Semantic Technologies  in Learning Environments  - Promises and Challenges- Dragan Ga šević Athabasca University Email: dg...
<ul><li>Without any prior vision </li></ul><ul><li>the Social Web is here! </li></ul><ul><li>What now? </li></ul>
Topics to discuss about  <ul><li>Semantics as a big promise </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics and metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
<ul><li>Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics as a Big Promise </li></ul>
Semantic Web <ul><li>To create a universal medium for the exchange of data.  </li></ul><ul><li>…  to smoothly interconnect...
Semantic Web <ul><li>Key characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can say anything about anything </li></ul></ul><ul><...
RDF
<ul><li>The Semantic Web  is NOT opposite to  the Social Web! </li></ul>
Semantic Web <ul><li>Ontologies: Interconnecting applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared domain conceptualizations  </li...
<ul><li>Part II </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics and Metadata </li></ul>
Learning Technology Standards <ul><li>Learning metadata  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Object Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul...
Learning Metadata <ul><li>Why do we need ontologies, then?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a replacement for LOM </li></ul></ul...
Is this all we can get?!
<ul><li>Part III </li></ul><ul><li>Promises for  Learning Environments </li></ul>
Learning Design <ul><li>Situation is getting even more exciting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning design with ontologies </li...
Context is Missing! <ul><li>Andrew McAfee (Harvard University) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLATES paradigm – search, links, auth...
What is that?  <ul><li>Julita Vassileva (U of Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rule: hard/impossible to impose hard r...
Context is Missing! http://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg
Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Reusability Adaptivity Evolution Collaboration with educators a...
Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Feedback Learning and Collaborating Personalization Adaptivity ...
Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Learning and Collaborating Community Peer-Review Presenting Administratio...
Personal  Learning Information Management  <ul><li>Connect presently isolated islands </li></ul>Students/Educators <ul><li...
<ul><li>“ A crazy problem requires  a crazy solution!” </li></ul><ul><li>(Griff Richards, 2005) </li></ul>
Learning Object  Context Ontology: LOCO <ul><li>Learning context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>LOCO-Analyst and iHelp Courses  </li></ul>
LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Semantically rich feedback for educators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activities of their students ...
LOCO-Analyst
LOCO-Analyst
LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Collaboration: students - educators </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation results show appreciation of  </li><...
DEPTHS <ul><li>DEsign Patterns Teaching Help System </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project-base...
 
DEPTHS
<ul><li>Part IV  </li></ul><ul><li>Open Challenges </li></ul>
Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain-independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context, c...
Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to databases –  someone needs to develop </li></ul><...
Ontology Development - LOCO
Ontology Development - LOCO Integration is enabled!
Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Se...
Educators in ontology action Text2Onto OntoGen
<ul><li>If we have big expectations  </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t we build better tools?!  </li></ul>
Challenges <ul><li>Appreciation of empirical research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google:  constantly measuring everything that ...
Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki-bas...
Challenges <ul><li>Pedagogical models with new technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is NOT enough </li></ul></ul><u...
Personal  Learning Information Management
Challenges <ul><li>Peer, expert and user retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks and data are locked </li></ul></ul>http:...
http://blog.hubspot.com/Portals/249/images//HubSpot-Making-Friends.gif
Challenges <ul><li>Peer, expert and user retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks and data are locked </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
Challenges <ul><li>Increased usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul>...
Context-aware Usability
Context-aware Usability
Context-aware Usability
Challenges <ul><li>Increased usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Personal  learning  information  management   </li></ul><ul><li>More Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>personalized int...
¡Muchas gracias!
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Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments -Promises and Challenges-

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Keynote presentation at CcITA 2009, Merida, Mexico, July 9, 2009

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  • Learning Object Context as is a kind of LO metadata (we also call it context-awareness metadata) that captures all the information that characterizes the specific situations (contexts) in which certain LO has been used. A (specific) learning situation is determined by the learning activity, the learning content, and the learner(s) involved. Aimed at capturing diverse kinds of learning situations typical for modern e-Learning environments In a nutshell, context, as defined here, is about a student (or a group of students) interacting with a learning content by performing certain activity with a particular purpose in mind.
  • Aims at helping instructors rethink the quality of the learning content and learning design of the courses they teach Provides instructors with feedback about the relevant aspects of the learning process taking place in the online learning environment they use. In particular, LOCO-Analyst informs instructors about: the activities their students performed and/or participated in during the learning process; the usage of the learning content they had prepared and deployed in the online learning environment; the peculiarities of the interactions among members of the online learning community. Feedback provision is based on the analyses of the usage tracking data captured by the learning environment LOCO-Analyst is implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor (http://www.reload.ac.uk/editor.html). This way we have ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating courses, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the courses accordingly. This further ensures easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.
  • Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments -Promises and Challenges-

