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Final report without scale drawing


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Final report without scale drawing

  2. 2. Declaration This report is submitted for the subject ARC 1215 Methods of Documentation & Measured Drawings by the School of Architecture, Building and Design of Taylor’s University to obtain 5 credits for Practicum 1. Name of Building : Istana Bandar Address : Kampung Sungai Iangat, 42700 Banting, Selangor, Malaysia A Group Effort By: Ang Min Qi 0302123 AngYik Chiu 0303443 Astriyani 0311678 Caleb Ong Yan Weng 0315460 Cheah Eugene 1001GH77034 Cheang Eileen 1006A77249 Chew Wen Lin 1007C10646 FirasatMamun Mohammad 0306623 Gan Sze Hui 0303709 Hans Hosea Gonza 0311772 Hong Si Mun 0312643 Jevon Atmabrata 0311772 KeeZhong Jian 0309584 Lamya Yousuf Said Al-Rawahi 0312476
  3. 3. Lau Ee Tian 0309596 Lee Jia Xin 0308389 Lee Yiang Siang 0302966 Lim Pei Xuan 0303862 Lim Su Ying 0308502 Lim Zhi Hong 0304547 Ling Teck Ong 0303127 Ling Lee Yee 0306254 Muhammad Zhafri Aizuddin Azman 0308303 Ng You Shen 0309997 Rezal Adrian 0310427 Tan Zhe Shen 0312723 Wee Lun Yong 1101Q13254 Wong Jia Xin 1101G13277 Wong Jian Kai 0314794 Wong Kien Hou 0312104 Yasaanth Kirishnamoorthy 0304863 YiewQunhe 0314809 Yong Seh Li 0314345 Bachelor of Science (Architectural) (Honours) August 2012-March 2013 Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus Supervised by: Mr. Wan Muhammad bin Mahmood Mr. Noorul Fadzlee bin Khamis
  4. 4. Figure 1 : Group photo Acknowledgement First of all we, students of Taylor’s University with a group consisting of 33 members who were involved in this measuring and documenting of Istana Bandar, would like to extend our deepest gratitude to the lecturers responsible for organizing the programs for this short semester. We would also like to single out Mr. Wan Muhammad and Mr. Noorul Fadzlee who gave us their willing guidance throughout the whole semester. The group is also grateful to Mr. Aidi and his staffs who were willing to let us to carry out our measured drawing project in Istana Bandar; the locals that live in Kampung Bandar who willingly assist with their knowledge and experiences regarding Istana Bandar and its surrounding. Also, Ms. Intan Salina and her staff from Perbadanan Adat Melayu dan Warisan Negeri Selangor who shared their information about Istana Bandar. This report is also made possible with the cooperation and support from every member of Istana Bandar Team, and encouragement from other groups from this Practicum 1.
  5. 5. List of Figures and Diagram Figure 1: Group photo Figure 2 : Laser measuring equipment Figure 3 : Nylon measuring tape Figure 4 : Alam Shah Museum Figure 5 : Map of Selangor Figure 6 : Drum from Dong So’n Culture found in Kuala Langat Figure 7 : Dabus dance Figure 8 : Symbol of the Sultan of Selangor Figure 9 : Royal Mouseleum at Bukit Melawati Figure 10 : Sultan Abdul Samad Figure 11: Makam Sultan Abdul Samad at Bukit Jugra Figure 12 : Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah Figure13 : Makam Diraja Klang Figure 14 : Alaeddin Mosque or also known as Masjid Bandar Figure 15 : Sultan Sir Hisamudin Alam Shah Al-Haj Figure 16 : Cocos Keeling Island,Australia Figure 17 : Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Syah Figure 18 : Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj Figure 19 : Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Al-Haj Figure 20 : Istana Bandar in Jugra, 1910 Figure 21 : Istana Mahkota Puri, Kelang, 1899 Figure 22 : Badan Warisan Signage Figure 23 : Istana Bandar before renovation Figure 24 : Istana Bandar sketch with the original colors Figure 25 : The column with star ornament Figure 26 : The main facade of Istana Bandar in 1925 Figure 27 : Istana Bandar during abandonment Figure 28 : Istana Bandar in 1997 Figure 29 : Istana Bandar after 1999 Figure 30 : Istana Bandar after conservation Figure 31 : Istana Deli, Medan Figure 32 : Location of Istana Bandar in Selangor Figure 33 : Landmark in Kampung Bandar Figure 34 : Padang in front of Istana Bandar that once is a Balai Polis Figure 35 : The ruins of Istana Long Putri Figure 36 : Masjid Sultan Alaeddin Figure 37 : The Second Primary School in Kampung Bandar Figure 38 : The remains stairs of Royal Jetty Figure 39 : Makam Diraja Kampung Bandar Figure 40 : Masjid Raja Muda Musa beside Makam Diraja Kampung Bandar Figure 41 : The Tahfiz School built beside Istana Bandar Figure 42 : Jugra Prison or also known as Rumah Pasung. Figure 43 : Royal Mausoleum painted in yellow color to symbolize royalty Figure 44 : Moorish architecture features Figure 45 : Ogee Arches Figure 46 : Crenallation
  6. 6. Figure 47 : Taj Mahal Figure 48 : Minaarets Figure 49 : Ipoh Hall Figure 50 : Portico in the facade Figure 51 : Windows with western influence Figure 52: Traditional houses Figure 53 : Gable Finial Figure 54 : Sulur Bayung Figure 55 : Baba-Nyonya house in Malacca Figure 56 : The Bumbung Limas influenced from chinese pagoda roof Figure 57 : The chinese ventilation block Figure 58 : The facade depicture different architectural styles in Istana Bandar Figure 59 : Classical orders column Figure 60 : Basic element of greek columns. Figure 61 : Timber column used in the inner part of the Balai Ron Seri Figure 62 : Concrete column used on the first floor in Balai Rong Seri Figure 63 : Balai Rong Seri Figure 64 : Columns in Kamar Beradu Figure 65 : Pilaster Figure 66 : Arches on the top of column distribute the load. Figure 67 : W5 Figure 68 : W7 Figure 69 : W8 Figure 70 : W13 Figure 71 : Georgian style windows Figure 72 : Exterior of W15 Figure 73 : Interior of W15 Figure 74 : W11 Figure 75 : W17 Figure 76 : W18 Figure 77 : W10 Figure 78 : W16 Figure 79 : W9 Figure 80 : W1 Figure 81 : W2 Figure 82 : W2 Figure 83 : W4 Figure 84 : W6 Figure 85 : D16 Figure 86 : D7 Figure 87 : D18 Figure 88 : D14 Figure 89 : D7 Figure 90 : D8 Figure 91: D15 Figure 92 : D23
  7. 7. Figure 93 : D25 Figure 94 : D10 Figure 95: D4 Figure 96 : D11 Figure 97 : D3 Figure 98 : D5 Figure 99 : D13 Figure 100 : D6 Figure 101 : D2 Figure 102 : D1 Figure 103 : D9 Figure 104 : D17 Figure 105 : D19 Figure 106 : D20 Figure 107 : D22 Figure 108 : D12 Figure 109 : D21 Figure 110 : Pagoda Roof in Masjid Demak, Indonesia Figure 111 : Roof Lantern in the centre of Istana Figure 112 : The natural light penetrate the space through the roof lantern Figure 113 : The back courtyard that connecting with the forbidden garden Figure 114 : The centre courtyard with two walkwaus that connecting the building Figure 115 : The royal male pool Figure 116 : The royal ladies pool Figure 117 : The pool that used to take wudhu Figure 118 : The baluster at the main veranda Figure 119 : The chinese porcelain baluster at the veraand beside Kamar Beradu Figure 120 : The concrete landing in the interior staircase Figure 121 : The double leg-dog staircase made of concrete Figure 122 : Pinnacles or Petunjuk Langit Figure 123 : Stucco on the column Figure 124 : One of the motif in the stucco Figure 125 : The Baluster with Islamic influence
  8. 8. Figure 126 : The Cartouche surrounded the cresent and moon to symbolize the royalty in Selangor Figure 127 : The Royal Selangor Logo as ornament on the most prominent location in Istan Bandar Figure 128 : The Water Dragon symbol in the both side of Royal Selangor symbol to enhance more the royalty Figure 129 : The Crenallation on the top of facade Figure 130 : The ventilation block can only be found in the certain room Figure 131 : The green color on the balustrade same with the chinese ventilation block Figure 132 : The flora pattern on Tiang Seri Figure 133 : The star ornament which also symbolize good luck Figure 134 : The series of Dentil under the cornice Figure 135 : The flora motif that can only find in Kamar Beradu’c columns Figure 136 : The Gable Finial is mainly used to decorate Istana Bandar Figure 137 : The gable finial on the top of forbidden garden gates Figure 138 : The cresent and moon ornament on the gate Figure 139 : The number carved on the gate to indicate the year construction finished. Figure 140 : The Jawi words not only to decorate the gate, but also as a reminder. Figure 141 : The Sulur Bayung that originally imitates the form of dragon Figure 142 : The Tumpu Kasau with multiple piece of wood carving Figure 143 : The Tumpu Kasau with single piece of wood carving Figure 144 : Kekisi with flora motif Figure 145 : The Sisik Naga on the ridge of roof Figure 146 : The Islamic Ventilation Block Figure 147 : The archivolt detail Figure 148 : The Royal Symbol on the pediment Figure 149 : Flora motif Figure 150 : Floral and Star motif Figure 151 : Geometric motif Figure 152 : Jejala Motif Figure 153 : Concrete column which etched with floral motif Figure 154 : Concrete flooring on the ground floor
