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Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments

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Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments

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Invited talk delivered in the scope of an open online course: Introduction to Learning and Knowledge Analytics

Details about the course, and the recorded presentation can be found at

http://www.learninganalytics.net/?page_id=71

Invited talk delivered in the scope of an open online course: Introduction to Learning and Knowledge Analytics

Details about the course, and the recorded presentation can be found at

http://www.learninganalytics.net/?page_id=71

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Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments

  1. 1. Semantic Technologies in Learning Environments Dragan Ga šević Athabasca University Email: dgasevic@acm.org
  2. 3. <ul><li>The Social Web is here! </li></ul><ul><li>What now? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Topics to discuss – morning <ul><li>Semantics as a big promise </li></ul><ul><li>Learning ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of semantics in-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring and reuse of learning content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning analytics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open challenges </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics as a Big Promise </li></ul>
  5. 6. Semantic Web <ul><li>To create a universal medium for the exchange of data. </li></ul><ul><li>… to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data. </li></ul><ul><li> Semantic Web Activity Statement http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Activity </li></ul>
  6. 7. Semantic Web <ul><li>Key characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can say anything about anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit definition of the meaning </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. What is an ontology? <ul><li>Definition (Swartout and Tate, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the basic structure or armature around which a knowledge base can be built </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. RDF
  9. 10. <ul><li>The Semantic Web is NOT opposite to the Social Web! </li></ul>
  10. 11. Semantic Web <ul><li>Ontologies: Interconnecting applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared domain conceptualizations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Linked Data
  12. 13. Linked Data SPARLQ end points They enable data mash-ups
  13. 14. <ul><li>Part III </li></ul><ul><li>Promises for Learning Environments </li></ul>
  14. 15. Learning Ecosystems http://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg
  15. 16. Learning Ecosystems Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Reusability Adaptivity Evolution Collaboration with educators and students
  16. 17. Learning Ecosystems Authoring Reusability Packaging Educators Feedback Learning and Collaborating Personalization Adaptivity Context-awareness Social interaction … Learners
  17. 18. Learning Ecosystems Authoring Reusability Packaging Learning and Collaborating Community Peer-Review Presenting Administration Mobile Educators Learners
  18. 19. Important considerations <ul><li>Julita Vassileva (U of Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rule: hard/impossible to impose hard rules” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gord McCalla (U of Saskatchewan) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological approach – sharing experience </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Personal Learning Information Management <ul><li>Connect presently isolated islands - not ecological! </li></ul>Students/Educators <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>LORs </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>User models </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptivity </li></ul><ul><li>Educational models </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Course, University, … </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-review </li></ul><ul><li>Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Domain tools </li></ul><ul><li>Mashed up with education tools </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox… </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul><ul><li>Frontpage </li></ul><ul><li>Reload… </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Part IIIa </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring and Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>How to reduce the number of clicks, improve precision and shorten the effort time? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Semantic Documents <ul><li>Resources composed of data units </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely identified by URIs </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated by concepts from ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to other data units via explicit links </li></ul>
  22. 23. Semantic Document Management <ul><li>Semantic Document Authoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDFizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Document Search & Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Document Navigation </li></ul>Nešić Saša , Mehdi Jazyeri, Dragan Gasevic &quot;Semantic Document Architecture for Desktop Document Integration and Management, “ the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE), San Francisco, USA, 2010, In Press.
  23. 24. Semantic Documents Sharing <ul><li>Social Networks around shared semantic documents </li></ul>Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Lelli Francesco, and Gasevic Dragan, &quot;Towards Efficient Document Content Sharing in Social Networks,” 2 nd International Workshop on Social Software Engineering and Applications, co-located with ESEC/FSE 2009.
  24. 25. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  25. 26. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  26. 27. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  27. 28. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  28. 29. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  29. 30. SemanticDoc – MS Office Tools Nešić Saša, Jazayeri Mehdi, Gašević Dragan, &quot;Extending MS Office for sharing Document Content Units over the Semantic Web,&quot; – 8 th IEEE International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, 2008.
  30. 31. Semantic Search Matters
  31. 32. Usability Evaluation <ul><li>User effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul>Nešić Saša, Gašević Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, &quot; Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study,&quot; 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award) .
  32. 33. Usability Evaluation <ul><li>User effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul>Nešić Saša, Gašević Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, &quot; Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study,&quot; 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award) .
  33. 34. Usability Evaluation <ul><li>User effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of mouse clicks </li></ul></ul>Nešić Saša, Gašević Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, &quot; Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study,&quot; 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award) .
  34. 35. Usability Evaluation <ul><li>User effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of windows switches </li></ul></ul>Nešić Saša, Gašević Dragan, Jazayeri Mehdi, Monica Landoni, &quot; Using Semantic Documents and Social Networking in Authoring Course Material: An Empirical Study,&quot; 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Tunisia, 2010 (Best paper award) .
  35. 36. Semantic Documents <ul><li>Open-source project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project website: http://www.semanticdoc.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code: http://sourceforge.net/projects/sdarch/ </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Part IIIb </li></ul><ul><li>Content Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback about effectiveness of used content and pedagogies </li></ul>
  37. 38. Context is Missing! http://www.w3.org/2006/Talks/1023-sb-W3CTechSemWeb/DataServicesWebAppMetro2.jpg
