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FLA Presentation ACRL Framework

  1. Inspiring Instruction in Academic Libraries Library Instruction with the ACRL Frames Diane Fulkerson University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee Florida Library Association Annual Meeting May 14, 2015
  2. Pre-Test
  3. 1. A Threshold Concept is... A. New way to solve problems B. An easily grasped lesson for one-shots C. A problem encountered by newlyweds D. Theoretical approach to learning focusing on the transformative, educationally critical content of a discipline
  4. 2. When asked to teach a library instruction session to first-year students, I usually... A. Prepare a presentation to highlight a few databases B. Attempt to cover everything requested by the instructor C. Focus on one or two key concepts and have them work on an exercise D. Call in sick and have a colleague teach the session
  5. 3. When discussing new ideas about library instruction with colleagues at work they.... A. support new ideas and will try them B. have a mixture of resistance to change and willing to try something new C. do not want any changes D. ignore me and hope I won’t mention it again
  6. 4.When I define “information literacy” for non-librarian colleagues I... A. tell them it is librarian terminology for research skills B. give them a copy of the ACRL standards C. tell them it is a librarian thing D. change the subject
  7. The New ACRL Framework Do We Need to Use the Frames?
  8. An Ongoing Conversation ● Threshold Concept Theory ● Teaching with the Frames ● Assessing Instruction
  9. What is a Threshold Concept “A threshold concept can be considered as akin to a portal, opening up a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about something.” --Meyer & Land
  10. Threshold Concepts Are... Transformative--cause a shift in perspective Irreversible--once learned cannot be unlearned Integrative--unifies facts/lessons/concepts Bounded--defines the boundaries of a particular discipline Troublesome--counter-intuitive
  11. One-Shot Classes
  12. Things to Consider The ACRL Standards had ● 5 Standards ● 22 Performance Indicators ● Over 90 Learning Outcomes Teaching Overload Commonalities between Standards and Frames
  13. New Opportunities Less is more More flexibility Move away from skills Knowledge based learning/discovery Assignment-focused one-shots Explore your options
  14. Instructional Design Understanding by Design--Wiggins and McTighe Develop “essential questions” and “understandings” Understandings=Learning Outcomes Use Frames to create “essential questions” Interactive learning Predictable misunderstandings
  15. Identifying Essential Questions Align with course assignment Use the opening statements of each Frame Identify key concepts of each Frame Use Knowledge Practices & Dispositions Plan an activity around predictable misunderstandings
  16. Understandings/Learning Outcomes Important inference--specific and useful generalization Transferable big ideas--enduring value Abstract, counterintuitive, easily misunderstood Developed by “uncovering”and “doing”--realistic Summarizes important strategic principles in skill areas
  17. Clarifying Content
  18. Assessment Two questions to ask when developing assessment: ● How will you know students achieved the outcome? ● How will students demonstrate they’ve achieved it?
  19. Performance Assessments Research log Reflective writing Self or Peer evaluations Open-ended questions Worksheets Concept maps
  20. Examples Using the Frames in One-shot Classes
  21. Authority is Constructed and Contextual ● Big Questions o What makes someone an authority on a topic? o What are some indicators of authority? o How does bias privilege some sources over others? ● Understandings/Learning Outcomes o Evaluate a source in order to determine if it meets their information need o Define or identify different types of authority o Identify ways authority can limit diverse ideas ● Instruction Activities ○ Provide student with three different sources on the same topic and ask them to explain why the articles are authoritative ○ Ask students evaluate/analyze social media posts for a current event and determine why the post is or is not credible ○ Ask students to find movie reviews from different sources and identify biases, authority, and format
  22. Information Creation as a Process ● Big Questions o Does the format indicate credibility and/or quality? o How does one match information need with the information creation process? ● Understandings/Learning Outcomes o Distinguish between different formats and their limitations o Identify how the creation process impacts the way the information will be used ● Instruction Activities o Use a Wikipedia article to discuss how information is created o Provide sources in different formats--students will try to determine if they are primary, secondary, or tertiary