  9. 9. Figure 155 : First floor flooring with chengal wood Figure 156 : Wooden staircase in Istana Bandar Figure 157 : The Indian ‘V’ shaped terracotta tiles Figure 158 : The ventilation block which is made from marble Figure 160 : The lower part of building that exposed as the proof of strip foundation Figure161: The column attached to concrete footing Figure 162 : Types of footing in Istana Bandar Figure 163 : Wooden column construction details Figure 164 : The concrete flooring in Istana Bandar Figure 165: The joist and wood panel can be seen from ground floor Figure 166 : Floor beam construction detail Figure 167 : Brick used to construted load bearing wall Figure 168 : Roof truss in Istana Bandar Figure 169: Gusset plate and bolts and nuts details Figure 170 : The roof tiles details system in Istana Bandar Figure 171 : Common roof tiles system details Figure 172: Cement on the edge of roof to lock the roof tiles position Figure 173 : Door hinge and wood frame details Figure 174: Metal lock details Figure 176: The riser construction details Figure 178 : Egg albumen as finishing and strengthen the materials Figure 179 : Istana Mahkota Puri, Klang Diagram 1 : Blood Line of Sultan of Selangor Diagram 2 : Family tree of Sultan Sulaiman Diagram 3 : Timeline of physical changes ofIstana Bandar Diagram 4 : Malay Architecture in Istana Bandar Diagram 5 : Symmetry and Balance Diagram 6 : Spatial Organization Diagram 7 : Circulation Diagram 8 : The division of space Diagram 9 : Public Space 1 Diagram 10 : Public Space 2 Diagram 11 : Semi-private space Diagram 12 : Private Space Diagram 13 : Moorish features in Istana Bandar Diagram 14 : Mogul features in Istana Bandar Diagram 15 : Malay Architecture in Istana Bandar
  10. 10. Diagram 16 : Chinese Architecture in Istana Bandar Diagram 17 : Types of Column in Istana Bandar Diagram 18 : W5 location plan Diagram 19 : W7 location plan Diagram 20 : W8 location plan Diagram 21 : W13 location plan Diagram 22 : W15 location plan Diagram 23 : W11 location plan Diagram 24 : W17 location plan Diagram 25 : W18 location plan Diagram 26 : W10 location plan Diagram 27 : W16 location plan Diagram 28 : W9 location plan Diagram 29 : W1 location plan Diagram 30 : W2 location plan Diagram 31 : W2 location plan Diagram 32 : W4 location plan Diagram 33 : W6 location plan Diagram 34 : D16 location plan Diagram 35 : D7 location plan Diagram 36 : D18 location plan Diagram 37 : D14 location plan Diagram 38 : D7 location plan Diagram 39 : D8 location plan Diagram 40 : D15 location plan Diagram 41 : D23 location plan Diagram 42 : D25 location plan Diagram 43 : D10 location plan Diagram 44 : D4 location plan Diagram 45 : D11 location plan Diagram 46 : D3 location plan Diagram 47 : D5 location plan Diagram 48 : D13 location plan Diagram 49 : D6 location plan Diagram 50 : D2 location plan Diagram 51 : D1 location plan Diagram 52 : D9 location plan Diagram 53 : D17 location plan
  11. 11. Diagram 54 : D19 location plan Diagram 60 : D20 location plan Diagram 61 : D22 location plan Diagram 62 : D12 location plan Diagram 63 : D21 location plan Diagram 64 : Location plan of courtyard Diagram 65 : Pool Location Plan Diagram 66 : The Veranda Location Diagram 67 : Ornament location plan 1 Diagram 68 : Ornament Location Plan 2 Diagram 69 : Ornament location plan 3 Diagram 70 : Ornament location plan 4 Diagram 71 : Ornament location plan 5 Diagram 72 : Ornament location plan 6 Diagram 73 : Ornament location plan 7 Diagram 74 : The strip foundation can be seen through the location of each column Diagram 75 : The load transfer to the foundation through the columns and wall Diagram 76 : Location of wooden columns Diagram 77: Types of footing
  12. 12. Table of Content Declaration i Acknowledgment ii List of Figures and Diagrams iii Table of Content 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction of Research 1 1.2 Aims and Objectives of Research 2 1.3 Significance of Research 3 1.4 Research and Measurement Methodology 4 1.4.1 Measuring Instrument and Technique 4 1.4.2 Research Technique 6 1.5 Limitation of Measurement and Research 8 2. Historical Background of The Site 9 2.1 Selangor 9 2.1.1 Origin Name of Selangor 10 2.1.2 History of Selangor 11 2.2 Kuala Langat 13 2.2.1 Origin Name of Kuala Langat 13
  13. 13. 2.2.2 History of Kuala Langat 14 2.2.3 Kuala Langat Social, Economy and Cultural Context 15 2.3 Kampung Bandar 16 2.3.1 Historiy of Kampung Bandar 16 2.3.2 Kampung Bandar Social, Economy and Cultural Context 17 2.4 Sultanate of Selangor 18 2.4.1 Raja Lumu/Sultan Salahuddin (1705-1778) 20 2.4.2 Sultan Ibrahim Shah (1778-1826) 21 2.4.3 Sultan Muhammad Shah (1826-1857) 22 2.4.4 Sultan Abdul Samad (1857-1859) 23 2.4.5 Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (1898-1960) 25 2.4.6 Sultan Sir Hisamudin Alam Shah Al-Haj (1938-1942/1945-1960) 28 2.4.7 Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah (1942-1945 Japanese Reign) 31 2.4.8 Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (1960-2001) 33 2.4.9 Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj (2001- Current) 35 2.5 Istana Bandar 36 2.5.1 Istana Bandar as a royal palace 36 2.5.2 Istana Bandar as a gift shop and Maahad Tahfiz School 38 2.5.3 Istana Bandar as a museum 39
  14. 14. 2.6 Changes 40 2.6.1 Before Abandonment Time 41 2.6.2 Abandonment Time 43 2.6.3 After Abandonment Time 44 3. Design 45 3.1 A diverse influence in Istana Bandar 45 3.2 Location 46 3.2.1 Balai Polis 48 3.2.2 Istana Long Puteri/Maimun 48 3.2.3 Masjid Sultan Alaeddin 49 3.2.4 Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar 49 3.2.5 Royal Jetty 50 3.2.6 Makam Diraja 50 3.2.7 Masjid Raja Muda Musa 51 3.2.8 Tahfiz School 51 3.2.9 Jugra Prison 52 3.2.10 Makam Sultan Abdul Samad 52 3.3 Istana Bandar Spatial organization and function 53 3.3.1 Spatial Organization 53
  15. 15. 3.3.2 Space Hierarchy 54 3.3.3 The Division of Space 56 3.3.4 Function 57 Public Space 57 Semi-private Space 59 Private Space 60 3.4 A Diverse Influence of Architecctural Style 61 3.4.1 Moorish Architecture 61 Moorish Architecture in Malaysia 61 Moorish Architecture in Istana Bandar 62 3.4.2 Mogul Architecture 63 Mogul Architecture in Malaysia 63 Mogul Architecture in Istana Bandar 64 3.4.3 Colonial Architecture 65 Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 65 Colonial Architecture in Istana Bandar 66 3.4.4 Malay architecture 67 Malay Architecture in Malaysia 67 Malay Architecture in Istana Bandar 68 3.4.5 Chinese Architecture 69 Chinese Architecture in Malaysia 69 Chinese Architecture in Istana Bandar 70
  16. 16. 4. Architecture Element 71 4.1 Element of Building 72 4.1.1 Façade 73 4.1.2 Columns 74 4.1.3 Windows 77 4.1.4 Doors 94 4.1.5 Roof 120 4.1.6 Roof Lantern 121 4.1.7 Courtyard 122 4.1.8 Pool 123 4.1.9 Veranda 124 4.1.10 Stairs 125 4.1.11 Ornaments 126 4.2 Building materials 142 4.2.1 Concrete 143 4.2.2 Clay brick 144 4.2.3 Ceramic tiles 145 4.2.4 Cengal timber 146 4.2.5 Teracotta tiles 147
  17. 17. 4.2.6 Marble 148 4.2.7 Egg Albumen 149 4.3 Construction Details 150 4.3.1 Foundation 150 4.3.2 Columns 152 4.3.3 Flooring 154 4.3.4 Load Bearing Wall 156 4.3.5 Roof 157 4.3.6 Windows and Doors 159 4.3.7 Stairs 160 4.3.8 Finishing 161 5.Conclusion 162 5.1 Historical Significance 162 5.2 Cultural Significance 162 5.3 Architectural Significance 163 5.4 Scientific Significance 163 5.5 Linguistic Significance 163 5.6 Comparison 164
  18. 18. Reference Appendix Scale Drawing
  19. 19. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 1 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction of Research (Score Area) Istana Bandar or also known as Alaeddin Palace is located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. This palace was built in 1899 after the centre of administration of Selangor was moved to Jugra for Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah, the fifth sultan of Selangor. He lived in this palace for 35 years until his death. This palace was then left without any occupant as the centre of administration of Selangor was moved from Jugra to Klang. This grand building is also famous for its greatness around 19th century. Various influence from local, Middle East, and even Chinese influence can be seen from all sides of the building that demonstrate its significance from architectural aspect. This report will also cover other aspects of this building such as history and culture that influences this building and how this building influences its surrounding.
