Further, the interactions between different levels and other ‘securities’ is consistently being overlooked. For instance, a drought in an agricultural area could compromise human security (increasing poverty and affecting health), food security (availability of food for the own population), economic security (decrease in agricultural exports), energy security (diminishing availability of water for production of electricity), and environmental security (putting ecosystems under stress) at the local, regional or even international level.
International water law finds its foundation within the rules of public international law, and thus is intertwined with those ideals contained in the UN Charter -- maintaining international peace and security, enhancing regional cooperation, preventing threats to the peace, and advancing the fundamental freedoms of all (UN Charter). International watercourses law provides a framework for managing the sustainability of transboundary waters that cross national borders and has evolved through a combination of customary law (state practice) and the codification and progressive development efforts undertaken by the UN, non-governmental organisations, private institutions, national and international judicial decisions, and the resolutions and recommendations of international organizations.Water law serves three key functions:• It defines and identifies the legal rights and obligations tied to water use (broadly defined) and provides the prescriptive parameters for resource development and management;• It provides tools for ensuring the continuous integrity of the regime– that is, through monitoring and assessment of compliance and implementation, dispute prevention, and settlement;• It allows for modifications of the existing regime, in order to be able to adapt to changing needs and circumstances.
While the focus of the UnitedStates is appropriately directed toward Afghanistan and Pakistan, it is important to recognize that our water-related activities in the region are almost exclusively confined within the borders of these two countries. We pay too little attention to the waters shared by their Indian and Central Asian neighbors—Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan.
The real wildcard for political and social unrest in the Middle East over the next twenty years is not war, terrorism or revolution—it is water. Conventional security threats dominate public debate and government thinking, but water is a true game-changer in Middle Eastern politics. General Anthony Zinni, former Commander in Chief, U.S. Central Command (2010)
A unique process of community consultation underlies planning."The point is to develop a common understanding of the conditions in the basin as a whole," says Chonguiça (OKACOM).There will be trade-offs in this process
Pkw final day 1 talk iac
HLEGM – The Global Water Crisis<br />Munk School of Global Affairs<br />The Global Water Challenge: Past, Present & Future<br />22/ 03/2011<br />Professor Patricia Wouters<br />
Global Water Challenge: Past, Present, Future<br />No development <br />without water<br />1.2 billion without safe drinking water and2.4 billion without sanitation<br />1.4 billion km3 ofwater on Earth<br />Only a fractionreadily available<br />wideningwater gap<br />Growing issues of availability, access, and conflicts-of-use<br />
International Watercourses: global view<br /><ul><li>260+ TB WCs
Cooperation Framework - CCC<br />What water for who, what, how, when, where and why?<br />
The Law of Nations – peace and security<br />“to maintain international peace and security … <br />and ... <br />the fundamental freedoms of all … “<br />Hydro-Diplomacy<br />
By neglecting the interconnectivity<br />of water issues between Central and South Asia, the U.S. approach<br />could exacerbate regional tensions.<br />US Senate Report – Avoiding Water Wars (Feb 2011)<br />
Dr.MufidShahab, Egypt’s Minister of Legal and Parliamentary Affairs say that “Egypt’s water security and its historical rights to the water of the River Nile is a matter of life and death that cannot be ignored.”<br />Crisis on the NileOsman Mirghani (2010)<br />Regional water wars -- Middle East <br />
“Armed forces are put on standby to tackle threat of wars over water” – <br /> Across the world, they are coming: the water wars. From Israel to India, from Turkey to Botswana, arguments are going on over disputed water supplies that may soon burst into open conflict.”<br /> Mr Reid signalled Britain's armed forces would have to be prepared to tackle conflicts over dwindling resources. <br />Military planners have already started considering the potential impact of global warming for Britain's armed forces over the next 20 to 30 years.<br />(The Independent - 28 /02/2006) <br />The world faces a future of “water wars”, unless action is taken to prevent international water shortages and sanitation issues escalating into conflicts, <br />Gareth Thomas, the International Development Minister <br />(March 2010) <br />The UK - ready for global water wars<br />
We should view every regional watershed or aquifer as an opportunity for stronger international cooperation.<br />Access to reliable supplies of clean water is a matter of human security. It’s also a matter of national security.<br />There could be huge political and economic benefits from regional water diplomacy. <br />Water is actually a test case for preventive diplomacy. <br />5 streams of action<br />Capacity development (local, national, regional)<br />Elevate diplomatic efforts and we need to better coordinate them<br />Mobilizing financialsupport<br />Harness the power of science and technology<br />Broadening the scope of our partnerships<br />The USA – ready for global water wars<br />
Southern Africa Water - Working Together On River Management<br />Angola - irrigation for development, <br />Namibia - clean drinking water & sanitation<br />Botswana - Okavango Delta for tourism.<br />Cooperation on the Okavango (March 2011)<br />
Canada - Water Cooperation Framework<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />
Past, Present, Future Cooperation<br />Over past century <br />Water Security <br />
Water Security: platform for cooperation<br />