Civil LibertiesPROTECTS CITIZENS AGAINST GOVERNMENT RESTRAINT
First…a discussionMORSE V. FREDERICK—YES THIS IS A REAL CASE
Here’s What We’ll Learn… Civil Liberties under the original Constitution Incorporation First Amendment rights and restr...
Civil Liberties Under the OriginalConstitution Habeas Corpus—court orderdirecting that a prisoner bepresented in court an...
Incorporation  Originally: Bill of Rights onlyapplied to the FederalGovernment’s dealings with thecitizens Then the 14th...
SelectiveIncorporation ofthe Bill of RightsUpdate!McDonald v.Chicago (handgunband) incorporatedthis in 2010
The FirstAmendment
Rights From Amendment I Speech Press Religion Assembly Petition the Government
Freedom of Speech “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom ofspeech…” Pure speech v. symbolicspeech Is this an...
When Can It Be Regulated? Flag burning in a protest? YES (Texas v. Johnson) Burning Draft Card? No (US v. OBrien) Pic...
Unprotected Speech Sedition: urges resistanceto lawful authority orgovernment overthrow Defamatory speech: falsespeech; ...
The Courts Test Evolution of established limits:1. Clear and present danger(immediate danger)2. Bad Tendency Doctrine(Res...
Freedom of Religion“Congress shallmake nolaw…respectingthe establishmentof religion…[or]prohibiting the freeexercise ofre...
Separationof Church and State Establishment Clause No state-sponsored religion Wall of separation: howhigh? Pledge of ...
Lemon Test Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) State aid to church is legal as along as:1. Have a non-religious purpose2. Can’t adv...
Free Exercise Clause Polygamy (Reynolds v. US) Amish & compulsoryeducation laws (Wisconsinv. Yoder) Jehovah’s Witnesses...
Press, Assembly, PropertyLET’S DO SOME RESEARCH
Non-FirstAmendment RightsSHS SOCIAL STUDIES
Amendment IV (privacy) III: Quartering troops Searches & seizures—must be reasonable Probable cause Search warrant Si...
Right to Privacy Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Roe v. Wade (1973) Ohio v. Akron Center (1990): parental consentunder 1...
Is A Warrant Needed? Belief that someone committed a felony? Yes Crime committed in presence of police? No Garbage ca...
More Amendments… Amendment V: self-incrimination (Miranda v.Arizona) Amendment V: doublejeopardy (both state & federalla...
Amendment VIII Against cruel & unusual punishment Punishment must fit the crime Death penalty? Furman v. Georgia (1972...
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Civil Liberties

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Civil Liberties

  1. 1. Civil LibertiesPROTECTS CITIZENS AGAINST GOVERNMENT RESTRAINT
  2. 2. First…a discussionMORSE V. FREDERICK—YES THIS IS A REAL CASE
  3. 3. Here’s What We’ll Learn… Civil Liberties under the original Constitution Incorporation First Amendment rights and restrictions(scholars…get ready to argue!) Due Process rights Privacy rights Rights of the accused Capital Punishment
  4. 4. Civil Liberties Under the OriginalConstitution Habeas Corpus—court orderdirecting that a prisoner bepresented in court and chargesexplained Probably can never be suspended(Lincoln tried in the Civil War) Enemy combatants??? Ex Post Facto Laws—also banned(retroactive punishments) Bill of Rights added Then…Amendment 14 and the DueProcess Clause (Civil WarAmendment)
  5. 5. Incorporation  Originally: Bill of Rights onlyapplied to the FederalGovernment’s dealings with thecitizens Then the 14th Amendmentguaranteed under the DueProcess Clause that all citizenshad to be treated equally Substantive Due Process (limitswhat government can do) Procedural Due Process (howlaws are applied) Gitlow v. New York (1925) beganincorporation, the case-by-caseextension of the bill of rights tothe states
  6. 6. SelectiveIncorporation ofthe Bill of RightsUpdate!McDonald v.Chicago (handgunband) incorporatedthis in 2010
  7. 7. The FirstAmendment
  8. 8. Rights From Amendment I Speech Press Religion Assembly Petition the Government
  9. 9. Freedom of Speech “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom ofspeech…” Pure speech v. symbolicspeech Is this an absolute right? When can it be LEGALLYtaken away Endangering public safety Advocating illegal activityOverthrow of Government(esp. wartime)
  10. 10. When Can It Be Regulated? Flag burning in a protest? YES (Texas v. Johnson) Burning Draft Card? No (US v. OBrien) Picketing a private residence? NO (Frisby v. Schultz) Three part test to uphold: Within powers of government Regulation must beunrelated to free speech Other channels of speechare available
  11. 11. Unprotected Speech Sedition: urges resistanceto lawful authority orgovernment overthrow Defamatory speech: falsespeech; damagescharacter or reputation Libel (written) Slander (spoken) Public official? OK Obscenity Fighting words: violentreaction Student speech: can beregulated
  12. 12. The Courts Test Evolution of established limits:1. Clear and present danger(immediate danger)2. Bad Tendency Doctrine(Restricted if it tended to leadto an illegal action)3. Preferred Position Doctrine—Speech should almost NEVERbe restricted (speech has apreferred position in theconstitution)1. These are fundamental rights;will assume law isunconstitutional)
  13. 13. Freedom of Religion“Congress shallmake nolaw…respectingthe establishmentof religion…[or]prohibiting the freeexercise ofreligion…”EstablishmentClauseFree ExerciseClause
  14. 14. Separationof Church and State Establishment Clause No state-sponsored religion Wall of separation: howhigh? Pledge of Allegiance Money Everson v. Board of Ed(1947) New Jersey Public $ used to bus Upheld (furthered education,not religion)
  15. 15. Lemon Test Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) State aid to church is legal as along as:1. Have a non-religious purpose2. Can’t advance or inhibit religion3. Avoid excessive government entanglementin religion Engel v. Vitale (1962) Teaching of Intelligent Design?
  16. 16. Free Exercise Clause Polygamy (Reynolds v. US) Amish & compulsoryeducation laws (Wisconsinv. Yoder) Jehovah’s Witnesses mustsalute the flag (WestVirginia State Board ofEducation v. Barnette) Using peyote(Employment Division v.Smith)
  17. 17. Press, Assembly, PropertyLET’S DO SOME RESEARCH
  18. 18. Non-FirstAmendment RightsSHS SOCIAL STUDIES
  19. 19. Amendment IV (privacy) III: Quartering troops Searches & seizures—must be reasonable Probable cause Search warrant Signed by judge Exclusionary rule
  20. 20. Right to Privacy Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Roe v. Wade (1973) Ohio v. Akron Center (1990): parental consentunder 18 Lawrence v. Texas (2003): Adults have a right toconsensual sexual relations with one another
  21. 21. Is A Warrant Needed? Belief that someone committed a felony? Yes Crime committed in presence of police? No Garbage cans Yes (unless garbage has been taken out) Drug test No Vehicle No (even things in the vehicle) Wiretap Yes
  22. 22. More Amendments… Amendment V: self-incrimination (Miranda v.Arizona) Amendment V: doublejeopardy (both state & federallaws violated?) Amendment VI: assistance ofcounsel (Gideon v.Wainwright) 5 years
  23. 23. Amendment VIII Against cruel & unusual punishment Punishment must fit the crime Death penalty? Furman v. Georgia (1972): unconstitutional Gregg v. Georgia (1976): constitutional if deathpenalty if certain procedures are followed—separatedeliberations; specific crimes; appeals)

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