  20. 20. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 2 1.2 Aim and Objective The aim of this Practicum 1 is to develop an understanding of the principles of building preservation and the method of recording it in three documentation methods; measured drawings, written documentation and photographic documentation. The objective of the Practicum 1 is basically to introduce several methods of documenting historic structures in order to preserve an accurate record of historic properties that can be used in research and other preservation activities. This is to introduce basic preparation of measured drawings of an approved building or structure to prescribed standard. On the other hand, the aim and objective of this report is to show our findings and document our research and measured drawing of Istana Bandar for conservation or future reference.
  21. 21. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 3 1.3 Significance of Research The significance of this research is for us to document and understand the architectural, historical and cultural values of Istana Bandar at Kuala Langat that had been built over 100 years ago. To support our documenting and understanding of Istana Bandar, this research is accompanied by measured drawing and photograph of the chosen site. By carrying out the research of this report, we also learn and understand various architectural styles that influence this area along with the site context.
  22. 22. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 4 1.4 Research and measurement methodology 1.4.1 Measuring instruments & techniques • Laser measuring equipment This tool (Figure 2) was provided by Taylor’s University to help measure with accuracy the distances that are impossible to do with standard measuring tape. • Nylon measuring Tape This flexible measuring tool (Figure 3) was provided by Taylors University to help measure curved object such as arches, columns, and domes. • Measuring tape The most general tool used to measure the site with the length ranging from 3 meters to 8 meters. • Ruler This tool was used to measure small details like door jamb thickness and door leaf details. Figure 2 : Laser measuring equipment Figure 3 : Nylon measuring tape
  23. 23. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 5 • Ladder The use of ladders enabled the team to reach and measure high places such as the top part of the building and details that could not be reached due to our height. • Grid Paper Grid papers were used to record the measurement information. The grid lines act as guide for onsite drawings. • Camera This equipment was used to document the process of measuring and document the details of building. By using those measuring equipment, we have to measure and document the Istana Bandar on paper manually. The group was divided into several subgroups for efficiency of measuring as the given site was vast with a time constraint of only 5 days to document the measurement as accurate as possible. The subgroups are varied from hall 1, hall 2, and main hall group’s elevation and façade, ornament and opening details and AutoCAD Groups. On the first day, the hall 1, hall 2 and main hall groups focused on the floor plan. Once finished, these group members were shifted to help the elevation and façade groups and the ornament and opening details groups. Some members were shifted to CAD team to help with drawing and crosschecking the data with AutoCAD.
  24. 24. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 6 1.4.2 Research Technique We constructed our research report through various techniques such as interviews, online research and written research. • Site visit We started our research on the local context by visiting and documenting the significant building in Bandar Jugra, such as, Masjid Bandar, The Royal Jetty, and Makam Sultan Abdul Samad. We also visited the Local Museum which is branch of Shah Alam Museum and The Shah Alam Museum (Figure 4) itself to gather information about Bandar Jugra and Istana Bandar that can support the interview data to understand history and the cultures aspect of the site. • Interview : We have carried out several interviews with the locals in Jugra, especially the elders who were familiar with the Istana Bandar since they understand the history and culture of the building and the site itself. Figure 4 : Alam Shah Museum
  25. 25. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 7 • Internet Online material was also used to support this research to obtain the background information pertaining to the site and the building, especially in architectural aspect. • Printed Material Printed material such as books, photos, and journals were obtained from library and Museum ShahAlam to crosscheck the information from interview and internet and was also used as reference to analyze the architectural style that was found on the building. • Tutorials Tutorials help us to crosscheck and share the information we have and in the same time to ensure our work was progressing at the right pace and heading in the right direction.
  26. 26. IstanaBandar1.0Introduction 8 1.5 Limitations of Measurement and Research Istana Bandar has been left abandoned without any occupant after the centre of administration was moved to Kuala Lumpur (1938-1980). This made the condition of the building terrible and left in a state of disrepair for 42 years. This building had undergone several restoration works, returning it to its initial conditions. Due to workmanship errors during previous restoration works such as plastering, there were slight differences with measurements on parts of the building that were supposed be the same such as wall thickness. Moreover, some measurements that were gathered from each subgroup were not perfectly accurate due to human errors. Because of this, our measured drawings could not be as precise as it should be. Therefore a standardised measurement was taken to fit our documentation for further reference. Although equipped with ladder and laser measuring equipments, we were still unable to reach and measure all parts of the building, especially the roof and intricate ornaments. Therefore, we took eye level photographs and trace it to document the building. This technique was also done for the ornaments although the height of the building itself was a challenge for us to take the photographs at eye level. Even though we had visited the museum and interviewed the locals, there were limited published books and journals that document the physical changes. The people that are reliable to be interviewed are limited and the owner himself has passed away. These factors limit our source of information for the research. Moreover, contradicting information from different sources further complicates the report effort.
  27. 27. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 9 2.0 Historical Background of Site 2.1 Selangor Selangor is one of the 14 states of Malaysia which is located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Selangor has two capital cities which are state capital city in Shah Alam and royal capital city in Klang. Selangor covers an area of 796,084 hectares and comprises of 9 districts (Figure 5); Gombak, Hulu Langat, Hulu Selangor, Klang, Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor, Petaling, Sabak Bernam and Sepang. Now, Selangor is the most developed state with the largest population in Malaysia. Figure 5 : Map of Selangor
  28. 28. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 10 2.1.1 The Origin Name of Selangor There are various versions of the origin of Selangor’s name. Referring to the Breakaways Selangor (2013), the name of Selangor came from Malay word ‘selangau’, which means a bow fly. This story begins with a wandering warrior who came from Malacca. He felt tired and wanted to rest under a tree. Before he fell asleep, a bow fly, in Malay word ‘Langau’, flew around his head. It then sat on his nose and he tried to slap it but it flew away. This incident happened few times until it left a mark on the bridge of his nose. Because of that, every time he touched his nose he remembers about the incident and raised his interest to explore the place than to continue in his travel. Therefore, the state Selangau became Selangor. However, according to the Tourism Selangor (2013) stated that another version claims the state name was derived from the term Selang in Malay vocabulary meaning straits and Ur meaning town in Tamil.
