American urbanization and new york city


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American urbanization and new york city

  1. 1. American Urbanizationand New York CityDiana BruceHistory 141November 6, 2011Assignment 5
  2. 2. • New York has been the unrivaled capital of the old American national industrial economy. Experts wonder if New York can dominate the new American global information economy.• AOL Time Warner is in position to lead efforts to reverse the erosion of New York City’s position as the cultural and economic center of the world’s most influential nation.• The rapid economic growth in the Sunbelt and the advent of cable television, personal computers and the internet led to erosion of New York City’s economic leadership in the United States.• AOL has what New York needs; strategic location in new e-economy, the company’s center of gravity will shift to New York where it can exploit the city’s financial infrastructure, strategic experience and capacity to create content.• West Coast’s major metropolitan regions have important comparative advantages, with Silicon Valley’s computer giants that create and distribute technologies driving the digital revolution. Hollywood dominates entertainment industry, and Yahoo and Amazon are based in the West.• Corporate and regional leaders in the West have yet to develop a grand strategic vision based on the broader, global social importance of their company’s.• Unless company’s such as Disney, Microsoft and Yahoo overcome their rivalries and develop a common vision, New York will end the debate about which city will emerge as the “capital of the next American century.”A Merger That Puts New York on Top
  3. 3. • Sept. 2, 1699 the Dutch hired an English explorer to find a fastest route to the riches of the Orient. Henry Hudson discovered New York harbor.• In 1624 the first colonists arrived. The Dutch West Indies Co. owned and operated the area named New Amsterdam.• In 1626 the first slaves arrived from Angola. The Native Americans sold Manhattan for $600.• The Dutch came to Manhattan to make money on beaver furs. Modern capitalism was invented here.• By 1654 the new colony was diverse in immigrants, due to the fact that this was a business colony and nobody was turned away.• In 1664 the English took the colony over with little fighting from the Dutch. New Amsterdam was a gift to the Duke of York and the colony was renamed New YorkEpisode 1: The Country and the City1609-1825
  4. 4. • English surpassed the Dutch and became the most powerful maritime empire. The English connected the colony to a network of trade that stretched around the globe.• In 1773, Alexander Hamilton arrived in New York and preached to people about equal rights and rebelled against the British crown.• After the American Revolution, Alexander Hamilton’s vision was key to New York City’s rise. He set up banks and kept capital in New York City, which became the commercial center of the New World.• In 1790, Alexander Hamilton offered a remarkably modern economic vision based on investment, industry, and expanded commerce. Hamilton kick-started the most powerful economic engine on earth.• By 1804 New York had , in less than a decade, double its population to 80,000 surpassing Philadelphia. New York is a monument to Hamilton’s stunning achievement.• Vanderbilt launched first steamboat ferry service in 1807. This became the greatest shipping empire on earth.Episode 1: The Country and the City1609-1825
  5. 5. • In 1817, The Blackball Line began regularly scheduled departures out of New York harbor. This initiated a revolution in trading and attracted more trading to New York port.• DeWitt Clinton did more for New York than anyone else. Known as the greatest New Yorker of all time, he finished Hamilton’s vision.• In 1811, as governor Clinton developed growth north of Manhattan by leveling the land and setting up a grid plan. All streets led to the water producing a great commercial advantage.• 1811 - Clinton initiated the development of the Erie Canal across 363 miles of wilderness, which pulled all of United States trade together. The Erie Canal was the most important public works until the road system of the 1950s.• 1825 – The Eric Canal, the greatest engineering feat of its time, was completed. The Erie Canal made New York City the Empire State, and grew like no other city. Immigrants came in waves between 1825 - 1860Episode 1: The Country and the City1609-1825
  6. 6. • The Statue of Liberty was dedicated in 1886 and became a beacon of hope to the immigrants who entered New York harbor.• In 1903 a plaque with The New Colossus poem written by Emma Lazerus in 1883 was mounted at the Statue of Liberty.• In 1900 Ellis Island was completed. Twelve thousand immigrants a day came through Ellis Island. By 1907, 1,200,000 people lived in New York City• Immigration created industrialization in New York City. Every four years New York City adds to itself a city the size of Boston.• Skyscrapers revolutionized the way commercial buildings were constructed. This was an American ingenuity that was an emblem of identity and a way of advertising. Immigrants were fascinated by these huge buildings. Episode 4 : The Power and the People 1898-1914
