How japan can learn from danish best practice v01 20120503_meyer


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Speaking Danish in Japan: Good practice lessons to learn and emulate
(Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen –

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How japan can learn from danish best practice v01 20120503_meyer

  1. 1. SPEAKING DANISH IN JAPANHow Japan can learn from Danish best practiceMorten Meyerhoff Nielsen ( Agency for Digitisation ( 2012, 30 april 2012
  2. 2. OUTLINING A CONUNDRUM Japan has a… …well-developed broadband infrastructure 86.5% of households having fiber-to-home access* …but low levels of take-up 11.7% of companies used a national eGovernment service (national level)** 13.2% of Japanese access government website or used an online service** 0.0000021% of address change (pension) are online**** (OECD, 2009a)** (Goto & Sudo, 2008)*** (MIC, 2012)
  3. 3. COMPARING THE CONUNDRUM Denmark has a… …well-developed broadband infrastructure 86% of households have internet but only 14.6% have fiber-to-home access* …and HIGH levels of take-up 92% of companies use the internet to interact with government** 67% of Danes use the internet to interact with government** 40-60% of address changes are online (municipality dependent) *** c. 25% of all service transactions are online (35 selected municipality services) **** OECD, 2009a and Eurostat 2011** Eurostat, 2010*** Komhen, 2012
  4. 4. SOME STATISTICSCategory Denmark Japan SourceSubcategory (ranking) (ranking)InfrastructureFTTH/B availability (%) 14 (a) 4 86.5 1 OECD 2009aFiber connections in total broadband (%) 13 6 61 1 OECD 2011 (b)Fastest advertised connection offered by the 51 Mbps - 1Gbps - OECD 2011 (b)incumbent operator MIC 2009Avg, advertised broadband download speed (Kbit/s) 25,771 18 80,612 3 OECD 2011 (b/c)Median price per 1mbps (USD) 2.27 10 0.39 1 OECD 2011 (b/d)3G coverage (%) 97 6 100 1 OECD 2011 (b)ICT usageEstimated internet users per 100 inhabitants (%) 82 6 75.4 16 ITU 2008Online availability of gov’t services (%, individuals) 75 - - Eurostat 2010 Cabinet Secretariat 2010aOnline availability of gov’t services (%, businesses) 100 - 52 -Public Certification Service for Individuals (%) 24 - 1 - MIC 2010bBasic dataPopulation (million) 5.5 - 126.5 - United Nations 2010GDP per capita (US$) 55,986 6 42,783 17 IMF 2010
  5. 5. INSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCESNATIONAL STRATEGIES JP: Transition to ICT usage/utilisation with emphasis on broadband infrastructure DK: Focus on a consistent eGovernment system. Emphasis convenience, efficiency and effectiveness, key infrastructure and components (eg standards, eIDs, Single-Sign-On), platforms (eg portals, shared services) ICT-PROMOTION MECHANISMS JP: Weak IT Strategic HeadquartersDK: STS and strategy committees, Agency for (Cabinet Secretariat). Vertical Digitisation, cross-organisational initiatives inconsultation with other national stakeholders. structure contributing to weak Existence of ICT-promoting mechanisms in collaboration. Weak ICT-promoting different fields, eg national portals, mechanisms in each field, and campaigns
  6. 6. INSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCESPERSONAL INFORMATION JP: Protection by laws. Strong DK: Protection by laws and the Data discomfort with the personal Protection Agency. Trust in agencies information protection system. No neutral agencyDECENTRALISATION OF GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY DK: Highly advanced, also in budgetary aspects JP: Little progressPOLICY-MAKING PROCESSDK: Consensus/mixed top-down and bottom-up JP: Weak consensus/top-downINCENTIVE POLICIES JP: Handful of incentives for digitisation DK: Clear incentives and semi- and semi-mandatory measures mandatory measures
  7. 7. CONTRIBUTING TO INFRASTRUCTUREUNIQUE IDENTIFIERS AND INDENTITY MANAGEMENT* DK: Personal ID/CPR since 1968. Cooperation with the private sector; Corporate ID/CVR in operation; Property ID/BBR in operation JP: Discussion on personal ID ongoing but aim for 2013 introduction. Corporate andDIGITAL SIGNATURE property IDs not unified DK: c. 3.7 million active personal - simple three factorauthentication - digital signature with an ID, password, and keycard Professional/corporate - software based but with simple three factor authentication being developed for roll-out in 2012  NB: Smartphone version expected in 2012 JP: Personal - emphasis on security. Not widely adopted, hardware reliance, not user-friendly Professional/corporate do not exist
  8. 8. SERVICE DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT APPROACH DK: Business case, user-centric, private sector inspired, testing, JP: Technology-oriented. participatory design Ideas from developersSOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT - VENDORSDK: Initiatives taken by Local GovernmentDenmark (KOMBIT /Umbrella projects) for JP: Competition among four companies joint development and/or procurement Slow in standardisation (past KMD set-up and owned bymunicipalities). Limited competitionSYSTEM CONSTRUCTION DK: In-house. Accumulation of know-how In-source expertise, out-source developmentJP: Reliance on manufacturers and vendors
  9. 9. INFLUENCING FACTORS BUSINESS RELATIONS DK = cooperation with the private sector vs JP = low levels of cooperation THE MARKET DK = demand-pull vs JP = supply-push UNIVERSITY RELATIONS DK = regarded as a source of competitiveness vs JP = considered of little relevance RISK ADVERSITY* DK = tendency to try to change risks into investment opportunities vs JP = risk-averse and emphasis on safe measures ENGAGEMENTDK = high level (c 85% voting rate) vs JP = medium level (c 60% voting rate) * Symantec, 2009
  10. 10. CONCLUSIONS Key efficiency lessons from the Danish context incl: – Governance model and inter-agency collaboration to achieve strategic goals – Standards, standardised formats and processes – Share components and contents, incl key enablers like IDs and digital signatures – User-centric and personalised services, testing and participatory design
  11. 11. FOR QUESTIONSNoriko Igari ( - Center for Global Communication ( University of JapanMorten Meyerhoff Nielsen ( Agency for Digitisation (