  23. Information has Value ● Big Questions o How can powerful interests use the value of information to marginalize certain interests? o What is the impact of open access publications on the value of information? o Why is it important to cite sources in research? ● Understandings/Learning Outcomes o Explain the value/importance of citing sources o Identify why some groups are marginalized through the production and dissemination of information o Determine how the personal information shared online has value ● Instruction Activities ○ Use the recent court case between the estate of Marvin Gaye and Robin Thicke and have students discuss/explain issues of copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property. ○ Have students demonstrate how their online information has value to others ○ Identify issues that impact access to information
  24. Research as Inquiry ● Big Questions o In what ways is research an iterative process? o How does the research need determine the questions to be answered? o How can information gaps be found through the research process? ● Understandings/Learning Outcomes o Students will develop research questions based on information need o Use research questions to identify key concepts to create a search strategy o Apply various research methods based on need and type of inquiry ● Instruction Activities o Use mind mapping software such as Coogle to identify search terms o Ask them to list the type of information and where they would find it to purchase an item such as a car
  25. Scholarship as Conversation ● Big Questions o How does someone become part of the scholarly conversation? o Why is it important to find more than one perspective about a topic? o How do authority structures limit the ability to enter into the scholarly conversation? ● Understanding/Learning Outcomes o Citing sources in the creation of information o Become a contributor at the appropriate level o Identify the contribution of scholarly materials to disciplinary knowledge ● Instruction Activities o Provide reference page from an article and ask students to find one of the articles listed using the citations provided o Divide students into group and have them search for different types of information then teach other how to find information o Peer review of their evaluation of a scholarly article
  26. Searching as Strategic Exploration ● Big Questions o What role does serendipity play in the search process? o How does the research need determine the type of search strategy to use? o Why is it necessary to search a variety of sources to find the needed information? ● Understandings/Learning Outcomes o Use brainstorming and other techniques when searching o Match information need with search strategy. o Use previous search results to expand or refine search strategies ● Instruction Activities o Concept Maps o Use bibliography to find another source o Jigsaw method to develop a search strategy o Identify the types of sources needed
  27. Post-Test When a colleague asks me about information literacy and threshold concepts I will tell them….
  28. Sources ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education Cowan, S.M. (2014) “Information Literacy: The Battle We Won That We Lost? portal: Libraries and the Academy, 14(1), 23-32 Fister, B. (2015) A Bit of a Tall Order. Retrieved from: Fister, B. (2015) Standards, Frameworks, and the Work We Need To Do. Retrieved from: Hofer, A., Brunetti, K. & Townsend, L. (2013) A Thresholds Concepts Approach To The Standards Revision. Communications in Information Literacy, 7(2) 108-113 Knapp, M. & Brower, S. (2014) The ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education: Implications for Health Sciences Librarianship. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 33(4) 460-468. Launius, C. & Hassel, H. (2015) Threshold Concepts in Women’s and Gender Studies: Ways of Seeing, Thinking, and Knowing. New York, NY: Routledge Meyer, J. & Land, R. (2003) Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising within the Disciplines. Enhancing Teaching-Learning Environments in Undergraduate Courses Project, Occasional Report 4. Retrieved from: Oakleaf, M.(2014) A Roadmap for Assessing Student Learning Using the New Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 40(5) 510-514.
  29. Sources Swanson, T. (2004) A Radical Step: Implementing A Critical Information Literacy Model. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 4(2) 259- 273. DOI: 10.1353/pla.2004.0038 Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005) Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ACSD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum) ACRL Crossing the Threshold Workshop Outcomes Nicole Pagowsky’s Outcomes Threshold Concepts & Information Literacy Black, B. & Diaz, K. (2015) The Problem with teaching “the Library” to First Years and How Metacognition Can Help. Retrieved from: USC Libraries Information Literacy Outcomes for Undergraduates ACRL Framework List
  30. Questions/Contact Information Diane Fulkerson Questions/Comments/Concerns

Editor's Notes

  1. Let’s start with a short pre-test. Something we might do with our students at the start of an instruction session.
  2. The answer is D.
  3. Answer is C
  4. Karen Williams, ACRL President, stated, “The Board...took the official action of ‘filing’ the Framework document in order to foster its flexibility and potential. This positive action allows the Framework to move forward as a dynamic, living document that can be changed in the future without needing a vote and full Board approval. In plain English, this means that we have accepted the Framework and it will assume its place among the constellation of documents used by information literacy practitioners.