  7. 7. • By 1905, 4 out of 5 children were born of immigrants or were immigrants themselves. There journey took them from a life of the middle ages to New York, the most modern city in the world.• Miserable housing conditions was the engine of motivation for the immigrants. They escaped by selling things on the streets; beginning of street bazaars. In 10 years most families moved up or on and realized the American dream.• 1904 the subways opened, consolidating the boroughs of New York City. It took 4 years to cut 20 miles of the most modern transportation system ever built.• Within 15-20 years, the Bronx became the 6th biggest area; mass migration to different boroughs of New York because of subway system. Bridges were also built to connect the boroughs.Episode 4 : The Power and the People1898-1914
  8. 8. • In 1900, Theodore Roosevelt fought for housing reform; outlawed tenements. New York City was pioneer to Entitlement of Health Care.• Factories and sweat shops produced a 10th of all products to the United States. Sweat shops had no regulations and nightmarish conditions.• Women led the largest strike against all manufacturers. Bitter cold and finances stalled the strike. Brutal, unsafe and unsanitary conditions continued.• 1911- Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire killed 146 and influenced building codes, labor laws and politics in the years that followed. This was the most extraordinary political transformation that was far reaching in America.• Every aspect of labor was reformed. Business’ were outraged; politicians started to think about improving education and housing.Episode 4 : The Power and the People1898-1914
  9. 9. • During last decade of the 19th century Chicago was the fastest growing city in the United States. American urbanism got its start here.• Chicago was formed by the great commercial and industrial expansion of the late 19th century.• Steel-frame construction was pioneered in Chicago and the skyscraper was invented. Steel frame was cheaper and more efficient.• On October 8, 1871, Chicago suffered a ferocious fire that devastated the business center and much of the surrounding area.• Due to the wide range of urban technologies Chicago installed telephone switchboards, electric lamps, electric lights in railroad car factory, cable cars and eventually electric trolleys.• The advent of the elevator allowed taller buildings. Chicago’s Monadnock building pushed the limit at sixteen stories.• The skyscraper greatly increased real estate value and altered the character of the city center.The City in the Land of the Dollar
  10. 10. • Frederick Law Olmsted was inspired by European classical architecture.• He exerted a powerful influence on the beautification of cities in North America.• Chicago and New York were overcrowded, disease-ridden and noisy industrial cities in need of healthy green open spaces.• Olmsted and Vaux created 200 to 600 acre parks, which included lakes, canals, sports fields, zoos, bicycle and pedestrian paths and broad carriage roads.• The change in Chicago was accelerated by its World’s Columbian Exposition, with its master plan devised by Olmstead and his associate, Henry Sargent Codman. This plan incorporated their concept of the fusion of town and country along with classical architecture that gave the impression of a European city.The City in the Land of the Dollar
  11. 11. • The Exposition brought together an extraordinary group of talented and like- minded creative individuals…Olmsted,…Burnham,…McKim,…Hunt,…and Saint-Gaudens. Their aim was to bring European classical ideals to the New World.• Washington DC is an example of the plan McKim and members of the Senate Park Commission produced.• Civic beautification also produced the grand American railroad stations. The focus on railroad stations and on urban transportation reflected a concern for the broad public good.• The “City Beautiful” movement introduced a formal civic center, which included the city hall, a public library and an auditorium. There was no place in Burnham’s vision for downtowns made up of commercial skyscrapers.• Commercial towers became symbols of the entrepreneurial American city. These tall buildings made money for its corporate owners were a source of wonderment to the general public.• In 1923 the building code was rewritten, with the maximum height of towers almost unrestricted. Where land values were high, control over development was essentially impossible.• In the Land of the Dollar, Burnham’s genteel vision of civic harmony was replaced by the city profitable.The City in the Land of the Dollar