    1. 1. Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments - Promises and Challenges- Dragan Ga šević Athabasca University Email: dgasevic@acm.org
    2. 2. <ul><li>Without any prior vision </li></ul><ul><li>the Social Web is here! </li></ul><ul><li>What now? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Topics to discuss about <ul><li>Semantics as a big promise </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics and metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Promises for learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Open challenges </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics as a Big Promise </li></ul>
    5. 5. Semantic Web <ul><li>To create a universal medium for the exchange of data. </li></ul><ul><li>… to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data. </li></ul><ul><li> Semantic Web Activity Statement http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Activity </li></ul>
    6. 6. Semantic Web <ul><li>Key characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can say anything about anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit definition of the meaning </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. RDF
    8. 8. <ul><li>The Semantic Web is NOT opposite to the Social Web! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Semantic Web <ul><li>Ontologies: Interconnecting applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared domain conceptualizations </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Part II </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics and Metadata </li></ul>
    11. 11. Learning Technology Standards <ul><li>Learning metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Object Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMS Learning Design, CP, SCORM, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do need them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved search and reusability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promising results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQI, ECL, GLOBE </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Learning Metadata <ul><li>Why do we need ontologies, then? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a replacement for LOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important complement of LOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Is this all we can get?!
    14. 14. <ul><li>Part III </li></ul><ul><li>Promises for Learning Environments </li></ul>
    15. 15. Learning Design <ul><li>Situation is getting even more exciting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning design with ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for formal verification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spotting issues in learning designs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not quite personal information management yet </li></ul>
    16. 16. Context is Missing! <ul><li>Andrew McAfee (Harvard University) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLATES paradigm – search, links, authoring, tagging, extension, and signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 in Enterprise: Enterprise 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning in enterprise </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What is that? <ul><li>Julita Vassileva (U of Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rule: hard/impossible to impose hard rules” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gord McCalla (U of Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological approach – sharing experience </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Context is Missing! http://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg
    19. 19. Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Reusability Adaptivity Evolution Collaboration with educators and students
    20. 20. Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Feedback Learning and Collaborating Personalization Adaptivity Context-awareness Social interaction … Learners
    21. 21. Learning Context Authoring Reusability Packaging Learning and Collaborating Community Peer-Review Presenting Administration Mobile Educators Learners
    22. 22. Personal Learning Information Management <ul><li>Connect presently isolated islands </li></ul>Students/Educators <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>LORs </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>User models </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptivity </li></ul><ul><li>Educational models </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Course, University, … </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-review </li></ul><ul><li>Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Domain tools </li></ul><ul><li>Mashed up with education tools </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox… </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul><ul><li>Frontpage </li></ul><ul><li>Reload… </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>“ A crazy problem requires a crazy solution!” </li></ul><ul><li>(Griff Richards, 2005) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Learning Object Context Ontology: LOCO <ul><li>Learning context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisites, learning objectives, available time, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning object used/produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of objects and their pedagogical role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain concepts </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>LOCO-Analyst and iHelp Courses </li></ul>
    26. 26. LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Semantically rich feedback for educators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activities of their students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain topics difficult for learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual performance of a learner/group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the deployed learning content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peculiarities of interactions </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. LOCO-Analyst
    28. 28. LOCO-Analyst
    29. 29. LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Collaboration: students - educators </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation results show appreciation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative (over quantitative) feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated view on the learning process as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form “killing” count </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student behavior is already feedback </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. DEPTHS <ul><li>DEsign Patterns Teaching Help System </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project-based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal learning goals </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. DEPTHS
    32. 33. <ul><li>Part IV </li></ul><ul><li>Open Challenges </li></ul>
    33. 34. Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain-independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context, content, design, user model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain-specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domain ontologies </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to databases – someone needs to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some ontology development lessons learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight ontologies: “Little semantics goes a long way” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked with other ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friend of a Friend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically-interlinked Online Communities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Ontology Development - LOCO
    36. 37. Ontology Development - LOCO Integration is enabled!
    37. 38. Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-automatic ontology learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Educators in ontology action Text2Onto OntoGen
    39. 40. <ul><li>If we have big expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t we build better tools?! </li></ul>
    40. 41. Challenges <ul><li>Appreciation of empirical research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: constantly measuring everything that may and may not be measured </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki-based (DBPedia and Semantic Media Wiki) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomy-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solving ambiguity of folksonomies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies require time and community </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social bookmarking ( Faviki ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Challenges <ul><li>Pedagogical models with new technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is NOT enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What motivates students to contribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., present activity, career or life-long goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased interaction and participation </li></ul>
    43. 44. Personal Learning Information Management
    44. 45. Challenges <ul><li>Peer, expert and user retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks and data are locked </li></ul></ul>http://media.economist.com/images/20080322/D1208WB1.jpg
    45. 46. http://blog.hubspot.com/Portals/249/images//HubSpot-Making-Friends.gif
    46. 47. Challenges <ul><li>Peer, expert and user retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks and data are locked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of “friends” is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction history also needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online presence </li></ul>
    47. 49. Challenges <ul><li>Increased usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul>
    48. 50. Context-aware Usability
    49. 51. Context-aware Usability
    50. 52. Context-aware Usability
    51. 53. Challenges <ul><li>Increased usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-centered identify management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenID is not enough! </li></ul></ul>
    52. 54. <ul><li>Personal learning information management </li></ul><ul><li>More Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>personalized interactive social collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>ubiquitous … </li></ul>
    53. 55. ¡Muchas gracias!

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