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Clicker PPTs_Ch6

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Clicker PPTs_Ch6

  1. 1. Gazzaniga • Heatherton • Halpern Psychological Science FOURTH EDITION BEYOND THE TEXTBOOK LECTURE SLIDES and CLICKER QUESTIONS Chapter 6 Learning ©2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  2. 2. Beyond the Textbook Lecture Slides
  3. 3. Learning and Relevance • Unlike native English speakers, Japanese adults have difficulty perceiving the r/l distinction in words like “red” and “led” • Japanese infants, however, show dishabituation when “la, la, la” changes to “ra, ra, ra” • However, by age 12 months, infants lose this ability for sounds that are not relevant in the language of the infants’ surroundings • This seems to be a case of “use it or lose it,” where relevance matters for learning.
  4. 4. Imperfect Predictors • Conditioned responses are strong when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is a predictor of the unconditioned stimulus (US) • However, we know that in real life stimuli may not always represent perfect predictors • For example, weather forecasts are often wrong • Research shows that predictors do not have to be perfect to be effective—conditioning is still observed • A somewhat reliable signal is better than no signal at all
  5. 5. Intrinsic Motivation • How good a reward is depends on what kind of reward is expected • Behavioral contrast: The effect of a reinforcer depends on what other rewards have been available in the past • Children who are used to being overtly rewarded for an activity such as drawing show less interest in the activity later when no reward is offered – One way of viewing this is as a case of behavioral contrast, where the quantity of rewards has diminished – Another way to view this is that there are both external and intrinsic rewards, and they can interfere. In this case, the intrinsic reward of enjoyment was supplanted by an external reward.
  6. 6. Clicker Questions
  7. 7. Classical conditioning is also known as __________ conditioning. A. B. C. D. E. instrumental Skinnerian operant Pavlovian Ivanian
  8. 8. Classical conditioning is also known as __________ conditioning. A. B. C. D. E. instrumental Skinnerian operant Pavlovian Ivanian
  9. 9. In Pavlov’s experiment, salivation to FOOD is known as the __________. A. B. C. D. Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response
  10. 10. In Pavlov’s experiment, salivation to FOOD is known as the __________. A. B. C. D. Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response
  11. 11. Which of the following is an assumption of learning theories? A. B. C. D. Reponses are innate rather than learned. Learning is adaptive. Learning is impossible to measure. Learning does not cause changes in one’s behaviors.
  12. 12. Which of the following is an assumption of learning theories? A. B. C. D. Reponses are innate rather than learned. Learning is adaptive. Learning is impossible to measure. Learning does not cause changes in one’s behaviors.
  13. 13. If an unconditioned stimulus is not repeatedly paired with the conditioned stimulus, __________ will occur. A. B. C. D. E. discrimination acquisition extinction sensitization generalization
  14. 14. If an unconditioned stimulus is not repeatedly paired with the conditioned stimulus, __________ will occur. A. B. C. D. E. discrimination acquisition extinction sensitization generalization
  15. 15. In classical conditioning, what is spontaneous recovery? A. An animal can easily learn to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. B. If an animal is sick, it remembers the learned association after it recovers from its sickness. C. After extinction of the association, the animal shows the conditioned response again. D. After extinction of the association, the animal shows the unconditioned response again.
  16. 16. In classical conditioning, what is spontaneous recovery? A. An animal can easily learn to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. B. If an animal is sick, it remembers the learned association after it recovers from its sickness. C. After extinction of the association, the animal shows the conditioned response again. D. After extinction of the association, the animal shows the unconditioned response again.
  17. 17. What does an animal learn in classical conditioning? A. B. C. D. E. An association between an US and an UR An association between an US and a CR An association between an US and a CS An association between a CS and an UR None of the above
  18. 18. What does an animal learn in classical conditioning? A. B. C. D. E. An association between an US and an UR An association between an US and a CR An association between an US and a CS An association between a CS and an UR None of the above
  19. 19. Joey likes to listen to rock music when cutting onions. After doing so for awhile, he notices his eyes get teary when listening to rock music. The onion in this situation is a __________. A. B. C. D. Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response
  20. 20. Joey likes to listen to rock music when cutting onions. After doing so for awhile, he notices his eyes get teary when listening to rock music. The onion in this situation is a __________. A. B. C. D. Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response
  21. 21. __________ refers to the occurrence of the conditioned response when the stimulus is slightly different than the conditioned stimulus. A. B. C. D. Discrimination Habituation Acquisition Generalization
  22. 22. __________ refers to the occurrence of the conditioned response when the stimulus is slightly different than the conditioned stimulus. A. B. C. D. Discrimination Habituation Acquisition Generalization
  23. 23. Which of the following has the strongest learning effects? A. Reciting π to the 100th decimal place B. Eating salad with infected lettuce C. Remembering material from Chapter 6 of your psychology textbook D. Driving from California to Florida
  24. 24. Which of the following has the strongest learning effects? A. Reciting π to the 100th decimal place B. Eating salad with infected lettuce C. Remembering material from Chapter 6 of your psychology textbook D. Driving from California to Florida
  25. 25. If an animal becomes conditioned to a given stimulus, the animal will show the conditioned response to only that particular stimulus. A. True B. False C. Cannot be determined
