Question 1 (History)During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, U.S. foreign policy was closely tied to domestic economic concerns.The annexation of Hawaii, the Open Door Policy with China, and the construction of the Panama Canal in LatinAmerica were all motivated by an interest in A. breaking up monopolies and trusts. B. extending land grants for railroad construction. C. acquiring new markets and sources of raw materials. D. limiting the power of labor unions to strike.Question 2 (History)There was a connection between industrial expansion and European imperialism in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies. Did imperialism increase or decrease as a result of industrialization? Explain why this change occurred.Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)Question 3 (History)The use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II fostered fears about their potential use during the Cold Waryears.These fears were critical in determining the U.S. response to A. the Marshall Plan. B. the Berlin Blockade. C. the Cuban Missile Crisis. D. the independence movement in India.Question 4 (History)In the United Nations Charter, member nations pledge to “unite our strength to maintain international peace andsecurity.” Since ratification of its charter following World War II, the primary goal of the United Nations has been to A. restore world trade disrupted by World War II. B. encourage industrial growth begun during World War II. C. establish policies to help nations pay World War II debts. D. intervene in world conflicts to prevent another war such as World War II.Question 5 (History)In the late 1800s, a population shift among African Americans began in the United States. Known as the “GreatMigration,” this pattern of shifting population accelerated as a result of World War I and continued throughout the1920s. Describe the population shift involved in the “Great Migration.”
Explain how this migration produced an important change in the domestic affairs of the United States during the first three decades of the twentieth century.Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)Question 6 (History)Many Latin American nations gained their independence early in the 19th century. The relationship between thepeople and their government changed. Slavery existed under colonial governments, but some of the new nations,such as Haiti, did not permit slavery. The abolition of slavery was based on Enlightenment ideas of A. liberty as a natural right of man. B. separation of governmental powers. C. personal rights as less important than civil order. D. the authority of absolute monarchs.Question 7 (History)In the 19th century, European countries claimed that the conquest of Africa would bring the benefits of Westerncivilization to that continent.From the perspective of African peoples, the effect was A. loss of political independence. B. fewer agricultural products for foreign trade. C. new national boundaries based on ethnic and cultural similarities. D. global appreciation for African cultures and encouragement of their development.Question 8 (History)The early 20th century saw a significant northward migration of African-Americans. During the 1920s, nearly 400,000African- Americans settled in New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Many lived in large cities such as New York,Philadelphia and Chicago.Identify two economic effects of this migration on the United States. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2points)Question 9 (History)Why was the formation of labor unions an effect of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s? A. Unions were needed to guarantee a steady supply of workers. B. Union membership was required for employment in new industries. C. Factory owners set up labor unions in order to control their large workforce.
D. Unions organized industrial workers to protest unsafe working conditions and long workdays.Question 10 (History)Following World War II, the Soviet Union dominated the countries of Eastern Europe. Forty years later, the Soviet blocdisintegrated and the Soviet Union broke apart as well.These later events led to A. struggles for political control in countries formerly under the control of the Soviet Union. B. the Chinese Communist Revolution. C. renewed conflict between Israel and its neighbors. D. the dismantling of the NATO alliance.Question 11 (History)After World War I, the League of Nations was created to help resolve international conflicts before they led to war.What did Japan’s successful invasion of Manchuria in 1931 indicate about the ability of the League of Nations toprevent World War II? A. The League had little power to stop acts of aggression. B. The League was concerned only with disputes in Europe. C. The League’s army was unprepared for modern warfare. D. The League was led by countries with the weakest military forces.Question 12 (History)Use the following graph to answer question 5.What effect of 19th-century industrialization in the United States is represented by the changes shown in the abovegraph? A. increased regulation of child labor B. modernization of agriculture C. decreased demand for farm products D. emigration from the United States