  29. 29. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 11 2.1.2 History of Selangor There is some evidence that shows people had resided in Selangor River areas since 2000 years ago. Several equipments such as drum and bell from Dong So’n Culture (Figure 6) were found in 19th century in Klang 1905 and 1944. Beside from those discoveries, there were no more findings from the pre-historic era until 14th century. During15th century, Selangor was ruled by the Sultanate of Malacca. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the state became hotly disputed between the Portuguese, Johor, Aceh and Siam. In 1641, The Dutch took over Malacca and brought Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi who later, in 1740, established the present heredity sultanate of Selangor. In the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin reserves and the growing importance of rubber.This attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant labourers and caused infightings for control of the tin mines. From this social and economic havoc, the British government gained some opportunity, which forced the Sultan of Selangor to accept a British Resident in 1874. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. Figure 6 : Drum from Dong So’n Culture found in Kuala Langat
  30. 30. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 12 In 1896, Selangor, together with Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, formed the Federated Malay States, with its capital in Kuala Lumpur. The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957, and later became Malaysia in 1963. The city of Kuala Lumpur functioned as both the national capital of Malaysia and the state capital of Selangor. In 1974, Selangor relinquished Kuala Lumpur to the federal and the state capital was moved to Shah Alam after the cession.
  31. 31. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 13 2.2 Kuala Langat Kuala Langat is one of nine districts of Selangor and is located in the south-western region, covering an area of 82,066.7 hectares with two administration areas. 2.2.1 The Origin Name of Kuala Langat The name Kuala Langat originated from the name of a nearby river, Sungai Langat. The word ‘Langat’ was derived from Minangkabau vocabulary meaning ‘air hangat’ or warm water (Majlis Daerah Kuala Langat 2014). The reason for the warm water was because of the strategic position of the river that always attracts merchants and made the water constantly warm. While from oral source, the origin of Kuala Langat name was associated with the vast population of ikan Selangat in the river.
  32. 32. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 14 2.2.2 History of Kuala Langat Kuala Langat had a strong connection with the establishment of Selangor. In 15th century, Kuala Langat together with Kelang, Jeram and Kuala Selangor was known as district of Kerajaan Melayu Melaka. Kuala Langat was first explored by Bugis people for trading purpose with Melaka in 17th century when this district was under Kerajaan Johor. In 18th century, because of the change of authority from Sultan to Bendahara To’ Engku Klang who become the representative of Kerajaan Johor, Raja Lumu of Bugis descendants was titled as Yang di-Pertuan Besar Selangor and became the first Sultan of Selangor in 1756. In 1857, the centre of administration of Selangor in Kuala Selangor was moved to Jugra which is now part of Kuala Langat by Sultan Abdul Samad, the fourth Sultan of Selangor. These was because of several factors that have been considered by Sultan Abdul Samad himself; 1. Politic factor. The occurrence of Perang Klang in 1857 by Raja Mahadi, made Klang (old spelling as Kelang) unsafe. The fact that Sultan Abdul Samad took control of Jugra while other areas were administrated by his officials became the main factor of the transmigration from Kelang to Jugra 2. Economy factor. Jugra has a stable economy from agriculture and fisheries. 3. Social factor. This region has been explored and in some aspect is more advanced than other regions, especially in transportation. 4. Security factor. Jugra was not directly affected by the war. After Jugra became the centre of administration of Selangor, there’s a rapid growth in politic, economy, social and development in this area. Intervention of British especially in economy and development aspect, also advance the growth in Jugra.
  33. 33. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 15 2.2.3 Kuala Langat Social, Economic and Cultural Context Kuala Langat comprises of multicultural residents with majority being Malay and Chinese. Most of the Malay people earn from agriculture and fish industries. Meanwhile most of the Chinese earn from trading that can be seen from the rows of shop house along the Kampung China. Other economic activities by the folks are handicrafts, small enterprises, and food industries. Several tourist attractions such as historical places, beaches, agro-tourism and eco-tourism not only attract local tourists, but also foreigners to come and visit Kuala Langat. The home stay programs offers tourist with the lifestyle of the local such as aborigines’ village and traditional Malay village. The home stay participants are treated as part of the family and can take part on the village event or traditional activities. Traditional activities such as wau and bola sepak still can be seen being enjoyed by the locals, while the adults spend their leisure time by fishing along the river.
  34. 34. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 16 2.3 Kampung Bandar 2.3.1 History of Kampung Bandar The relationship between Malaya and Java has been established since 14th century. Therefore, it was common knowledge that most of the people around the area are Javanese and Malay people. From oral source, those Javanese and Malay people were the first community who came and explored the area around Kampung Bandar and made it their home. Kampung Bandar was officially open in 1898 right after Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah succeeded the throne and became the fifth Sultan of Selangor. Kampung Bandar or known more as Bandar Temasya at the time was opened by combining 6 Kampung (Kampung Bandar, Kampung Teluk Pulai, Kampung Kurau, Kampung Sungai Ingat & Chodoi, Kampung Air Tawar and Kampung Sawah) and took over the role as centre of administration of Selangor from Jugra (Kampung Bandar Banting, 2013). The lands on Kampung Bandar were owned by the Sultan, and because of his kind nature, the commoner could open the land as farming areas. Several important buildings were also built around Kampung Bandar to support the administration. This condition made Kampung Bandar grow and develop. Albeit having flourished as the centre of administration of British in Selangor, Kampung Bandar quickly reverted back to a backwater village when the centre of administration was moved to Klang along with most of the royalties (Kampung Bandar Banting, 2013).
  35. 35. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 17 2.3.2 Kampung Bandar Social, Economy and Culture Context Since the departure of the Sultan’s family from Kampung Bandar, the town has become unaware of its significance to most people. In fact, not much people know about Kampung Bandar and where it is located. Most of the population in Kampung Bandar are retired people while the adults are working outside of the town and would only come back in the evening. The people in Kampung Bandar usually spend their time by fishing or gathering in the shop stalls around Jalan Buaya with majority of the shop houses are owned by Chinese. Inside the kampung area, the villagers are mostly Malay people with traditional timber type houses. The villagers century- long profession of fishing and farming can still be seen in these area even though the orientation have already changed to the most economical condition in these days. Bird nest’s houses were built and new palm tree and dragon fruit trees were planted replacing old ones. Dabus (Figure 7), the tradition dance that includes martial arts are still performed in various events in Kampung Bandar. According to the locals, this traditional dance had been apart of their life ever since Sultan Alaeddin had lived and ruled this area. Even the local and neighbouring teenagers like to come and see or learn this traditional dance. Figure 7 : Dabus dance
  36. 36. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 18 2.4 Sultanate of Selangor The Sultan of Selangor is the title awarded the constitutional ruler of the State of Selangor. The Sultans of Selangor are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claimed descent from the rulers of Luwu in the southern part of Sulawesi. (Refer to Diagram 1). From the Royal Pedigree of Bugis, the first king, Lamadu- sellah who is a Muslim, has three sons. In late 17th century, his second son, Opu Tandre Bureng Daeng Relaga wandered to the western part of archipelago. He has five sons and all of his sons succeeded in carving their names in politics and Malay kingdom in the archipelago. Raja Lumu, who is the grandson of Opu Tandre Bureng Daeng Relago became the first Sultan of Selangor. From Malay custom dictate that the son of a royal wife takes precedence over the sons of other wives. But this custom was not fully applied in the Sultanate of Selangor History due to several reasons. Figure 8 : Symbol of the Sultan of Selangor
  37. 37. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 19 Diagram1:BloodLineofSultanofSelangor
  38. 38. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 20 2.4.1 Raja Lumu/Sultan Salahuddin (1705-1778) Raja Lumu, the first Sultan of Selangor, was the son of the famous Bugis warrior prince Daeng Chelak. He took on the title of Sultan Salahuddin of Selangor in 1742. Initially Raja Lumu’s sovereignity were met with opposition from the Sultans of Perak and Johor, as well as from the Dutch, but eventually managed to consolidate his position as sovereign. By 1770, his legitimacy was strengthened by marriage to the niece of the Sultan of Perak. Raja Lumu lived and ruled Selangor in Bukit Selangor (Bukit Melawati) until 1778. His first son, Raja Ibrahim became his successor until 1826. Figure 9 : Royal Mouseleum at Bukit Melawati
  39. 39. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 21 2.4.2 Sultan Ibrahim Shah (1778-1826) Sultan Ibrahim Shah was proclaimed as the Second Sultan of Selangor after the death of his father, Raja Luwu in 1788. During his reign, he lift his brother Raja Nala as Raja Muda of Selangor and two others as great people in Selangor. On 13 July 1784, Sultan Ibrahim’s fort at Bukit Melawati, Kuala Selangor was attacked by a Dutch army, comprising of 11 ships and several vessels belonging to Raja Muhammad Ali of Siak in Sumatera. The war lasted for 2 weeks and on 2 August, Kuala Selangor was captured by the Dutch. Sultan Ibrahim and other royal families retreated to Hulu Selangor. Sultan Ibrahim further retreated to Bernam and from Bernam to Pahang. The Dutch appointed Raja Muhammad Ali to become the new Sultan of Selangor. On 27 July 1785, with the assistance of Bendahara Abdul Majid, Sultan Ibrahim returned with 2,000 followers from Pahang to recapture Kuala Selangor.After launching a surprise night attack, Sultan Ibrahim successfully regained Selangor from the Dutch, and he signed a treaty of mutual cooperation with Perak. Unfortunately, the cooperation was eventually lead to a dispute over debts that were not resolved until the intervention of Robert Fullerton, the British Governor of Penang. Sultan Ibrahim Shah ruled for 48 years until 1826 and has 9 sons and 4 daughters. Then his son, Sultan Muhammad succeeded the throne.
