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Interview and interrogation_powerpoint


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Interview and interrogation_powerpoint

  1. 1.  Dictionary A conversation in which facts or statements areelicited from another.
  2. 2.  To gather and test the validity of information inorder to determine the particulars of the eventunder investigation. To identify other witnesses, suspects andvictims.
  3. 3.  Victims Witnesses Complainant: person that contacts officials. Eyewitnesses: people who saw what happened. No direct knowledge of crime Firearms dealer that sells gun to murderer. Expert Witnesses Psychologist, fingerprint technician, CSI Suspects (??) And………
  4. 4.  Characteristics of a good Interviewer Listen and concentrate on what is being said Polite Good physical appearance Controls emotions (don’t get angry) Flexible and persistent Sympathetic to suspect situation Verbal and non verbal
  5. 5.  In it’s simplest form, the interview consists of astraightforward description of events”and“involves a description of events, behaviour,feelings, thoughts and intentions”Gudjonsson 1992
  6. 6.  “Information is the lifeblood of criminal investigationand it is the ability of investigators to obtain useful andaccurate information from witnesses and victims ofcrime and that is crucial to effective law enforcement”.Director NIJ [cited in Stewart 1985:1] “The investigative task is the core aspect of policingtoday and what emerges from that core task is theelement of the ability to interview” Evan & Webb1993:37
  7. 7.  “INTERROGATION” – has a derogatoryconnotation Public perception Media driven Abu Ghurayb Prison Television “Interview” or “Investigative Interview” For reports, media releases, court testimony.
  8. 8.  The interview is a complex “consciously managed”conversation to maximize relevant and validinformation. Managing requires: the authority of control in the [one-way] interview processproduces stress and anxiety in subjects [who over-compensate]; Be aware both players tend to adduce informationconsistent with pre-given assumptions [bias] and[may] ignore, minimize or distort contraryinformation that produces “cognitive dissonance”and reinforce the risk of bias;
  9. 9.  Identify inhibitors: unwillingness, deception andinability of the subject [i.e. shock & stress, confusion,disabilities, memory decay etc.]; Use facilitators: fulfill mutual expectations; giverecognition & sympathetic understanding, altruisticappeals, novel experience, catharsis, the need formeaning and rewards; Recognize motivations and resistance: self and otherdeceptions, concealing and falsifying, the use oftechniques of neutralization and denial.
  10. 10. OpenClosedIndicator
  11. 11.  Questions designed to prompt the suspect orwitness to give a narrative response rather than justa “yes” or “no” answer.
  12. 12.  Used to get specific responses, usually toclarify information provided duringnarrative responses to open endedquestions. identification questionsidentification questions What color was his hat? Shirt? How fast were you driving? What kind of car was she driving?
  13. 13. Multiple choice questionsMultiple choice questions Was the car a four door or two door? Was the suspect running or walking when he left the house?Yes-No QuestionsYes-No Questions Were you in the house when this occurred? Do you own a gun? Did you point the gun at him? Don’t Forget “Did you do it?” “hurt you wife?” “force her to have sex?” “take the money?”
  14. 14.  Non-Verbal (Body Language) When a person experiences conflict, they becometense. Increase in tension makes them become unstable. To reduce tension, they have to expend the energy. Movement is the best way to expend energy in orderto reduce tension.
  15. 15.  Truthful personTruthful person Appears at ease Good eye contact Sincere expressions Sits upright/leansforward Sits still or changesposition smoothly Arms opened Attentive and alert Deceptive PersonDeceptive Person Appears anxious Very rigid Poor eye contact Posture changes Slouches Nervous movements Dry mouth, swallowing Crossed arms Covers mouth Feet tucked under chair Yawns, sighs Blinking Scratching, twistinghair, rubbing, etc.
  16. 16.  HedgersHedgers Leaving themselves an out To the best of my knowledge, as far as I know I don’t think so, to the best of my memory Ex: To the best of my knowledge, I’ve never beenIn that neighborhood. WDA ModifiersModifiers Pretty much, kinda, about, That’s about it Basically, probably, maybe Lack of conviction to their statement
  17. 17.  QualifiersQualifiers Emotional enlistments “I swear to God” “I swear on my mother’s grave” “To tell you the truth” “Honestly, Truthfully, Frankly, Really” Lie to follow General RuleGeneral Rule If the answer to your question is either “yes” or “no”and you get anything else = WDA Wrong Damn Answer!!! You should explore why is subject/suspect beingdeceptive?
  18. 18.  Reporter: Have you ever used drugs? Clinton: “I never violated any law of my country.” WDA 30 days later same reporter: Reporter: “Did you ever violate any laws of any other country?” Clinton: “In England I smoked marijuana, but I didn’t inhale.”
  19. 19.  Newsweek: “This is the question that everyonewant to know- Did you do it?” McVeigh: “The only way we can really answerthat is that we are going to plead not guilty.” Newsweek: “But you’ve got a chance rightnow to say, “Hell no!” McVeigh: “We can’t do that.”