Question 13 (History)In the early 20th century, many African-Americans moved from the South to cities in the North. This “Great Migration”helped stimulate a flowering of artistic talent by African-Americans in New York known as the Harlem Renaissance.One way in which the Harlem Renaissance was significant was that it A. reduced racial tensions in the northern cities. B. led to a decline in activity by the Ku Klux Klan. C. led to a relaxation of restrictions on African-Americans in the South. D. contributed to the recognition of African-American culture.Question 14 (History)In 1898, U.S. support for Cuban independence led to war with Spain and contributed to the United States becomingan imperial power.What was a decisive factor in the decision to go to war? A. the opportunity to annex Hawaii B. the desire to acquire a naval base C. the protection of U.S. commerce and trade D. the need for a shorter route from the Atlantic to the PacificQuestion 15 (History)Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau challenged the idea of the divineright of kings. They wrote about a government’s obligations to uphold people’s rights and how the governmentshould be based on the consent of the governed.These new ideas encouraged people to A. remain firm in their support of absolute monarchs. B. look for leaders who would exercise dictatorial powers. C. engage in revolutions to establish democratic governments. D. call for church leaders to create theocracies and replace the monarchies.Question 16 (History)During the years between 1945 and 1950, the period directly following World War II, the Soviet Union expanded itsinfluence in Central and Eastern Europe. Describe two concerns the United States had about this expansion. For each concern, identify a related action taken by the United States to counter Soviet activities in Europe during this time period.Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)Question 17 (History)Natural law was a fundamental idea of the Enlightenment.
Which concept is an application of natural law to the government’s role in the economic lives of its citizens? A. free markets based on supply and demand B. government control to achieve a favorable balance of trade C. agriculture based on tenant farming and serfdom D. lower taxes on the most privileged groups in societyQuestion 18 (History)During World War II, Japanese-Americans were relocated from their homes on the West Coast of the United Statesto internment camps in the U.S. interior.This action indicated a widespread fear that Japanese-Americans were A. a threat to national security. B. members of the Communist Party. C. competitors for jobs in wartime factories. D. immigrating to the United States in large numbers.Question 19 (History)One effect of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th century was A. a decrease in child labor. B. an increase in demand for handicraft goods. C. a decrease in immigration to the United States. D. an increase in urbanization.Question 20 (History)During the Enlightenment, a number of writers explored the relationship between governments and the people theygoverned. For example, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, in which he examined ideas about majority will andthe common good.How did these ideas influence the American and French Revolutions? A. They encouraged loyalty to established governments. B. They supported movements for social and political change. C. They encouraged the formation of American and French constitutional monarchies. D. They supported the efforts of governments to maintain control over their subjects.Question 21 (History)One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the A. development of closer political ties with European nations. B. closing of China to all foreign trade. C. support of international peacekeeping operations. D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials.Question 22 (History)Historians often cite the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany as a primary cause of the eventualoutbreak of World War II. Summarize two provisions of the Versailles Treaty relating to Germany and discuss howeach helped lead to World War II. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)
Question 23 (History)During the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century, farmers in the United States worked to increase their landholdings and modernize their equipment. A lasting effect of these changes was A. higher prices for crops. B. increased rural population density. C. a shortage of land for farming. D. greater productivity of farming.Question 24 (History)The Industrial Revolution brought about major changes not only in cities, but in rural America as well. Beforemachines were used, one farmer could harvest about 7.5 acres of wheat per year. With machines, he could harvestwheat on 135 acres. Scientists also developed new kinds of wheat seeds that could survive northern winters. Thesedevelopments were examples of what was happening in many areas of agriculture.Explain two additional ways farming changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Write your answer in theAnswer Document. (2 points)Question 25 (History)At the end of World War II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany.The occupation of these countries by the Soviet Union contributed to the development of the Cold War by A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East. B. bringing about the reunification of Germany. C. strengthening the authority of the United Nations. D. dividing Europe into communist and non-communist spheres.Question 26 (History)The League of Nations was created after World War I as a forum for resolving international conflicts. However, theLeague was unable to resolve tensions that led to World War II.One factor that contributed to the ineffectiveness of the League was the A. breakup of colonial empires in Africa and Asia. B. decision of the United States not to join the League. C. opposition of League members to the Treaty of Versailles. D. rise of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.