  40. 40. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 22 2.4.3 Sultan Muhammad Shah (1826-1857) Muhammad Shah was not the son of his father’s first wife. However, he was the Sultan’s favorite as successor, and was thus appointed the post of Raja Muda (heir-presumptive) of Selangor during his father’s reign. He was proclaimed as the Third Sultan of Selangor in October 1826. According to Malaysiafactbook (2012), the ineffective ways of Sultan Muhammad to rule caused Selangor to scatter into 5 individual territories (Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Klang, Langat and Lukut), with Sultan Muhammad Shah controlling only Kuala Selangor. His failure to appoint a heir made his son, Raja Mahmud loose the sultanate and was sidestepped in favor of Raja Abdul Samad, the nephew and son-in-law of the late Sultan. The only success during his reign was the setting up of tin mines in Ampang that brought business to the people.
  41. 41. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 23 2.4.4 Sultan Abdul Samad (1857-1859) Sultan Abdul Samad ( Figure 10) was born in 1804 at Bukit Melawati in Selangor to Raja Abdullah ibni Ibrahim Shah, younger brother of Sultan Muhammad Shah. A dispute between the royal court and the dignitaries of Selangor in choosing the next sultan resulted in his choosing as the fourth Sultan of Selangor despite of Raja Mahmud, ‘the legitimate heir’. In 1866, Sultan Abdul Samad gave one of his son-in-laws, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the power and authority over Klang. This fueled a feud between Raja Abdullah and Raja Mahadi, the previous administrator of Klang, leading to the Klang War (Gullick, 2004). In 1868, he also appointed his son-in-law, Tengku Kudin as Vice Yamtuan to help him manage the state and to arbitrate during the civil war. Tengku Kudin in turn engaged the help of Pahang, mercenaries, and Sir Andrew Clarke of the British Empire, marking the first British involvement in the politics of Selangor. Figure 10 : Sultan Abdul Samad
  42. 42. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 24 In August 1874, after Selangor suffered series of pirate attacks, Frank Swettenham was assigned as a live-in advisor to Sultan Abdul Samad. In October 1875, Sultan Abdul Samad sent a letter to Sir Andrew Clarke, requesting for Selangor to be placed under the British protectorate and thus, Selangor became part of the Federated Malay Stated, together with Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang. During his reign, he relocated his royal capital to Jugra and built Jugra Palace where he lived until his death on 6 February 1889, then aged 93, and was laid to rest in his own mausoleum (Makam Sultan Abdul Samad) (Figure 11), also in Jugra. As Raja Muda Musa, the heir-apparent had died in 1884, Sultan Abdul Samad was succeeded by Raja Muda Musa’s eldest son, Raja Sulaiman. Figure 11: Makam Sultan Abdul Samad at Bukit Jugra
  43. 43. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 25 2.4.5 Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (1898-1960) Tengku Sulaiman (Figure 12) was born on the 11th of September, 1863. He was under the tutelage of his grandfather and father, Raja Muda Musa. Unfortunately, Raja Muda Musa passed away on July of 1884 before he could succeed the throne. Rasdi (2012) states that as there were no direct heir to the throne, Tengku Sulaiman was proclaimed as the 5th Sultan of Selangor upon the death of his grandfather in 1898 and subsequently took the name Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah. SultanAlaeddin Sulaiman Shah was knighted with the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) by the United Kingdom and granted the title Sir. In 1920 he appointed his eldest son, Tengku Musa Eddin as Raja Muda of Selangor. However, due to accusations relating with ‘immoral behaviour’, he was dismissed as the Raja Muda of Selangor by the British Resident at the time, Theodore Samuel Adams. This accusation however, did not stand with many Malays in Selangor who believed that the real reason for the Raja Muda’s demotion was his refusal to follow Adam’s orders although there is no information as to what the order were. Figure 12 : Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah
  44. 44. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 26 The title of Raja Muda was instead given to Tengku Alam Shah over his older brother, Tengku Badar Shah (both were from different mother than Tengku Musa Eddin) (Diagram 1). Sultan Alaeddin had pleaded for the case of Tengku Musa Eddin, even went to discuss the issue in London but all of this effort was futile. March 31st, 1938 marks the passing of Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah as was stated in Malaysia Fact Book (2012). He was 75 years old at the time and was interred at the Royal Mausoleum in Klang (Figure 13). He was succeeded by Raja Muda Alam Shah. During his reign, Sultan Alaeddin was described as a religious person. His obligation and responsibility to spread and further enhance the knowledge of Islam had caused an increase in scholars in his kingdom. Following Prophet Muhammad’s teachings, Sultan Alaeddin’s personality is reflected in such a way that combines the efforts of cooperation, integration and compatibility between the government and scholars. A mosque in Kuala Langat named Alaeddin Mosque (Figure 14) is a standing testament to Sultan Suleiman’s credibility as a religious leader. The mosque was constructed according to his conception, the Sultan also regularly gave sermons for Friday prayers at the mosque. Figure13 : Makam Diraja Klang Figure 14 : Alaeddin Mosque or also known as Masjid Bandar
  45. 45. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 27 Diagram 2 : Family tree of Sultan Sulaiman
  46. 46. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 28 2.4.6 Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (1938-1942/1945-1960) Born on 13th of May 1898, Tengku Alam Shah (Figure 15) was the second son of Sultan Alaeddin’s marriage with his second wife, Cik Aminah binti Pelong. He received his education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. After serving as Tengku Panglima Raja, he was appointed as Tengku Laksamana of Selangor in 1931. Tengku Alam Shah was not expected to succeed the throne because he had an elder half-brother (Tengku Musa Eddin) and an elder brother (Tengku Badar Shah) in line for the throne. However, due to Raja Muda Musa being dismissed from his post by British Resident Theodore Samuel Adams (1885–1961), Tengku Alam Shah was chosen over Tengku Badar Shah as the new Raja Muda in 1936 and eventually succeeded the throne after the passing of his father. Figure 15 : Sultan Sir Hisamudin Alam Shah Al-Haj
  47. 47. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 29 During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya in 1942, an event took place whereby Col. Fujiyama, the Japanese Military Governor of Selangor, invited Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah to King’s House in Kuala Lumpur. In a meeting with the Japanese officer, the Sultan confessed that he was influenced by the British Resident to support the British war efforts againts the Japanese. Sultan Hisamuddin was later removed from his seat of power after surrendering the regalia to his Tengku Musa Eddin. In November 1943, Japanese administration proclaimed Tengku Musa Eddin as the 6th Sultan of Selangor with the name Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah of Selangor. (Wangsamahkota, 2012) Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah refused to work with the Japanese and in his defiance declined their allowance awarded to him and his family. With the ending of Japanese occupation in 1945 and the return of British forces to Malayan soil, Sultan Alam Shah Hisamuddin was restored to the throne, while the former Sultan Musa was banished to Cocos Keeling Islands, Australia (Figure 16). On the 1st of March, 1946 Sultan Hisamuddin played an instrumental role in the formation of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) against Malayan Union which he had helped establish earlier. He had officiated the First Malay Unity Congress at the Sultan Sulaiman Club in Kuala Lumpur. Figure 16 : Cocos Keeling Island,Australia
  48. 48. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 30 Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah was sworn in on 14th of April, 1960 as the 2nd Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia for a term of 5 years. Unfortunately due to an unidentified illness, he passed away on September 1, 1960 which was the day set for his installation. He was laid to rest in the Tomb of Diraja in Klang, Selangor. During his short term of office as Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he had proclaimed the end of the emergency in Malaya. Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah was betrothed to Raja Jemaah binti Raja Ahmad in 1919. She was a Selangor royal family and served as Tengku Ampuan of Selangor and later Raja Permaisuri Agong. She passed away in 1973. Sultan Hisamuddin married his second wife in 1927 by the name of Cik Hajah Kalsom binti Mahmud. Tengku Abdul Aziz, the heir apparent son of the Sultan’s marriage with Raja Jemaah succeeded the throne of Selangor’s Sultanate, took the name of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah.
