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1362395309 diabetesand footcare


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diabetesand footcare

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1362395309 diabetesand footcare

  1. 1. DiabetesDiabetes andand FootCareFootCare
  2. 2. What is Diabetes?  Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much sugar (glucose) in the blood. Although sugar is needed to provide energy for the body, when in excess, it causes problem.  Persons with diabetes have excess sugar because they lack or have deficient supply of insulin.
  3. 3. Diabetes “Mild Disease” Serious consequences
  4. 4. Diabetes Mellitus A Serious Disease Leading cause of new cases of blindness 25 times more prone to eye problems 6 times higher risk for Paralysis (stroke) 5 times more prone to Kidney failure 20 times more prone to lower limb amputation Nerve damage causes loss of sensation 2-3 times higher risk for heart attack
  5. 5. Diabetes and Feet Why people with diabetes require good care of their feet? There are several reasons Loss of sensation with increased risk of injury Poor circulation causing delayed healing Higher likelihood of developing infections that go unnoticed and spread widely leading to gangrene  Diabetes foot ulcers are the most common cause for prolonged hospitalizations  Diabetes is the most important cause of non traumatic foot amputations
  6. 6.  Learn to take good care of your feet  Practice what you learn every day  Foot problems must be detected and treated properly  Take help of a Foot Care specialist or your Diabetes Care Team Prevention Is Better Than Cure
  7. 7. Daily Foot Care  You can prevent major foot problems, if you Learn to recognize signs of early foot problems Inspect your feet daily Keep your feet clean and dry Trim your toenails carefully Protect you feet with appropriate footwear Have your doctor or nurse examine your feet regularly (especially if you have any loss of sensation in your feet or toes or have a poor eyesight)
  8. 8. Recognize the Symptoms of Foot Problems  Pay attention to peculiar sensations such as Tingling, like a feeling of “ants crawling” or “pins and needles” Numbness and heaviness “feeling of walking on cotton”, or feeling of “wearing tight socks” even when the feet are bare Reduced ability to sense heat and cold Stabbing or burning pain A persistent “restlessness” in the feet and legs (These are tell tale signs of impending serious foot problems)
  9. 9. Inspect Your Feet Daily  Examine feet in good light after bath Check for in-grown nails, corns and calluses, swelling of the leg and feet, dry skin or areas that are irritated. Check to see that the nails are well trimmed. Use a mirror to see the bottom of the feet. Look and feel carefully for possible injuries, for breaks in the skin, cuts, scratches, bruises, blisters, sores, and discolouration especially between the toes. Using Mirror
  10. 10.  Learn to recognize the early signs of Infection Unusual warmth over the injured area Redness Swelling Pain (if you still have good sensation) Drainage of pus from an opening in the skin (If you find any of these immediately take Doctor’s advice or ask your Diabetes Care team) Fungal infection between the toesBlister on the foot Inspect Your Feet Daily
  11. 11. Keep your feet clean and dry  Wash feet daily as you wash your hands, using soap and lukewarm water  Dry feet carefully with a soft towel after bathing, especially between the toes where moisture can lead to a fungal infection  Apply a moisturising cream to keep skin over the feet smooth and soft
  12. 12. Take Care of Your Toenails  Helps avoid ingrown toenails, which lead to infection  Trim and cut toenails with a nail cutter after a bath, when soft and pliable  Cut your toenails straight across the top and not too far back on the sides  Do not use a sharp instrument to clean under the nail, or in the grooves  If your toe nails are too thick to cut, you can have them cut by the foot specialist in your Diabetes Care team
  13. 13. Protect Your Feet With Appropriate Footwear Many foot problems can be avoided if you are careful to protect your feet at all times  Don’t walk barefoot even at home especially when there is loss of sensation  Choose proper footwear of the correct shape and size Always shop for shoes in the evening when the feet are the largest Check the size of the shoes wearing the thickest socks Choose cotton or woolen socks Socks should be free of wrinkles and holes, elastic should not be tight
  14. 14. Proper Footwear  Shoe should be comfortable and should fit well  Never wear Shoes which are too short or too narrow  Rounded toes give more space to the feet  Always choose flat shoes with thick, sturdy soles to protect the feet from sharp objects
