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AMPUTATIONS IN DIABETICAMPUTATIONS IN DIABETIC
FOOTFOOT
PROF. RAMA KANT
KING GEORGE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
LUCKNOW
ramakantkgmc@rediffmail.com
• Diabetes mellitus increases risk of
amputation by 20-fold.
• Declining rate of foot amputations
parallels decrease in ho...
Do we waste time trying to saveDo we waste time trying to save
some feet ?????some feet ?????
Should we be aiming for loca...
These are real
challenges for
decision……
CHANGE YOUR PERCEPTION
STILL THERE IS HOPE…………
CHANGE YOUR PERCEPTION
STILL THERE IS HOPE…………
Health-economic consequences ofHealth-economic consequences of
diabetic foot infectionsdiabetic foot infections
• Result i...
Often a successful outcome is followed by a rapid
recurrence necessitating further hospitalisation.
Clinicians should alwa...
The aim of any treatment
is to deliver a fully mobile
patient back into the
community.
Levels of lower extremity amputations
MAJOR AMPUTATION-MAJOR AMPUTATION-
• Advantages
• No more surgery
• Shorter hospital stay
• Disadvantages
• Major procedur...
FOOT—REVISION-BELOW
KNEE---REVISION—ABOVE
KNEE---STILL NEEDS REVISION
NOW HEALED ABOVE KNEE
AMPUTATION
Indications for primary BKAIndications for primary BKA
instead of local amputationinstead of local amputation
Previous ext...
• We should aim to minimise
the time spent in hospital as
these patients are often
towards the end of their
lives…….
Approximately 50% of
patients ended up with a
BKA
a very high proportion
indeed…..
• Major amputation should
be considered as an
option for every patient
with diabetic foot disease.
EFFORTS TO RESTORE
THIS FOOT TO NORMAL
MOST PROBABLY WILL
FAIL……
HE MAY BE BETTER
OFF WITH
AMPUTAION AND
PROSTHESIS
50% of lower extremity amputations performed in50% of lower extremity amputations performed in
the United States are due t...
Number of operations
• Diabetes
• Toe BKA AKA
• 282 (67%) 110 (49%) 39 (18%)
MINOR AMPUTATIONMINOR AMPUTATION
Advantages
• Limb preserved
• Reduced anaesthetic risk
• Independence preserved
Disadvantages
• Prolonged healing time
• P...
• Decisive factors in type of
treatment provided to
patients..
• They must participate
CENTRAL PLANTAR ABSCESS WITH
OSTEOMYELITIS
TOE AMPUTATION
WRONG DECISION FOR LEVEL OF
AMPUTATION
BILATERAL DEFORMED BUT
WALKABLE FOOT
FUNCTIONAL
BUT DEFORMED
FOOT
EVEN THIS IS
MUCH BETTER
THAN THE BEST
PROSTHESIS…
….This is also a
view
• Patient choice
• Patients should always be offered three
choices:
• No treatment
• Continued conservative management
inv...
Age
• Younger people adapt very well to BKA,
but are likely to have better circulation and
heal local amputations.
• Howev...
State of circulationState of circulation
For local amputation in the foot to
heal, the circulation must be
adequate. In pr...
Some patients may have been treated
for months in hospital clinics without
success.
In patient with neuropathic foot even
...
Algorithm for management of
Patients
38% of patients have a foot
which is not salvageable and
these patients should have a...
• Circulation normal, foot is
salvageable, and patient is
young, then local
amputation is an option.
• However, 19% will f...
• What is life expectancy ?
• Previous treatment they have had
• Morphology of foot
• Circulation of foot.
• Mobility of p...
Transmetatarsal AmputationTransmetatarsal Amputation
(TMA)(TMA)
• Gangrene must be limited to the toes and
should not invo...
Other Foot AmputationsOther Foot Amputations
• Lisfranc amputation at the tarso-metatarsal
junction
• Chopart amputation i...
Syme's AmputationSyme's Amputation
• Indications: Trauma above the foot,
congenital anomalies, tumors, and
deformities tha...
Pros: Functionally, this procedure represents an
excellent level of amputation because:
It maintains the length of the lim...
Trans-metatarsal amputation ready for a split-
thickness skin graft.
Transmetatarsal
amputation with
a skin graft.
Trans-
metatarsal
amputation
with a plantar
flap.
Primary
closure by the
plantar flap
ideal due to
vast arterial
supply fr...
MODIFIED SHOES AND AIDS
FOR WALKING AND OFF
LOADING…KEY TO
SUCCESS
Partial Foot AmputationsPartial Foot Amputations
• Small-toe amputations do not affect ambulation
• Usually require no rep...
Partial foot amputations involving the forefoot,
such as ray resections and trans-metatarsal
amputations, generally requir...