  49. 49. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 31 2.4.7 Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah (1942-1945) Tengku Musa Eddin (Figure 17) was the eldest son and heir apparent of Sultan Alaeddin. He was born on 9th December 1893 by his royal consort Tengku Ampuan Mahrum binti Raja Muda Tunku Dhiauddin. He was born in Jugra, Selangor with the name Tengku Musa Eddin. He received private education and was made Tengku Mahkota in 1903. In 1920 Tengku Musa Eddin was given the post of Raja Muda Selangor after the post had been vacated for quite some time. Described as an intelligent young man, he represented his father on the State Council established by the British colonial authority. It was to be seen that Raja Muda Musa would certainly inherit the throne of Selangor. However, due to accusations brought forward by the British Resident Adams, Raja Muda Musa was dismissed from his post in 1934 for immoral behaviour. Sultan Sulaiman did all he could for his son. He pleaded that Tengku Musa Eddin be returned to his post, but to no avail. The title of Raja Muda was instead given to Tengku Alam Shah over his older brother, Tengku Badar. The appointment occurred on 20 July 1936. Tengku Musa Eddin was given the title of Tengku Kelana Jaya Putera. Tengku Musa Eddin was present during Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah’s coronation on 26th January, 1939. (Malaysiafactbook, 2012) Figure 17 : Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Syah
  50. 50. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 32 Upon the return of the colonial powers to Malaya in 1945, in 1945, Sultan Musa was in turn dethroned by the British Military Administration under Lord Louis Mountbatten and Sultan Hisamuddin was installed again as Sultan of Selangor. Sultan Musa was exiled to the Cocos Keeling Islands (Figure 16) but was later permitted to return and settle in Singapore in May 1946. After Tengku Musa Eddin fell ill, he was brought back to Selangor a few months before his death on 8th November, 1955. Tengku Musa was buried beside his father at the Royal Mausoleum in Klang (Figure 9). His consort, Syarifah Mastura Shahabuddin of Kedah, became Tengku Permaisuri or Queen during his brief reign. She died in 1958. The couple had no children.
  51. 51. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 33 2.4.8 Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (1960-2001) Born on 8 March 1926 at Istana Bandar, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz (Figure 18) is the eldest son and heir apparent of Sul- tan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah by his royal consort Tengku Ampuan Raja Jemaah binti Raja Ahmad. As a child, he received his education at the Pengkalan Batu Malay School in Klang in 1934. In 1936, he went to study at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar until the Japanese occupation. After World War 2, he went to England in 1947 to further his studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London for two years. Upon his return from the United Kingdom, he served with the Civil Service Department as a Trainee Officer with the Selangor Survey Department and later served as an Inspector of Schools for eight years. (Hashim, 1985) He attended a short-term course at the Malay Military Troop in Port Dickson for six months in 1952 and was bestowed with the Queen Commission in the rank of captain. He was later promoted to the rank of major. Figure 18 : Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj
  52. 52. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 34 Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah was appointed as the Tengku Lak- samana of Selangor on 1st August 1946 and as the Raja Muda on 13th May 1950. He succeeded the throne after the passing of his father, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah on 1st September 1960. His coronation was on 28th June 1961 and he took the name of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah. Sultan Salahuddin was responsible for the cession of Kuala Lumpur from Selangor to the Federal Government to form a Fed- eral Territory on 1st February 1974. He was also the founder of the city of Shah Alam as the new capital for Selangor in 1978. According to Raden (2013), Sultan Salahuddin was the old- est ruler to be elected as the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong on April 26, 1999 and installed on 11 September 1999. However, after two years and 6 months, he died in office on November 21, 2001. He was interred in the Royal Mausoleum near Sultan Sulaiman Mosque in Klang.
  53. 53. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 35 2.4.9 Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj (2001-Current) Tengku Idris Shah (Figure 19) was born on 24th December 1945, as the first son of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz (then Raja Muda) and his first wife, Raja Saidatul Ihsan Tengku Badar Shah. He began his education at Malay Primary School in Kuala Lumpur before attending St. John’s Institution until 1959. Tengku Idris was proclaimed Raja Muda in 1960. He continued his study in Hale School in Australia and later furthered his studies in Lang- hurst College, United Kingdom in 1964. Raja Muda Idris later joined the government service and served in the Kuala Lumpur District Office and police department at that time. On 24th April 1999, he was appointed Regent of Sel- angor after his father became the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. On 22nd November 2001, Tengku Idris was proclaimed Sultan of Selangor, succeeding Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz, who died after only two years as Yang di-Pertuan Agong. He took the regnal named Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah. His formal coronation took place on 9 March 2003 at Istana Alam Shah, Klang. As Sultan, he is known to have revoked state awards given by him or by his father such as revoking the Datuk title of a busi- nessman who pleaded guilty for financial fraud, and also suspended others who have been charged in court for various misdealing. Figure 19 : Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Al-Haj
  54. 54. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 36 2.5 Istana Bandar 2.5.1 Istana Bandar as a Royal Palace Istana Bandar (Figure 20) was a palace owned by the fifth Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah. It is also known as Istana Alaeddin and Istana Temasya. Situated in Kampung Bandar, it was once the centre of administration for the state of Selangor. One of the reasons Sultan Alaeddin chose the site was because of its short distance to existing roads and river which was the main transportation to the nearby city of Jugra and Klang (Rasdi, 2012). Construction began in 1899 and finished in 1903. Unlike the official royal palace of Mahkota Puri (Figure 21), Istana Bandar was designed by the sultan and its construction was financed from his personal wealth. He moved to Istana Bandar in 1905. The palace was built during bitter family crisis between his first wife, Tengku Ampuan Mahrum of royal lineage and his second wife, Cik Aminah binti Pelong who was of common born (Kuala Langat District Council, 2014). Sultan Alaeddin built the palace for his second wife as Tengku Ampuan Mahrum stayed in Mahkota Puri. Sultan Alaeddin attend to both his wives’ needs by communing back and forth to each palace. His second wife passed away after 2 to 3 years of living in Istana Bandar. His Majesty’s subsequent wives lived in Istana Bandar until he passed away in 1938. Figure 20 : Istana Bandar in Jugra,1910 Figure 21 : Istana Mahkota Puri, Kelang, 1899
  55. 55. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 37 Amongst the scarce history records that could be found was that Sultan Alaeddin’s grandson, who was to be the eighth Sultan of Selangor, Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah, was born in 1926 in Istana Bandar. He spent his youth being educated with Islamic teaching and palace etiquettes and protocol by his grandfather and father, Sultan Hisamuddin. After the death of Sultan Alaeddin, his family moved to Klang and the palace was abandoned and fell into disuse (Rasdi, 2012).