  20. 20.  Wife ask, “Are you cheating on me?” Husband, “Honey, I love you, why would anyman do anything to mess that up.” WDA Father to son, “How did that scratch, get onthe car?” Son, “to tell the truth, I didn’t even notice it.” WDA
  21. 21.  Two FormsTwo Forms Concealment Leave stuff out, just don’t say it. Easiest to do, hardest to detect But, more readily forgiven Falsify Have to construct a lie Causes more tension Easiest to detect Deception Clues: Verbal and Non Verbal Mistake will reveal the truth
  22. 22.  Jim Lehrer: “You had no sexual relationshipwith this young women?” Bill Clinton: “There is not a sexualrelationship.” Jim Lehrer: “You had no conversations withthis young woman, Monica Lewinsky, abouther testimony, possible testimony, before—ingiving a deposition?” Bill Clinton: “I did not urge anyone to sayinganything that was untrue.”
  23. 23.  Used to buy time to decide on whether to tellthe truth or lie and what lie. Repeats the questions verbatim Rephrases the question Did I break in that house? Responds with another question (Who me?) Clears his/her throat Ask for the question to be repeated Laughs, stutters, uh..uh, I..I..I.
  24. 24.  Uses offensive statements to get you off of him. You calling me a liar? She told you that I did this? Are you accusing me? Take away his stinger – Should I be?
  25. 25.  You ask anybody, they will tell you that I don’tsteal. I go to church every Sunday, I’m a Christian. My mom gives me anything I want. God as my witness I’ve been here for 18 years and have never beenaccused of taking anything.
  26. 26.  5 second NOoooooo, No, No, No No followed by crossing arms or legs No followed by breaking or making eyecontact No before question is finished Breathless No No, followed by ?, Why would I? No, followed by, hedger: I don’t think so.
  27. 27.  If person telling the truth and they perceivethat you don’t believe them, they will showyou the same stress shifts as a deceptiveperson. Truthful person will exhibit same signs as adeceptive person. Use indicator question: What if I told you I don’tbelieve you?
  28. 28.  Direct Accusation Blame Accomplice Emotional Minimizing the Consequences Baiting Bluffing Overwhelming Evidence
  29. 29.  Approach with folder or notepad closed. Video tapes (be careful if bluffing) “Jim, our investigations shows that you’re theone that committed this crime.” Wait a couple of seconds and read his reaction I know what happened now I have to find outWhy, because it’s important to you and howyou want to look. Truthful: will give a strong denial, there is no why Deceptive : weak or no denial, Who me?
  30. 30.  Persuasion Phase of the Interrogation Move in close and present theme Stop denials Hold on if you didn’t do anything wrong, you don’thave anything to worry about, but if you made amistake or did something you shouldn’t have, youneed to decide how you want to look? Hold on, I want you to just listen to me for a minuteand let me explain a few things, before you sayanything.
  31. 31.  Puts Blame on someone or something elsebesides the suspect Wife always yelling and screaming, daring you The bills, kids need clothes, your not a thief, youwere just trying to help out your family If it weren’t for the gambling (drugs, alcohol, etc.)you would have never done this.
  32. 32.  Multiple suspects Divide them and conquer You couldn’t of done this by yourself, Roy is telling usthat this was your idea, I don’t believe that, but I got tohear that from you. I know Roy is your friend, but right now your in thehot seat and you got to think about yourself and howthis is gonna effect you. To tell on one is to confess.
  33. 33.  How is this going to effect your family? Think about your son and when he does somethingwrong. The truth is the quickest way to get back to yourfamily. How is this going to effect your poor mama? Your little baby girl (her name if you know it), needsher mama at home?
  34. 34.  You be the judge If you had to decide on what to do with the personthat did this, which person would you be more likelyto give a break to The liar who despite all the evidence hasn’t come toterms with what he has done. Looks like a thief, career criminal, etc. Or the person who just made a mistake and wants todo the right thing
  35. 35.  Question asked that implies the possibleexistence of incriminating evidence for thepurpose of enticing the suspect to considerchanging his denials Finger prints, eyewitnesses, footprints Video cameras DNA CSI
  36. 36.  Indicating you have evidence that you don’t.-Very risky We have your fingerprints all over. Suspect was wearing gloves or didn’t go where yousay you have prints. You could loose your credibility Frazier vs. Cupp US Supreme Court approved the use of trickery anddeceit. You can lie as long at it does not shock theconscience of the court or community
  37. 37.  Bombard the suspect with confirmed solidevidence that you have. Count it out on your fingers This looks really bad for you Show him picture of himself and ask him who it is. Criticize his sloppy work You left so much evidence
  38. 38.  When signs of surrender begin to appear Feeling Channel Decision to tell the truth or not Where you want them Suspect lowers his eyes and head He may have accepted his guilt and is thinking aboutadmitting to what he has done. Possible tears (no tissues, let it flow) Move in close Give him alternative between acceptable andunacceptable reason for committing the crime Ask for Confession Just tell me what happened
  39. 39.  Once you have your initial admission Encourage suspect to talk about the aspects of thecrime. Admission should include elements that they wouldknow if they committed the crime. Evidence that you did not reveal Note in your report Voluntary statement or recorded.
  40. 40.  Stay away from legal terms Murder caused death Rape forced to have sex Steal take Confess tell the truth Killed hurt The best catch all is: “Made a Mistake” Until confession then specific.