculture and Agri-Food in Canada to the department of Agriculture in the United States.• Innovation, Industry, Science & Research and that of Broadband, Communication & Digital Economy in Australia follow NASA and FCC in the U.S., respectively.• Energy & Climate Change in U.K. follows the department of Energy in the U.S. And Justice Treasury departments in U.K. are asymmetrically connected with White House and Treasury department in the U.S.
Networks among the departments of domestic administration Austrailia-Yellow Canada-Limegreen Japan-Red Korea-Blue Singapore-Pink UK-White USA-OrangeAugust in 2011 to January 2012
Networks among the departments of international relations• Two cliques were created: one is composed of international-related departments of U.S., U.K., Canada, and Australia and the other is composed of only Korean departments except for one line with State Department of U.S.• In the second clique, Korean Defense is asymmetrically connected with State Department of U.S., implying that the national defense of Korea more or less relies on domestic affairs in the U.S.• It is interesting that the Korean Defense department does not follow the account of U.S.’s Defense despite the same field.
Networks among the departments of international relations Austrailia-Yellow Canada-Limegreen Japan-Red Korea-Blue Singapore-Pink UK-White USA-Orange
Networks among the departments of public welfare Austrailia-Yellow Canada-Limegreen Japan-Red Korea-Blue Singapore-Pink UK-White USA-Orange
Discussion Issues - Between Kor. Gov and Public High reciprocal rate: Attempts to strengthen the communication networks between the Korean government & online citizens through Twitter Info. distribution or interactive communication Do usage patterns reflect a national culture?- Collectivist V.S Individualistic settings – Return Favor E.g. if you follow me, I will follow you
Discussion Issues - Among government agencies The Offices of the President in Korea and U.S. positively participated in social media conversations – However, its active interaction may not always lead to the effect of topic development & information distribution. Some governments, including U.K., U.S., and Australia, indeed have guidelines of social media use by governmental organizations and officials.
Discussion Issues - Among government agencies Kor. used its Twitter accounts to collectively promote its agendas,- re-tweeting common contents- mostly link gov. sources of information U.S. used to share various agendas of individual departments or agencies.- re-tweeting for a specific purpose- private sources are hyperlinked to inform the public of its activities
Discussion Issues- Between Korea agencies and other countries Governmental twitter networks across countries are asymmetrical (U.S.- dominated) and tend to be formed between the similar departments.- What are roles of online activities of U.S. governmental institutions on social networking sites?- How can we measure a hidden interaction processes and practices between U.S. and other countries in terms of online governmental communication?
Discussion Issues How do Asian cultural environments influence the ways in which citizens form and use public SNS relationships? How can we measure public participation in the Asian context using social media data? How are social media used as a direct communication channel between policy makers and citizens?
Limitation & Suggestion Statistically verifying whether the Twitter have offered an alternative space for information sharing, interaction, & discussions of various topics- Cross-national/cultural strategies? Further research e-Government processes Impact evaluation processes in an online context The systematic application of institutionalizing quality citizen participation