  5. In April, Barbara Fister, Library Instruction Coordinator, at Gustavus Adolphus has written two blog posts. One published on Inside Higher Ed while attending the LILAC Conference noted “we don’t teach this stuff.” We don’t. It’s something students must learn through experience. What we do bring to the table is a conviction that it’s important and some help as students gain experience….it’s learning that will be valuable for the rest of their lives. In a column published through Library Journal’s Academic Newswire Peer-to-Peer column she stated, “My belief is that librarians don’t teach students how to be information literate….It has to be learned in multiple contexts, because information always comes in contexts that matter. We’re the guardians of an intellectual common ground where all disciplines come together. National standards and Frameworks help, but the real work happens at home, over and over again, as we collaborate with faculty across the disciplines to make the library a valuable site for experiential learning that sticks. Kevin Smith, Director, Copyright and Scholarly Communication, at Duke University in the May 5th Peer-to-Peer Review column wrote, “The framework is based on six “frames” or threshold concepts, and those frames not only invite discussion about the broader context of scholarly communications, they demand it.”
  6. The portal analogy reminds us that as instructors we can help students get through the portal or threshold and move them beyond the place where they are stuck. It is where the student has the “aha” moment and masters the idea.
  7. These are the five basic components of a threshold concept.
  8. The Frames can be used for one-shot classes. Using the Frames for one-shots provides us with the opportunity to move away from skills based classes to knowledge/discovery based classes and focus on more assignment or course relevant instruction.
  9. There is a noticeable difference between the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education and the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. One primary difference is the lack of learning outcomes. The knowledge practices provided are not exhaustive which allows instruction librarians to develop knowledge practices that work for their students and course assignments. Trying to incorporate as many of the performance indicators or use the many learning outcomes could be overwhelming. It would be difficult in a credit bearing research class to meet all of the performance indicators or learning outcomes. There are some commonalities between the Standards and the Framework. Amanda Hovious put together an alignment chart in January which she shared on the COLLIB-L list. I have a copy which I am passing around the room. If anyone would like the link to the document let me know and I will share it with you.
  10. Because the Framework does not have all the learning outcomes and performance indicators provides us with the opportunity to have more flexibility to design our instruction sessions. We no longer have to focus on a discrete set of skills to teach students. Please let me say that some teaching of skills will always be part of library instruction but they do not have to be the only thing we focus on when working with students. The Framework allows us to include more knowledge based learning and discovery by students. It allows us to design instruction sessions that are relevant to their class assignments. More importantly it is an opportunity to increase our collaboration with faculty to design the instruction session. So how will you design the instruction session?
  11. Is anyone familiar with Understanding by Design or used it to create an instruction session? Understanding by Design is also known as backward design because you start with what you want your students to learn and design your instruction around that understanding. The first step is to create essential questions. An essential question is one that leads to a deeper understanding of the topic and also more questions. Once you identify the essential questions you need to determine just what you want your students to understand. Understandings are the equivalent of learning outcomes. In order to understand is the same as the in order to when creating learning outcomes. The essential questions and understandings lead to the assessment and learning activities. Understanding by Design is interactive learning but it also allows you to incorporate predictable misunderstandings which are the pre-conceived ideas students have about a topic or subject.
  12. Use the course assignment as the basis for designing your instruction session. I also know we often do not receive a course assignment or faculty want us to cover a list of skills they want their students to master but if possible focus on the assignment. To develop one-shot classes with the Frames using Understanding by Design the first step is to use the opening statements that highlight key concepts of the Frame. This becomes the basis for creating essential questions. Once you identify the key concepts of each Frame develop understandings based on your essential questions. The knowledge practices can also help with the creation of learning outcomes, assessments or learning activities for the class. If possible incorporate predictable misunderstandings into your instruction.
  13. These are the five things you should consider when creating understandings for your instruction session.
  14. The large outer ring are things that are nice to know but not crucial for instruction. The middle ring are things that have a direct application for instruction but are not the main focus of the assignment or project. They can be self-directed or are outside the scope of library instruction. The smaller inner ring indicates ideas or tasks that are the most important outcomes or concepts and are amenable to active learning. They are addressed in class through active learning and classroom assessment. The three rings can help us prioritize content for our instruction sessions.
  15. When designing assessment for your instruction session these are the two key questions to keep in mind. They will help you align your assessment for the instruction session.