  38. 39. <ul><li>“ A crazy problem requires a crazy solution!” </li></ul><ul><li>(Griff Richards, 2005) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Learning Object Context Ontology: LOCO <ul><li>Learning context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisites, learning objectives, available time, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning object used/produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of objects and their pedagogical role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain concepts </li></ul></ul>Jovanović, J., Knight, C., Gašević, D., Richards, G., &quot;Learning Object Context on the Semantic Web,&quot; In Proc. 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies , Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 2006 pp. 669-673 ( Best paper award ).
  40. 41. Learning Object Context Ontology: LOCO <ul><li>Learning context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisites, learning objectives, available time, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning object used/produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of objects and their pedagogical role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain concepts </li></ul></ul>Jovanović, J., Knight, C., Gašević, D., Richards, G., &quot;Learning Object Context on the Semantic Web,&quot; 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies , Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 2006 pp. 669-673 ( Best paper award ).
  41. 42. LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>LOCO-Analyst and iHelp Courses </li></ul>http://www.jelenajovanovic.net/LOCO-Analyst/
  42. 43. LOCO-Analyst
  43. 44. LOCO-Analyst
  44. 45. LOCO-Analyst
  45. 46. LOCO-Analyst
  46. 47. OATS: Open Annotation & Tagging System <ul><li>OATS with Moodle </li></ul>
  47. 48. Education Social Semantic Web <ul><li>Combining Social and Semantic Web aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAST and LOCO-Analyst </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Student comprehension in LOCO-Analyst
  49. 50. Evaluation of LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Two evaluations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions provided and asked to try the tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: 18 (14 male, 4 female) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience: 3.09 (SD=2.2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video clips demonstrating the tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: 22 (17 male, 5 female) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience: 6.45 (SD=5.58) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Evaluation of LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Insights into the activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No statistical improvement over the previous version => </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better feedback about interactions between students is needed </li></ul></ul>4.57, 0.68, 21 NA Help me identify the domain topics the students were having difficulties with. 3.54, 1.01, 22 3.17, 1.09, 18 The information helps me determine how to improve the students’ online interactions. † 4.41, 0.80, 22 3.72, 0.46, 18 Relevant information regarding the students’ interactions within the online learning environment † 4.27, 0.70, 22 3.50, 0.70, 18 The information helps me identify what needs to be improved in the learning content † 4.45, 0.67, 22 3.71, 0.47, 17 Enables me to get an insight into the students’ interactions with the learning content †
  51. 52. Evaluation of LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>User interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant preference for the improved tool version (t(38)=2.20, p < 0.05) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No statistically significant increase of intuitiveness and information overload </li></ul></ul>4.5, 0.60, 22 4.00, 0.84, 18 General opinion about the GUI 2.5, 1.34, 22 1.72, 0.58, 18 LOCO-Analyst’s GUI is overburdened with information ‡ 4.5, 0.80, 22 4.22, 0.73,18 LOCO-Analyst’s GUI (Graphical User Interface) is intuitive enough
  52. 53. Evaluation of LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Predictors of the perceived utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information about interactions of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students’ comprehension of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative tagging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intuitiveness & ease-to-understand of the presentation of the above two </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Evaluation of LOCO-Analyst <ul><li>Predictors of user interface perceived value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students’ interaction with individual lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual learning – granularity level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students’ activities in discussion forums and chat rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students’ comprehension of studied topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative tagging </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Part IV </li></ul><ul><li>Open Challenges </li></ul>
  55. 56. Challenges <ul><li>Ontology development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to databases – someone needs to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some ontology development lessons learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight ontologies: “Little semantics goes a long way” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked with other ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friend of a Friend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically-interlinked Online Communities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Challenges <ul><li>Peer, expert and user retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks and data are locked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of “friends” is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction history also needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online presence </li></ul>
  57. 58. Challenges <ul><li>Analytics for students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal planning – social organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytics for organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn. organizations and organization learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning ecosystems </li></ul>
  58. 59. Stay tuned… <ul><li>http://intelleo.eu </li></ul><ul><li>Much more underway </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>Personal learning information management </li></ul><ul><li>More Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>personalized interactive social collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>ubiquitous … </li></ul><ul><li>Learning ecosystems </li></ul>
  60. 61. Thank you!

Editor's Notes

  • Learning Object Context as is a kind of LO metadata (we also call it context-awareness metadata) that captures all the information that characterizes the specific situations (contexts) in which certain LO has been used. A (specific) learning situation is determined by the learning activity, the learning content, and the learner(s) involved. Aimed at capturing diverse kinds of learning situations typical for modern e-Learning environments In a nutshell, context, as defined here, is about a student (or a group of students) interacting with a learning content by performing certain activity with a particular purpose in mind.
  • Learning Object Context as is a kind of LO metadata (we also call it context-awareness metadata) that captures all the information that characterizes the specific situations (contexts) in which certain LO has been used. A (specific) learning situation is determined by the learning activity, the learning content, and the learner(s) involved. Aimed at capturing diverse kinds of learning situations typical for modern e-Learning environments In a nutshell, context, as defined here, is about a student (or a group of students) interacting with a learning content by performing certain activity with a particular purpose in mind.
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.
  • implemented as an extension of the well-known open-source Reload Content Packaging Editor this design decision ensured that instructors effectively use the same tool for creating LOs, receiving and viewing automatically generated feedback about their use, and modifying the LOs accordingly. The main goal was to enable easier and wider acceptance of LOCO-Analyst.

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