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Social Media and Emergency Management: Integrating SM


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Guest lecture on social media, crisis communication, and disaster management given at De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines in November 2011. Presented by David Merrick, Center for Disaster Risk Policy, Florida State University.

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Social Media and Emergency Management: Integrating SM

  1. 1. David F. MerrickCenter for Disaster Risk PolicyFlorida State UniversitySocial Media and Disaster Management: Communication Convergence Presented 11.2011 at DLSU Manila
  2. 2. Outline Stop me for questions at any point! Emergency and disaster management overview  Communication in the disaster cycle Social media overview Developing social media usage in government Social media and the four phases of EM Social media as a force multiplier 2 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  3. 3. Emergency Management Merrick - CDRP/FSU -Concepts & Background 11.2011
  4. 4. Emergency Management Also called disaster management and crisis management, though those have slightly different contexts. Emergency management is the discipline that focuses on…  The organized analysis, planning, decision making, and assignment of available resources to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of all hazards The goal of emergency management is to save lives, prevent injury, protect property and the environmentin the event an emergency occurs. 4 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  5. 5. The EM Cycle • Preparedness •Response •Recovery •Short term •Long term •Mitigation5 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  6. 6. Communication Through the CyclePhase Communication ExampleMitigation • Publicawareness and outreach • Policy development and rulemakingPreparedness • Watches and warnings (Alerts) • Preparedness planning / measuresResponse • Public safety and instructions • Community coordination and infoRecovery • Public assistance notices • Public awareness and outreach 6 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  7. 7. Social Media Concepts & Merrick - CDRP/FSU -Background 11.2011
  8. 8. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 has been a buzzword for several years (first coined in 2004), and has evolved to mean the interactive/collaborative internet and web space.  Blogs  RSS Feeds  Wikis  Etc. 8 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  9. 9. Tim Berners-Lee on Web 2.0“Web 1.0 was all about connecting people. It was an interactive space, and I think Web 2.0 is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along. And in fact, you know, this Web 2.0, it means using the standards which have been produced by all these people working on Web 1.0.” Berners-Lee Interview, 22nd August, 2006 9 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  10. 10. Evolution of the Collaborative WebThe Web 2.0 Transition…. World Wide Web pages transform to….Content management systems / dynamic contentPortalsPersonal blogsBlog communitiesTwitterFacebookFoursquare???? 10 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  11. 11. What is Social Media? Social Media is a set of technologies, concepts, and methods that allow for the creation of massive community based collaboration. The core principals of social media are:  Participation  Community  Transparency  Asynchronous  Persistence 11 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  12. 12. Evolution of the Collaborative WebThe Web 2.0 Transition…. World Wide Web pages transform to….Content management systems / dynamic contentPortalsPersonal blogsBlog communitiesTwitter Media SocialFacebookFoursquare???? 12 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  13. 13. Purpose of Social Network Sites According to Boyd and Ellison (2007), SNS are defined as web- based services that “allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with who they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.” Research suggests users utilize SNS in order to reinforce, articulate, and define existing social relations. They are not ‘networking’ to meet new people. Relationships between users are typically two-way (consensual between the two users). 13 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  14. 14. Social Networks as Information Channel Social Network Sites can serve as the Channel in the classic SMCR Model:Source  Message  Channel  Recipient This has led to SNS being leveraged as methods of communication and advertisement by organizations as well as tools for individuals to define social interaction. In this context, SNS relationships are one-way. (organization to individual). 14 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  15. 15. General Social Network Platforms Facebook  Over 500 Million users, over 50% log in every day.  70% of users are outside the U.S. Twitter  Over 150 million users  Mobile friendly, even without a ‘smartphone’. LinkedIn  Business and professional focus. Emphasis on professional networking and information exchange. Jaiku, Tumblr, MySpace, Orkut, Google Buzz, others. 15 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  16. 16. Communities of Practice Communities of practice (CoP’s) are groups of people linked by common interest. Examples include professional organizations, book clubs, parent organizations, class groups, etc. They can exist offline, but social network sites and social media leverage CoPs to a new level.  No longer constrained by geography or by time  Social media enhances communication and collaboration. 16 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  17. 17. Government Social Media andMerrick - CDRP/FSU -11.2011
  18. 18. What Social Media Tools Are Used inState Government? Facebook – 86% Twitter – 83% YouTube – 76% Flickr – 46% Blogs – 44% Linkedin – 20% 18 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  19. 19. Primary Reasons for State GovernmentUsage of Social Media? Citizen engagement – 98% Public information, outreach and awareness – 93% Open government – 67% Business engagement - 53% Government engagement – 44% Reduced need for resources / efficiency – 35% 19 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  20. 20. Biggest Concerns for Usage of SocialMedia by State Government Security – 58% Terms or service issues – 49% Records retention issues – 42% Privacy – 42% Employee use / misuse – 37% Lack of resources to monitor/control – 33% 20 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  21. 21. From Resistance to Integration In the 2010 NASCIO survey, only one state indicated they were not using any social media tools. More and more local, state, and federal agencies are utilizing social media and Web 2.0 technologies to some extent. Emergency management agencies and organizations are no exception, with usage ranging from the simple to complex How do we measure the effectiveness social media plans and practice? 21 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  22. 22. Levels of Social Media Usage in EM0. Resistance  No usage of SM tools, techniques or technologies  “We don’t have the time or expertise.”  “We already have a web page.” 22 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  23. 