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Intelligence, spies & espionage


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Intelligence, spies & espionage

  1. 1. World War II Intelligence, Spies & Espionage
  2. 2. Spying/Espionage • gov’t/individuals obtaining secrets without permission of the holder -intelligence gathering -counterintelligence (false info) -sabotage/subterfuge -code breaking -moles/defectors • US law – separate crimes -treason (war v. US) (death) -espionage (gathering info) -spying (watching)
  3. 3. Coordinator of Information (COI) • (July ‘41) collect/analyze data on national security • Hoover/FBI balk at sharing info • findings after Pearl Harbor -poor intelligence coordination -misunderstood/underestimated Japan -leads to formation of OSS William Donovan
  4. 4. Office of Strategic Services • (June ’42) – FDR Presidential Order -trained Guomindang, Mao’s Red Army, Vietminh -data for Joint Chiefs -operatives trained for Germany • power for clandestine ops • analysts & operatives used together -CIA (‘47) model • Army/Navy/FBI kept own intelligence • Truman keeps but splits OSS after war
  5. 5. Moe Berg (OSS agent) • MLB catcher – Red Sox -graduate of Princeton & Columbia Law -fluent in German, Italian, French, Spanish, Japanese, Hebrew, Greek, Russian & Latin -code name “Remus” • parachuted into Yugoslavia -to evaluate resistance (2 groups) • dropped into German occupied Norway -info used to destroy plant building nuclear weapons • posed as Swiss student at Nazi Conference -to determine if German scientist should be killed -said he was not a threat • posed as German officer in Italy to gather info on munitions plant • parachuted behind German lines several other times • refused Presidential Medal of Freedom after war -(required his silence)
  6. 6. Military Operations • kept own tactical analysts -Army Counterintelligence Corps (false info) -interrogation of POWs • Code breakers -Army broke Japanese code land & sea -help Allies with ULTRA (Enigma machines) -break German codes • Nisei soldiers interrogated Japanese POWs -parents likely interned
  7. 7. Navajo Code Talkers • encoding/decoding English message -used Navajo language -essential at Iwo Jima • Korea & Vietnam -continued to use Navajo codes
  8. 8. Nazi Saboteurs • June ‘42 8 Nazi spies land -Jacksonville, FL & Long Island, NY • Hitler ordered attempt to disrupt industry • Goal – bring violence to US soil -blow up factories, instill fear & diminish US resolve -planned for 2 years ($175,000 cash) • landed in Germany uniform -considered POW not spy • Arrested within 2 weeks -no damage -6 executed; 1 life; 1 - 30 yrs. -latter 2 released after war