  56. 56. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 38 2.5.2 Istana Bandar as a Gift Shop and a Tahfiz School After several decades of being abandoned, the state gov- ernment of Selangor took initiatives to restore the building to its original state as the building suffered deteriorations from disrepair. The restoration effort began in late 1980’s and completed in 1990 (D’Kampung Bandar, 2013). The state government briefly used the palace as the district’s art and craft center. This didn’t last long however as there was little response from the public at the time. On mid June1997, Selangor Islamic Religious Office temporarily used Istana Bandar as a Tahfiz school to teach the Qur’an while waiting for a permanent building to be constructed nearby. The Tahfiz School finished construction in 1999 and again Istana Bandar was left vacated.
  57. 57. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 39 2.5.3 Istana Bandar as a Living Museum In 2008, Istana Bandar was officially entrusted to the Selangor’s Board of Museum for restoration and conservation purposes. After completion it was subsequently handed over to the Malay Customs and National Heritage Corporations of Selangor (PADAT) (D’Kampung Bandar, 2013). At present, there is a plan to retrofit and repurpose the palace as a living museum with different concept from Museum Alam Shah. Based on statements given by PADAT officials, the living museum will be used to show the original condition of Istana Bandar in the past complete with furniture and royal equipments. The palace will be divided into 3 main areas. Balai Mengadap Baru will show the background history of Jugra and Istana Bandar itself while the center area which is Ruang Keluarga Diraja and Dapur Masak will show the equipment and furniture that were used in the past. The last showroom which is located in Ruang Beradu will be used to show the handicrafts from the entire state of Selangor. Figure 22 : Badan Warisan Signage
  58. 58. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 40 Diagram 3 : Timeline of physical changes ofIstana Bandar 2.6 Changes There were several physical changes on Istana Bandar since it was built. The changes on this building can be divided into 3 phases (Diagram 3); before the abandonment, abandonment and after abandonment. TIMELINE OF PHYSICAL CHANGES IN ISTANA BANDAR
  59. 59. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 41 2.6.1 Before Abandonment Period Before Istana Bandar was abandoned, it was used as a Royal Palace by Sultan Alaeddin, the fifth Sultan of Selangor and his family. The first block of building which is the Balai Mengadap Diraja was erected in 1898, with subsequent buildings built in stages since the reign of Sultan Alaeddin. At the beginning (Figure 23), it had no veranda (anjung, or sotoh). Then in 1914, the south side area had been added with 2 rooms and the rear façade was rebuilt grandly with western (colonial) and Moorish style with addition of a fence that leads to beautiful garden with Jawi carving on the top of the gate. Figure 23 : Istana Bandar before renovation Figure 24 : Istana Bandar sketch with the original colors
  60. 60. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 42 The star ornament (Figure 25) on the column that can still be seen became the mark of the old building. In 1925, the main façade also had been renovated with an additional porch (Figure 26). The only significant event that happened during this era was the birth of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz who years later became the seventh sultan of Selangor. Around this time, Istana Bandar was painted in blue pale and yellow colours to symbolise royalty of Selangor. Figure 25 : The column with star ornament Figure 26 : The main facade of Istana Bandar in 1925
  61. 61. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 43 Figure 27 : Istana Bandar during abandonment 2.6.2 Abandonment Period Since 1938, after SultanAlaeddin Sulaiman Shah has passed away, the palace was left vacant without any occupant. Without any care and maintenance for decades, Istana Bandar slowly lost its grandeur and looked really decayed (Figure 27).
  62. 62. IstanaBandar2.0HistoricalBackground 44 Figure 28 : Istana Bandar in 1997 Figure 29 : Istana Bandar after 1999 Figure 30 : Istana Bandar after conservation 2.6.3 After Abandonment Period In late 1980s, there was a plan to restore the Istana Bandar to its original condition. The restoration was completed in 1990 with the adding of a flat roof on this building. In 1997 (Figure 28), this building was used as Maahad Tahfiz School with the wall painted in yellow while the ornament painted in white. After 1999, this building was again vacated and partially abandon. This can be seen from the paint on the wall reversed to the white colours while the ornament painted on white colours (Figure 29). Some damages on the building were then repaired by Heritage Department of Malaysia during December 2008; new coats of paint, pale yellow on the wall and white colour on the ornaments, repaired balustrades, pillars and windows including the floor with the closest material and design as the original design with the addition of electricity to the building (Figure 30). Today Istana Bandar is still undergoing gradual restoration with the plan of using Istana Bandar as The Living Museum.
  63. 63. IstanaBandar3.0Design 45 Figure 31 : Istana Deli, Medan 3.0 Design 3.1 A diverse influence in Istana Bandar Istana Bandar is considered as one of the most remarkable heritage architecture in this region with its unique form of architecture. This Palace was built after a bitter family crisis between Sultan Alaeddin and his wives and his visit to the Palace of Deli, Medan (Figure 31) a year before Istana Bandar was built which gave him the idea of a grand palace with rich Islamic architecture feature. The local architecture and the Chinese worker also influence the design on this building. Although there is no evidence Istana Bandar was designed by an architect, the architectural elements still blends well with local architecture which were designed to suit the local context by adapting new materials application and technology of its time. Not only is the palace influenced by its surrounding, it also influenced the design of other buildings in its vicinity.
  64. 64. IstanaBandar3.0Design 46 3.2 Location From the Figure 32, we can deduce why Sultan Alaeddin chose to build his palace at Kampung Bandar. Istana Bandar is situated in a strategic location nearby the joining of two different rivers.The reason for the importance of the river is because it was the main form of transportation at the time as travelling by land would take too long.The first path (west) leads to Jugra and eventually to the straits of Malacca. The second path (east) leads past Banting Village and third path (north) leads to town of Klang, the centre of administration for Selangor. The Sultan’s official palace, Istana Mahkota Puri, was also situated in Klang. therefore it was easy for Sultan Alaeddin to travel back and forth between Istana Bandar and Istana Mahkota Puri. Figure 32 : Location of Istana Bandar in Selangor
  65. 65. IstanaBandar3.0Design 47 The location of Istana Bandar is strategic due to the existance of a nearby hill which protects Kampung Bandar from the harsh monsoon wind. Compared to modernising city such as Kuala Lumpur and Klang, Kampung Bandar is quite seclude and peaceful, providing the Sultan with a retreat away from the bustling city. The construction of Istana Bandar turned Kampung Bandar from a backwater village to a thriving town. New buildings were also built such as Masjid Bandar and Schools (Figure 33). For the duration of Sultan Alaeddin’s reign, Kampung Bandar became the royal town due to the gradual improvement in economic from time to time.The development of the town creates a lot of business opportunity and attract the locals even foreigners to choose this place to start and expand their business. ISTANA BANDAR EX-BALAI POLIS TAHFIZ SCHOOL ISTANA LONG PUTERI MASJID BANDAR SCHOOL ROYAL CEMETRY CEMETRY JUGRA PRISON Figure 33: Landmark in Kampung Bandar
  66. 66. IstanaBandar3.0Design 48 Figure 34 : Padang in front of Istana Bandar that once is a Balai Polis Figure 35 : The ruins of Istana Long Putri 3.2.1 Balai polis Based the interview, Mr. Hazli (2014) stated that there was once a police station located infront of Istana Bandar (Figure 34). However, this building had been demolished and now only the foundation remains. This empty space is now used as a play ground by the village to play football and other sports. 3.2.2 Istana Long Puteri/Maimun This palace was built for the granddaughter of Sultan Abdul Samad, Raja Long Puteri. It had wooden structures and concrete floor with 3 separates areas. Now, the only remaining part of the building that can be seen from the ruins is the staircase (Figure 35).
  67. 67. IstanaBandar3.0Design 49 Figure 36 : Masjid Sultan Alaeddin Figure 37 : The Second Primary School in Kampung Bandar 3.2.3 Masjid Sultan Alaeddin Masjid Sultan Alaeddin (Figure 36) located approximately 200 meters from Istana Bandar, this masjid was built by Sultan Alaeddin in 1924. It has the architectural influences from Deli in Medan, North Sumatra. Based on the interview with the villagers, Sultan Alaeddin often delivered Friday sermons at this mosque which demostrate the sultan’s credibility as a religious leader. 3.2.4 Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar Kampung Bandar Primary School (Figure 37) now is more than 100 years old. it was founded on 13 march 1989 with the name Sekolah Melayu Bandar Dandan Bakly Raja. The first build- ing was erected around 400 meters from Istana Bandar, but after five years it was moved because the land is being used to build a worship place. In 1952, the school was again relocateed but it still stands relatively unchanged and it is currently used as a religious school.