23. Levels of Social Media Usage in EM1. Promotion  Usage of limited SM platforms, such as Facebook or Twitter to send messages to users.  May be part of an alert or warning system  Used to drive traffic to organizational web sites or other material  Marked by ‘one-way’ traffic. 23 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  24. 24. Levels of Social Media Usage in EM2. Engagement  Expanding platforms and tools  Creating custom content tailored for multiple platforms and audiences  Engaged with the community, participating in conversations using SM platforms  Recognize the PIO’s role in maintaining a SM community presence in all phases of EM  Recognition of the fact that society/the public wants to be committed to disaster preparedness, response, and recovery 24 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  25. 25. Levels of Social Media Usage in EM2. EngagementSource  Message  Channel  Recipient Feedback 25 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  26. 26. Levels of Social Media Usage in EM3. Integrated  Content is created and tailored for multiple platforms, all supporting a central message theme  SM value is recognized and used beyond the PIO role  Utilizing crowdsourcing and/or other techniques to solicit information and data from the public  SM plays a role in operational situational awareness and decision making  Full integration of a committed public in disaster management 26 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  27. 27. Social Media in Risk Communication In the Engaged and Integrated stages, emergency managers should be utilizing SM as a part of a comprehensive risk and crisis communication strategy Education about risks and hazards Education about what actions the public can take to protect themselves from the hazard Train the public on what do do when told to evacuate, shelter in place, etc. Using social media to gather feedback on the effectiveness of the risk communication messages 27 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  28. 28. MitigationMerrick - CDRP/FSU -11.2011
  29. 29. Mitigation and Social Media Mitigation focuses on reducing the impact of disasters. Examples of mitigation actions include:  Improved building codes and zoning  Building retrofits and hardening  Resident relocation  Public outreach and education 29 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  30. 30. Mitigation Actions via Social MediaSM Usage Level SM Sample ActionsPromotion •Facebookposts linking to mitigation plansEngagement •Facebookposts to mitigation planning forums for community feedback • Polls to gather feedback on proposed rule changes • PIO contacting community leaders and involving them in SM conversationsIntegrated • Usage of Twitter and Foursquare to gather information about disaster prone geographies and populations • Mitigation planning teams using Twitter hashtags to start and follow mitigation conversations. • Community mitigation data collected via SM channels is utilized in comprehensive planning. 30 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  31. 31. PreparednessMerrick - CDRP/FSU -11.2011
  32. 32. Preparedness and Social Media Preparedness focuses on getting ready to deal with the impacts of disaster Examples of preparedness actions include:  Stockpiling supplies for use during and after a disaster  Evacuation planning  Warning/educating communities about hazards 32 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  33. 33. Preparedness Actions via Social MediaSM Usage Level SM Sample ActionsPromotion •Facebookposts linking to existing outreach plans/templates •Facebookor Twitter warning messagesEngagement • Social media risk communication campaigns • PIO engagement with local media and community leaders to educate / warn of hazardsIntegrated • Evacuationplanners using Twitter and Facebook to coordinate volunteers for evacuation and response. •YouTubebroadcasts discussing preparedness techniques and plans, cross linked across all SM channels 33 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  34. 34. ResponseMerrick - CDRP/FSU -11.2011
  35. 35. Response and Social Media Response entails actions to save lives and preserve property during and immediately after a disaster. Examples of response actions include:  Search and rescue  Fire fighting  Flood control measures  Traffic control  Security 35 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  36. 36. Response Actions via Social MediaSM Usage Level SM Sample ActionsPromotion •Facebookor Twitter warning messagesEngagement • PIO engagement with local media and community leaders to educate / warn of hazards • Disastersituation updates including maps and interactive mediaIntegrated • Using SM mobile tools to gather damage reports and calls for assistance. • Integrationof all SM collected data and streams in the EOC common operating picture • Utilizing crisis mapping and other tools to visualize citizen reports 36 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  37. 37. RecoveryMerrick - CDRP/FSU -11.2011
  38. 38. Recovery and Social Media Recovery focuses on returning society to normal after a disaster Examples of recovery actions include:  Debris/road clearance  Utility restoration  Schools reopened  Sheltering and temporary housing  Reconstruction and repairs 38 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  39. 39. Recovery Actions via Social MediaSM Usage Level SM Sample ActionsPromotion •Advertisement of disaster recovery centers •Links to recovery resourcesEngagement •PIO engagement with community regarding recovery plans and opportunities •Recovery updates regarding utilities, roads, and residual effectsIntegrated •Using SM mobile tools and geolocation to gather damage reports and track disaster impacts. •Creating of recovery portal with links to social media platforms to enable community volunteers to assist •Utilizing crisis mapping and other tools to visualize citizen reports 39 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  40. 40. Social Media as a Force Multiplier Emergency management utilizes a lot of tools and techniques during all phases of disasters.  Comprehensive Plans  Procedures  Crisis and risk communication  Volunteer organizations and NGO’s  Community involvement and interaction  Internet information portals and websites  Media contacts  Governmental contacts  Mutual aid 40 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  41. 41. Social Media as a Force Multiplier Social media, when used in an Integrated way…..  Enhances coordination and cooperation among all the actors  Provides depth to the communications capabilities of the EOC  Example: Boulder Colorado Four Mile Fire  Enables citizens to participate in disaster management in their communities  Example: Queensland, Australia Floods in 2011  Acts as a ‘force multiplier’ for all of these actors – enables better, more efficient response, recovery, mitigation and preparedness  Can create ad-hoc response entities in places and locations where no “official” response is possible  Example: 2010 Haiti Earthquake 41 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  42. 42. Examples 42 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011
  43. 43. David F. MerrickCenter for Disaster Risk PolicyFlorida State Universitydmerrick@fsu.edu001 850 644 9961 Questions? 43 Merrick - CDRP/FSU - 11.2011