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E Government Survey Among Austrian Municipalities


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E Government Survey Among Austrian Municipalities

  1. 1. An eGovernment Survey among Austrian Municipalities Johann Höchtl Danube University Krems, Austria, Member of Research Staff OASIS Standardisation Member Austrian Chancellory Work Group Member [email_address]
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Who we are and what we do </li></ul><ul><li>E-Readiness – Are you ready? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your Stakeholders – Results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>(Outlook) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Who we are and what we do <ul><li>Danube University Krems, Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only State-Owned Post Graduate University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Center for E-Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Inclusion and E-Participation and their impacts on electronic society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDEM-Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal of E-Democracy and Open Government http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About the Presenter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research focus on “Web 2.0”: Technology and social aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative Processes and Models of Incorporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctoral Thesis University of Vienna and Technical University of Vienna, Business Informatics, Vienna: “Challenges of E-Service Delivery for Public Administration” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Are you ready? E-Government in Austria <ul><li>Federated System: State, Province, Municipalities (Cities) </li></ul><ul><li>Central committee (platform Digital Austria) without directive power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long process to settle an agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every authority has to ratify in law or order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2006 & 2007: Two-fold European Champion in E-Government </li></ul><ul><li> – canonical Web Site for E-Services </li></ul><ul><li> – personalized view on E-Services based on Sex, Age, ... </li></ul>
  5. 5. Are you ready? Austria vs. USA (in numbers) <ul><li>So Austria is feeling generous on administration ;) ? - No, it's the result of evolving history (and legacy!) </li></ul><ul><li>And a forceful driver for E-Government! </li></ul>Based on inhabitants
  6. 6. (E-)Readiness – Are you ready? <ul><li>A priori </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer (Stakeholder) readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Illiteracy, Accessibility, Organizational readiness, Business Process Readiness, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A posteriori </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Government Evolution (stage model) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication infrastructure index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Participation index </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The survey – Characteristics & Preparation <ul><li>Purpose : Measure </li></ul><ul><li>adherence to the laid out and jointly agreed eGovernment strategy </li></ul><ul><li>progress made since the first evaluation in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Charged by Austrian Association of Municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Only minor revisions of questionnaire between 2002 and 2008 to warrant comparability </li></ul><ul><li>A comparative survey : 2002 vs. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : Ask every Austrian Community (2,357!) concerning their E-Government readiness and E-Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Questions arouse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-form fields vs. rigidly structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of questions, answer scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronically vs. traditional </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The survey – Question domains <ul><li>Questions of general statistical importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and speed of Network connection, Computer and Laptop equipment, E-Security precautions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Site and E-Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitors, available E-Services and Type of E-Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application and acceptance of Austrian E/Government Key Componentes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Identification Card, E-Signable Forms, E-Delivery, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most frequently used Services </li></ul><ul><li>General opinion towards ICT usage, availability and usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee moral and planned projects </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The survey – Results (1) <ul><li>Number of employees declined by 13% in 6 years. </li></ul><ul><li>No increase of staff assigned to ICT work </li></ul><ul><li>Network infrastructure well available </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in user satisfaction – This has consequences for future ICT projects! </li></ul>Question 2002 2008 Municipality web-site 76% 93% Reachable under the domain “” 8.1% 49.1% Does the web site add value to the perception of the municipality? 66.45% 79.8% Employees / municipality 32 27.7 Employees assigned to ICT work 1.9 1.6 Ratio 5.8% 5.9% Network infrastructure 21.1% 87.9% “ The adoption of IT processes will lead to increased efficiency and generally simplify daily work” 83.4% 68.3%
  10. 10. The survey – Results (2) <ul><li>Smaller cities can attract more visitors than larger ones </li></ul><ul><li>Effect inverts only for the largest cities </li></ul><ul><li>Great outliers, especially for villages in tourism business </li></ul><ul><li>Online marketing for web presence has an inconsistent effect on page hit rates </li></ul>Legend: Community size on permanent residents 1:smallest 2:small 3:medium 4:large 5:largest Less than 1000 1001 - 2000 2001 - 5000 5001 - 10,000 More than 10,000
  11. 11. The survey – Results (3) <ul><li>Over all, 87% of Austrian municipalities do not plan IT-projects which lead to further E-Services at that moment </li></ul><ul><li>Small communities feel “exhausted” </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the cities the higher the readiness for additional Services </li></ul>Legend: Community category on permanent residents 1 2 3 4 5 Less than 1000 1001 - 2000 2001 - 5000 5001 - 10,000 More than 10,000
  12. 12. The survey – Results (4) <ul><li>x-Axis: Employees,y-axis: Employees assigned to ICT work </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the municipalities, the higher the rate of personnel assigned to ICT work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason : Less possibilities for economy of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest cities revert that trend slightly. Reason : Larger cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have more IT equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide more E-Services </li></ul></ul>Ratio ICT / personnel for community size Number of Employees Number of Employees, log scaled Legend: Community category on permanent residents 1 2 3 4 5 Less than 1000 1001 - 2000 2001 - 5000 5001 - 10,000 More than 10,000
  13. 13. The survey – Results (5) <ul><li>Ooops – A Survey design mistake! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We were not specific enough to differentiate between local network connection and connection to the internet node </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results of 10MBit are flawed – disregard! </li></ul><ul><li>Peak at 2056 – This is the speed of a weak DSL home connection </li></ul><ul><li>Usability concerns arouse, especially if more employees share the connection </li></ul>x-Axis: typical connection speed in MBit Internet connection speed of Austrian municipalities
  14. 14. The survey – Suggestions for the Administration <ul><li>Further development of ICT Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FTTH -> “FTTO (Fiber to the Office)” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Internet Connections permit centralized data registers for increased data reliability and usability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperation of smaller municipalities is essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Think global, act local” -> Virtual municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only first step, “physical” consolidation is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased usability of centralized services and immediate benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities must not do the provinces authorities job without profit </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thank you! - Questions <ul><li>Mag. Johann Höchtl </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for eGovernment, Danube-University Krems </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>+43 2732 893-2304 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>?
  16. 16. Outlook – Importance of Internet for young people Source : GfK Online Monitor 1. Quartal, GfK Austria (4.000 Telefoninterviews pro Quartal, 14 Jahre +); 2000: AIM, GfK Austria/INTEGRAL Source : BITKOM Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue Medien e.V. August 2009
  17. 17. A non - Hierarchy for the “E” “ Participation is the Way, Democracy is the goal”* E-Government E-Democracy E-Voting E-Participation Administrated democracy Communicated democracy Individual / Citizen State / Government / Parties / Institutions Source : Ursula Mayer-Rabler, “Political Education and E-Participation: Technology, Politics and Culture”, 3rd Conference on Electronic Democracy EDEM 2009, September 6-8, 2009, Vienna * Prof. Roland Traunmüller
  18. 18. The Media Revolution Print – One to Many Telephone - One to One Radio – One to Many TV – One to Many The Internet – Many2Many
  19. 19. Today Tomorrow?