  26. 26. If an animal becomes conditioned to a given stimulus, the animal will show the conditioned response to only that particular stimulus. A. True B. False C. Cannot be determined
  27. 27. Which of the following statements is a special property of the conditioned food aversion that is not typically seen in classical conditioning? A. It is only present in humans. B. The association is very easy to produce using a visual or auditory cue. C. Temporal proximity is not important. D. All of the above
  28. 28. Which of the following statements is a special property of the conditioned food aversion that is not typically seen in classical conditioning? A. It is only present in humans. B. The association is very easy to produce using a visual or auditory cue. C. Temporal proximity is not important. D. All of the above
  29. 29. Who proposed the Law of Effect? A. B. C. D. E. Garcia Bandura Skinner Pavlov Thorndike
  30. 30. Who proposed the Law of Effect? A. B. C. D. E. Garcia Bandura Skinner Pavlov Thorndike
  31. 31. Reinforcing successive approximations of an action in an effort to teach a complex action is known as _______. A. B. C. D. E. shaping observational learning punishment discrimination generalization
  32. 32. Reinforcing successive approximations of an action in an effort to teach a complex action is known as _______. A. B. C. D. E. shaping observational learning punishment discrimination generalization
  33. 33. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment? A. B. C. D. Spanking a child Giving a rat a food pellet Removing shock Removing food
  34. 34. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment? A. B. C. D. Spanking a child Giving a rat a food pellet Removing shock Removing food
  35. 35. Which of the following best characterizes operant learning? A. B. C. D. The organism learns an association between a stimulus and a response. The organism learns an association between a behavior and a reward. The organism learns an association between a behavior and a punishment The organism learns an association between a behavior and a consequence E. None of the above
  36. 36. Which of the following best characterizes operant learning? A. B. C. D. The organism learns an association between a stimulus and a response. The organism learns an association between a behavior and a reward. The organism learns an association between a behavior and a punishment The organism learns an association between a behavior and a consequence E. None of the above
  37. 37. Which reinforcement schedule involves being reinforced after a random time period? A. B. C. D. Variable ratio Fixed interval Fixed ratio Variable interval
  38. 38. Which reinforcement schedule involves being reinforced after a random time period? A. B. C. D. Variable ratio Fixed interval Fixed ratio Variable interval
  39. 39. Which statement is true concerning operant conditioning? A. It is more difficult to learn fixed schedules than variable. B. Responses are higher for ratio schedules than interval. C. Partial reinforcement does not result in significant learning. D. Responses are higher for fixed schedules than variable.
  40. 40. Which statement is true concerning operant conditioning? A. It is more difficult to learn fixed schedules than variable. B. Responses are higher for ratio schedules than interval. C. Partial reinforcement does not result in significant learning. D. Responses are higher for fixed schedules than variable.
  41. 41. In Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, children who saw an adult behave aggressively toward a doll: A. Were less aggressive toward the doll than children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll B. Were more aggressive toward the doll than children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll C. Behaved similarly toward the doll as children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll
  42. 42. In Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, children who saw an adult behave aggressively toward a doll: A. Were less aggressive toward the doll than children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll B. Were more aggressive toward the doll than children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll C. Behaved similarly toward the doll as children who did not see an adult behave aggressively toward the doll
  43. 43. Mineka studied the fear responses of wild and laboratory-raised rhesus monkeys to snakes. What was the primary finding? A. B. C. D. All monkeys have an innate fear of snakes. Fear of snakes is learned through conditioning. Fear of snakes can be acquired by observing others. Through extinction of conditioned responses, the monkeys overcame their innate fear of snakes.
  44. 44. Mineka studied the fear responses of wild and laboratory-raised rhesus monkeys to snakes. What was the primary finding? A. B. C. D. All monkeys have an innate fear of snakes. Fear of snakes is learned through conditioning. Fear of snakes can be acquired by observing others. Through extinction of conditioned responses, the monkeys overcame their innate fear of snakes.
  45. 45. Which neurotransmitter is believed to play a key role in the reward system in the brain? A. B. C. D. E. Acetylcholine Serotonin Norepinephrine GABA Dopamine
  46. 46. Which neurotransmitter is believed to play a key role in the reward system in the brain? A. B. C. D. E. Acetylcholine Serotonin Norepinephrine GABA Dopamine
  47. 47. __________ occurs when a person’s response increases after exposure to a stimulus. A. B. C. D. Sensitization Habituation Acquisition Spontaneous recovery
  48. 48. __________ occurs when a person’s response increases after exposure to a stimulus. A. B. C. D. Sensitization Habituation Acquisition Spontaneous recovery
  49. 49. As you are sitting in a classroom, your neighbor starts clicking his pen, opening and closing it repeatedly. Initially you find it very annoying, but after a while, you realize that you don’t “hear” it anymore. You have experienced_________. A. B. C. D. sense activation sensitization desensitization habituation
  50. 50. As you are sitting in a classroom, your neighbor starts clicking his pen, opening and closing it repeatedly. Initially you find it very annoying, but after a while, you realize that you don’t “hear” it anymore. You have experienced_________. A. B. C. D. sense activation sensitization desensitization habituation

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