The New Deal

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The New Deal

  1. 1. FDR and the New Deal
  2. 2. FDR: The Man <ul><li>Born into wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Contracted polio </li></ul><ul><li>Married his cousin </li></ul><ul><li>Governor of New York </li></ul><ul><li>Lab for the New Deal </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic, not afraid of trying new ideas (Liberal) </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowed from Hoover </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1932 Election <ul><li>Hoover v. Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>FDR exuded confidence and change for the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover didn’t end the Depression and Americans believed he just didn’t care about them—no confidence </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Voters and Hoover <ul><li>Campaign stop in Detroit, Auto workers: “Hang Hoover!” </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover needed extra police protection </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin: man found pulling spikes from tracks ahead of Hoover’s train </li></ul><ul><li>Nevada—men caught with dynamite near the train </li></ul><ul><li>Many stops—hit with tomatoes and stink bombs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Election Results <ul><li>FDR wins by a landslide—why? </li></ul><ul><li>Inauguration speech </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part One: The First New Deal <ul><li>Tackled these problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Farming Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Bank Closings </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Production </li></ul>
  7. 7. Banking Changes <ul><li>9000 Bank failures (mainly in rural areas—farmers couldn’t pay their loans) </li></ul><ul><li>Uninsured accounts </li></ul><ul><li>American people—no confidence </li></ul><ul><li>March 5 th , 1933 (2 nd day in office) he closed all banks (bank holiday—actually illegal) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Banking Relief Act passed (banks inspected; could reopen when “healthy”) </li></ul><ul><li>First Fireside Chat </li></ul>
  8. 8. More Financial Changes <ul><li>Glass-Steagall (1933): created FDIC ($5000) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Securities Act (1933): Corps. must provide complete stock info (liablity) </li></ul><ul><li>SEC (1934): Police of the Stock Market </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agricultural Adjustment Act <ul><li>Dust Bowl problems </li></ul><ul><li>Overproduction (Europe no longer needed our wheat) </li></ul><ul><li>They borrowed more to produce more at a lower price </li></ul><ul><li>AAA (May 1933) paid farmers not to produce ($100 million to plow under 10 million acres) </li></ul><ul><li>Worked—raised farm prices (who could afford?) </li></ul><ul><li>Paid for through a food processing tax </li></ul><ul><li>US v. Butler: AAA declared unconstitutional </li></ul>
  10. 10. Civilian Conservation Corps <ul><li>Work for cash and job skills </li></ul><ul><li>Unmarried men 18 to 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in camps away from home </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, parks, plant trees, erosion projects </li></ul><ul><li>Many trees planted on Great Plains </li></ul><ul><li>$30/month ($25 went back to family) </li></ul><ul><li>Wore uniforms, taught discipline </li></ul>
  11. 11. National Industrial Recovery Act <ul><li>Established fair practice codes for industry (central planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: raise economic production & prices </li></ul><ul><li>Created NRA (set prices on many items; work hours and wage standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses (esp. big businesses) created codes with NRA </li></ul><ul><li>Declared unconst. in Schechter Poultry v. US </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other First New Deal Legislation <ul><li>Federal Emergency Relief Administration: States & Fed made direct cash payments to poor </li></ul><ul><li>TVA: Built dams and provided power </li></ul><ul><li>HOLC: lowered home loan payments (prevented foreclosure) </li></ul><ul><li>FHA created </li></ul><ul><li>PWA & CWA: public works projects </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Second New Deal
  14. 14. Social Security <ul><li>Everyone pays into system </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly, those who can’t work, and single mothers collected </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment compensation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wagner Act <ul><li>Magna Carta for labor </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t guaranteed right of workers to form or join unions </li></ul><ul><li>Blacklisting and firing for union activities illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining legalized </li></ul><ul><li>NLRB overseer </li></ul><ul><li>Union membership tripled </li></ul>
  16. 16. Other Second New Deal Legislation <ul><li>Second AAA: took out illegal tax </li></ul><ul><li>Farm Security Administration: Helped tenant farmers become landowners </li></ul><ul><li>WPA: Created many jobs (public works and other jobs—writers, artists, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Labor Standards Act: Maximum hours and minimum wages </li></ul><ul><li>National Youth Administration: Gave aid to students (high school & college); provided jobs (clerical jobs at school); headed by Mary McLeod Bethune) </li></ul>
  17. 17. New Deal Critics <ul><li>Criticism began with the Court Packing proposal (retirement age @ 70—president replace them) </li></ul><ul><li>Huey Long: “Share Our Wealth” (taxes on wealthy) </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives: He was making gov’t too powerful & too $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals: He wasn’t doing enough to help the poor </li></ul>
  18. 18. Changes From The New Deal
  19. 19. End of the New Deal <ul><li>What ended the New Deal? 1937 recession </li></ul><ul><li>FDR: worried about the national debt </li></ul><ul><li>Cut government spending </li></ul><ul><li>Did the New Deal end the Great Depression? </li></ul><ul><li>NO! World War II did </li></ul>
  20. 20. African Americans: The Situation <ul><li>1927—African-American unemployment rate </li></ul><ul><li>Last hired, first fired </li></ul><ul><li>Many were stuck—moved to cities & became unemployed; now what? </li></ul><ul><li>What racism existed during this time? </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1930s Racism <ul><li>NIRA paid a lower minimum wage for Blacks </li></ul><ul><li>AAA farmers had checks taken </li></ul><ul><li>FHA kept segregation in neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>WPA had lower wages </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis study (1932 Alabama) no consent </li></ul><ul><li>1935 Harlem racial riot </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Changed: Movement AGAINST Racism <ul><li>Many African-Americans voted for Democrats (switch from Republicans) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Migration slowed </li></ul><ul><li>Black Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Friend in White House (Eleanor) </li></ul><ul><li>Strike against segregation: Marion Anderson (DAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Some New Deal programs open to A-A’s (artists & writers) </li></ul>
  23. 23. What Didn’t Change <ul><li>Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Racial violence (no Federal anti-lynching law—why?) </li></ul><ul><li>Racism increased (usually happens during hard times) </li></ul><ul><li>Relief $--local officials didn’t give to blacks </li></ul><ul><li>But…this was the roots of the Civil Rights movement </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Changes <ul><li>Francis Perkins </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire: gone forever </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty became an issue </li></ul><ul><li>4 term president </li></ul><ul><li>Wife becomes an advisor </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal coalition </li></ul>

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