Transtarsal amputationsTranstarsal amputations
As Chopart, Lisfranc, and Boyd will have
better functional results if there...
It should not be too difficult to
determine break points at which
effectiveness of treatment is
cost effective, or even co...
Conclusions
Major amputation should be
considered as an option for
every patient with diabetic
foot disease.
THANKS
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas
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1362576829 preventing major amputation african experience dr z g abbas

  1. 1. AMPUTATIONS IN DIABETICAMPUTATIONS IN DIABETIC FOOTFOOT
  2. 2. PROF. RAMA KANT KING GEORGE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW ramakantkgmc@rediffmail.com
  3. 3. • Diabetes mellitus increases risk of amputation by 20-fold. • Declining rate of foot amputations parallels decrease in hospitalizations for skin and soft tissue infections. • This reflects better and effective outpatient care for diabetic foot ulcers and infections.
  4. 4. Do we waste time trying to saveDo we waste time trying to save some feet ?????some feet ????? Should we be aiming for local minimal surgery at all costs, or is there a case for primary radical amputation? Technological advances and improvements in local treatments for diabetic foot disease place clinicians under ever increasing pressure to preserve the foot (Watkins PJ, 2003; Smith J, 2003).
  5. 5. These are real challenges for decision……
  6. 6. CHANGE YOUR PERCEPTION STILL THERE IS HOPE………… CHANGE YOUR PERCEPTION STILL THERE IS HOPE…………
  7. 7. Health-economic consequences ofHealth-economic consequences of diabetic foot infectionsdiabetic foot infections • Result in huge costs for society and individual. • Costs of antibiotics also substantial… .. • Total costs for topical treatment high . • Total costs for healing of infected ulcers not requiring amputation - $17,500 • Costs for lower-extremity amputations are above $30,000
  8. 8. Often a successful outcome is followed by a rapid recurrence necessitating further hospitalisation. Clinicians should always consider whether the best interests of the patient might be served by primary amputation or often prolonged, expensive and failure bound local aggressive surgical traetment ????
  9. 9. The aim of any treatment is to deliver a fully mobile patient back into the community.
  10. 10. Levels of lower extremity amputations
  11. 11. MAJOR AMPUTATION-MAJOR AMPUTATION- • Advantages • No more surgery • Shorter hospital stay • Disadvantages • Major procedure and risk • Difficult & expensive rehabilitation • Independence threatened
  12. 12. FOOT—REVISION-BELOW KNEE---REVISION—ABOVE KNEE---STILL NEEDS REVISION
  13. 13. NOW HEALED ABOVE KNEE AMPUTATION
  14. 14. Indications for primary BKAIndications for primary BKA instead of local amputationinstead of local amputation Previous extensive hospitalisation Limited life expectancy Patient choice Age State of circulation Effect of failed distal bypass Failed conservative management.
  15. 15. • We should aim to minimise the time spent in hospital as these patients are often towards the end of their lives…….
  16. 16. Approximately 50% of patients ended up with a BKA a very high proportion indeed…..
  17. 17. • Major amputation should be considered as an option for every patient with diabetic foot disease.
  18. 18. EFFORTS TO RESTORE THIS FOOT TO NORMAL MOST PROBABLY WILL FAIL…… HE MAY BE BETTER OFF WITH AMPUTAION AND PROSTHESIS
  19. 19. 50% of lower extremity amputations performed in50% of lower extremity amputations performed in the United States are due to diabetes.the United States are due to diabetes. 9% foot,9% foot, 31% lower leg,31% lower leg, 30% above knee.30% above knee. Ipsilateral higher amputations occur in 22% ofIpsilateral higher amputations occur in 22% of cases.cases. Contralateral amputations 10% per year.Contralateral amputations 10% per year. After 5 years, amputees with diabetes have aAfter 5 years, amputees with diabetes have a 50% chance of bilateral amputation,50% chance of bilateral amputation,
  20. 20. Number of operations • Diabetes • Toe BKA AKA • 282 (67%) 110 (49%) 39 (18%)
  21. 21. MINOR AMPUTATIONMINOR AMPUTATION
  22. 22. Advantages • Limb preserved • Reduced anaesthetic risk • Independence preserved Disadvantages • Prolonged healing time • Prolonged hospitalisation • Prolonged re-mobilisation • Risk of failure of healing • Risk of further treatment
  23. 23. • Decisive factors in type of treatment provided to patients.. • They must participate
  24. 24. CENTRAL PLANTAR ABSCESS WITH OSTEOMYELITIS
  25. 25. TOE AMPUTATION
  26. 26. WRONG DECISION FOR LEVEL OF AMPUTATION
  27. 27. BILATERAL DEFORMED BUT WALKABLE FOOT
  28. 28. FUNCTIONAL BUT DEFORMED FOOT EVEN THIS IS MUCH BETTER THAN THE BEST PROSTHESIS… ….This is also a view
  29. 29. • Patient choice • Patients should always be offered three choices: • No treatment • Continued conservative management involving minor amputation • Major amputation. • Surprisingly, patients often choose the major amputation route.