  15. 15. Proper Footwear  Leather shoes let the foot breathe freely  Do not wear chappals without back support especially when there is loss of sensation  When buying a pair of shoe, take in to account any bunions or other irregularities. These will require wider and deeper shoe to avoid pressure points
  16. 16. Proper Footwear Ill-fitting shoes  Take a paper cut of the foot shape  Place the paper inside the shoe  Paper must fit without folds
  17. 17. Pressure Sores or Ulcers  It starts with a callus, which is a sign of continuous pressure or friction on a particular part of feet  It is always advisable to treat the callus before an ulcer occurs. See your Doctor or Diabetes Care Team immediately  If not treated properly, such ulcers can lead to serious foot problems like gangrene  Gangrene often leads to the removal of a toe or foot (Amputation)
  18. 18. Red marks on the foot Inflammed toe Black discoloration Early sign of gangrene Ulcer Cramped toes Callus Blister Ingrown toenails Feet At High Risk
  19. 19. Cuts and Injuries  Keep the affected area or injury clean and apply a sterile bandage  If you have decreased sensation in your feet, you have to be more careful to avoid injuries such as minor accidents, burns etc  In absence of pain (alarm system), these minor injuries may become serious and can lead to amputation or removal of that part of the foot
  20. 20. Blisters and Cracks  Never squeeze or puncture a blister  Proper dressing and careful inspection is most important  If the blisters appears to contain blood or becomes inflamed see your doctor or Diabetes care team  Cracks are difficult to heal and infections occur easily  Daily use of foot cream to soften the skin as well as a shock absorbing insole is recommended
  21. 21.  Often caused by improper nail trimming or poorly fitted shoes  The problem can be solved by correcting the footwear. Ask you Diabetes Care Team for assistance  As with all foot problems, prevention is the best cure for ingrown nails Ingrown Nails
  22. 22. Corns and Calluses  Usually Corns and calluses result from poorly fitted footwear that puts pressure on a certain area of the foot  A deep ulcer or crack can result if the callus is left untreated  Do not apply corn caps or self treat  Consult your doctor or Diabetes Care Team for further treatment of corns and calluses
  23. 23. Callused skin Bunion Corn Foot At High Risk
  24. 24. Nerve Problems Lead to Foot Deformity  Nerve damage in your feet may lead to loss of sensations and muscle weakness  It affects the way you walk, and increases pressure on certain parts of the feet leading to fractures and bony deformities that occur without any apparent accident or reason  It decreases your ability to sweat and impairs blood flow to your feet
  25. 25. Who Is at Risk of Foot Ulcers?  Some People with Diabetes have a greater risk of developing foot ulcers than others  The factors which may play a role are: Long standing poorly controlled diabetes Loss of sensation in the feet Poor blood circulation Bunions or other foot deformities Impaired Vision Smokers
  26. 26. Poor Vision  Poor vision puts your feet at risk, because you may not be able to see the minor sores and other foot problems at the bottom of the feet  Ask your diabetes care team for complete inspection of the feet Smoking  Do not smoke as nicotine causes blood vessels to shrink and slows down the blood flow to the foot  Impaired blood circulation can increase the foot problems
  27. 27. Examination of Your Feet  Insist that your doctor examines your feet from time to time to Assess the general condition of your skin and nails Check for signs of poor circulation - Cold extremities, absent or weak pulsations Check for signs of decreased sensation Look for the deformities such as bunions Note any pressure points that lead to calluses Check for signs of infection, injury and ulcers Watch the way you walk and note any changes
  28. 28.  Insist that your doctor examines your feet from time to time to Test for the loss of protective sensation Check your ability to feel vibration Test light touch with a monofilament Check for impaired blood circulation Check for foot pulses Test toe blood pressure Perform an angiogram of arteries if needed Examination of Your Feet
  29. 29. Blood Sugar Control  Poor blood sugar control is a risk factor for the development of foot ulcers  Good control can prevent the development and progression of nerve problems (loss of sensations)  Good control ensures continued good blood supply  Good control prevents minor injuries getting infected  The better your blood sugar control, the better your body can take care for itself. Take Insulin, if advised
  30. 30. Conclusion Achieve good blood sugar control - save your feet. Take Insulin, if advised.