  30. 30. Age • Younger people adapt very well to BKA, but are likely to have better circulation and heal local amputations. • However, young people are young enough to return with further problems. • Elderly people are less likely to adapt well to major amputation, but are also less likely to have good circulation and the ability to heal locally within the foot.
  31. 31. State of circulationState of circulation For local amputation in the foot to heal, the circulation must be adequate. In practice, this means at least one patent artery to ankle level.
  32. 32. Some patients may have been treated for months in hospital clinics without success. In patient with neuropathic foot even if healing is eventually achieved, there is a very high risk of new ulceration despite very careful attention to footwear Failed conservative treatment
  33. 33. Algorithm for management of Patients 38% of patients have a foot which is not salvageable and these patients should have a major amputation from the outset.
  34. 34. • Circulation normal, foot is salvageable, and patient is young, then local amputation is an option. • However, 19% will fail their local amputation and require major amputation.
  35. 35. • What is life expectancy ? • Previous treatment they have had • Morphology of foot • Circulation of foot. • Mobility of patient • Whether patient has a job and what it is ? • What is the family situation ?
  36. 36. Transmetatarsal AmputationTransmetatarsal Amputation (TMA)(TMA) • Gangrene must be limited to the toes and should not involve the web space. Infection should be controlled. • Preserves the attachment of the dorsiflexors and plantar flexors and their function. • These amputations can be fitted with sole stiffeners and toe fillers with minor apparent loss of function during stance and walking on level surfaces.
  37. 37. Other Foot AmputationsOther Foot Amputations • Lisfranc amputation at the tarso-metatarsal junction • Chopart amputation is a midtarsal, talo- navicular, calcaneo-cuboid amputation. Only talus and calcaneus bones remain • Pirogoff is a vertical calcaneal amputation (in this amputation, the lower articular surfaces of the tibia/fibula are sawn through) • Boyd is a horizontal calcaneal amputation (all tarsals removed except calcaneus/talus)
  38. 38. Syme's AmputationSyme's Amputation • Indications: Trauma above the foot, congenital anomalies, tumors, and deformities that necessitate amputation. • Disadvantages: healthy plantar heel skin is necessary for weight bearing in this area. The patient also must have good perfusion in this area, thus making it a difficult procedure for the dysvascular patient.
  39. 39. Pros: Functionally, this procedure represents an excellent level of amputation because: It maintains the length of the limb preservation of the heel pad, excellent weight-bearing stump Immediate fitting of prosthesis is possible with excellent results Stump weight bearing is possible almost immediately after the procedure (~ within 24 hrs) Cons: cosmesis (bulbous, bulky residual limb); fitting for a prosthesis may be more difficult than for other amputation levels.
  40. 40. Trans-metatarsal amputation ready for a split- thickness skin graft.
  41. 41. Transmetatarsal amputation with a skin graft.
  42. 42. Trans- metatarsal amputation with a plantar flap. Primary closure by the plantar flap ideal due to vast arterial supply from the plantar artery.
  43. 43. MODIFIED SHOES AND AIDS FOR WALKING AND OFF LOADING…KEY TO SUCCESS
  44. 44. Partial Foot AmputationsPartial Foot Amputations • Small-toe amputations do not affect ambulation • Usually require no replacement • Partial foot prostheses are used to restore foot function • Amputation of the great toe reduces push-off force, thus requiring a resilient toe filler and also a molded insole with arch support to maintain the alignment of the amputated foot.
  45. 45. Partial foot amputations involving the forefoot, such as ray resections and trans-metatarsal amputations, generally require only shoe fillers or shoe modifications. Will require stiff sole, the addition of a spring steel shank extending to the metatarsal heads, a rocker sole and/or padding of the tongue of the shoe to help hold the hind foot firmly in the shoe.
  46. 46. Transtarsal amputationsTranstarsal amputations As Chopart, Lisfranc, and Boyd will have better functional results if there is an active balanced dorsiflexion and plantar flexion with normal skin and heel pad present. • The best prosthetic option for a hind foot amputation - use of a custom prosthetic foot with a self-suspending split socket
  47. 47. It should not be too difficult to determine break points at which effectiveness of treatment is cost effective, or even cost saving.
  48. 48. Conclusions Major amputation should be considered as an option for every patient with diabetic foot disease.
  49. 49. THANKS

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