  68. 68. IstanaBandar3.0Design 50 Figure 38 : The remains stairs of Royal Jetty Figure 39 : Makam Diraja Kampung Bandar 3.2.5 Royal Jetty This old jetty (Figure 38) is located not far from Istana Bandar and the tributary flow to Klang and Banting made this jetty an important spot for transportation during Sultan Abdul Samad and Sultan Alaeddin regime. The water transportation was important at that time because automobile was not a commadity yet. Sultan Alaeddin take the boat back and forth often to visit to Istana Mahkota Puri where his first wife stayed in. 3.2.6 Makam Diraja Makam Diraja (Figure 39) is the place where the relatives of the Sultan were buried while the neighboring cemetery is for the local. The grave of the closest relative of the sultan was built with marble instead of normal stone, that differentiate it with other gravestone. The ruins of Masjid Raja Muda Musa, which was the first mosque built in Kampung Bandar back then before the Masjid Sultan Abdul Samad was built, is located right beside the cemetery as well.
  69. 69. IstanaBandar3.0Design 51 Figure 40 : Masjid Raja Muda Musa beside Makam Diraja Kampung Bandar Figure 41 : The Tahfiz School built beside Istana Bandar 3.2.7 Masjid Raja Muda Musa This mosque (Figure 40) was built in 1875 and can accommodate around 150 people inside the building. It has been functioning for 45 years until 1920 when the building was damaged. The place was still being used until the new mosque, Masjid Sultan Alaeddin construction was finished. 3.2.8 Tahfiz School This new building (Figure 41) was built in 1999 for learning Qur’an. While this building was still under construction, Istana Bandar was used temporarily as both class room and dormitory.
  70. 70. IstanaBandar3.0Design 52 Figure 42 : Jugra Prison or also known as Rumah Pasung. Figure 43 : Royal Mausoleum painted in yellow color to symbolize royalty 3.2.9 Jugra Prison Jugra Prison (Figure 42) is situated in Mukim Jugra and known as Rumah Pasung. Built in 1875, this building was used as a place to execute an order through a judicial system during that time. This two storey building is the first jail in Selangor and after restoration in 2002 by Department of National Heritage, this building became an in-situ museum. 3.2.10 Makam Sultan Abdul Samad Makam Sultan Abdul Samad (Figure 43) is a Selangor Royal Mausoleum located at Jugra Hills. The makam of the Sultan is situated inside the structure while other royals and important dignitaries were buried around it. The grave stones are wrapped in green, black, yellow and white color depending on their position in the Royalty of Selangor.
  71. 71. IstanaBandar3.0Design 53 Ground Floor Diagram 5 : Symmetry and Balance 3.3 Istana Bandar Spatial Organization and Function According to Syed Ariffin (2000;15) ‘’the palaces of the sultans were of paramount importance in feudal Malay society, not only as places of residence but as centers of administration, learning and culture’’. He also added that, “the palaces not only incorporated many of the beliefs of the sultans and reflected their way of life but, adopts the style common to the various regions of the Peninsula like Acheh, Sumatera, Java an Riau’’(2008;15). 3.3.1 Spatial Organization Spatial organization in a building is important. It can affect the human behaviour and movement in the building. The planning of space within Istana Bandar is symmetrical and balanced on both sides, from the size, form and the function of space. The symmetry can be seen from both the elevation and from the floor plan (Diagram 5).
  72. 72. IstanaBandar3.0Design 54      PUBLIC SEMI-PRIVATE PRIVATE Ground Floor First Floor Diagram 6 : Spatial Organization 3.3.2 Space Hierarchy There are three main areas in the palace which are arranged according to hierarchy (Diagram 6); the public space for commoners, semi-private space for palace officials and private area for the royal family. There is a first floor for the common space and semi private space. However, rooms for the royal families are only situated on the lower floor. In total, this building contains forty rooms to accommodate the needs of the royal family.
  73. 73. IstanaBandar3.0Design 55 Ground Floor COMMONERS ROYAL WORKERS Diagram 7 : Circulation The cluster organization is located at the main area on the centre part of building. It acts as a private space for the royals which created an absolute circulation mainly for them. The commoners still can access the surrounding of the building freely and the public space to meet the Sultan when granted. But, for the semi-public space, it only can be accessed by the royals, officers and the royal workers with a specific circulation (Diagram 7) .
  74. 74. IstanaBandar3.0Design 56 MEN WOMEN Ground Floor Diagram 8 : The division of space 3.3.3 The Division of Space The Sultan was known as a religious person who followed his religion rule and custom. This is the other factor that influenced the space planning in Istana Bandar. The rule that prohibits socializing amongst unmarried men and women in Islam demands for the seclusion from the opposite sex can be seen in Diagram 8. The room for Sultan was located in the centre where he can freely access the public space to carry out official businesses and also access to the other space. Meanwhile, the rooms that are shown in red colours were for the Sultan’s wives and daughters with the direct access to the inner and outer courtyard.
  75. 75. IstanaBandar3.0Design 57    BILIK MENUNGGU BALAI MENGADAP Ground Floor Diagram 9 : Public Space 1 3.3.4 Function Each room in each area have different functions and users. These are the functions for each room when Istana Bandar was used as a Royal Palace. Public Space It is a social space that is generally open and accessible to people. It is a space that can be entered without the need of an authority. This space consists of a few rooms, which are; • Bilik Menunggu - Waiting Room The waiting room which is located at the ground floor of the assembly hall is to serve the people who want to pay respect to the Sultan. • Balai Mengadap - Assembly Hall It is a gathering hall for commoners, palace officials and the royal family
  76. 76. IstanaBandar3.0Design 58 BALAI RONG SERI First Floor Diagram 10 : Public Space 2 • Balai Rong Seri - Throne Room It acts as a big common hall in a palace, used for a ruler or a king to conduct over official ceremonies. It is considered an office or a workplace for the ruler. Official ceremonies are usually held in this space such as hold councils and grant audiences.
  77. 77. IstanaBandar3.0Design 59 BILIK BILIK PEJABAT RUANG BERISTIRAHAT Ground Floor First Floor Diagram 11 : Semi-private space Semi- Private Space It is a space with some degree of privacy. Only certain people with authority can enter the space such as the workers and servants of the palace. . • Bilik - Room Smaller than other common rooms, it is situated on both the ground and first floor. It is used as storerooms to keep belongings such as light fixtures, furniture and etc. • Bilik Pejabat - Office There are two offices facing each other located on the ground floor. It is used as confidential rooms for the meeting of officials. • Ruang Beristirehat - Resting Room It is a resting area for the Sultan and his family to spend quality time together.
  78. 78. IstanaBandar3.0Design 60 Ground Floor KAMAR SANTAP DIRAJAKAMAR BERADU ROYAL BATH Diagram 12 : Private Space Private Space It is a space solely for the royal family. Only the higher authorities are allowed to enter these spaces. • Kamar Santap Diraja - Royal Banquet Room This room is used for hosting parties, banquets, receptions, or other social events. It is connected with the kitchen for the ease of such events. The people who attended the events are solely invited by the Sultan. • Kamar Beradu- Royal Room The bedrooms used by the wives of the Sultan. The Kamar Beradu are located at strategic location for the ease of accessing to other spaces like assembly hall, royal kitchen and the royal banquet room. • Laman - Courtyard The courtyards in the middle of the buildings are one of the characteristics of the Moorish style architecture to allow the cooling effect to take part in the building. In addition, it can serve to beautify the palace. • Royal Bath The royal bath on the left is enclosed by the surrounding building which is preferred to be used by the Sultan’s wives. The royal bath on the right is more open, which is preferred to be used by the men in the palace. The royal bath is connected to the nearby river, therefore it is never dry. The royal bathe can also be used to show the tide of the river.
  79. 79. IstanaBandar3.0Design 61 Figure 44 : Moorish architecture features 3.3 A Diverse Influence of Architecctural Style Although Istana Bandar has been under several renovation and restoration, the several architecture feature which is from Moorish, Indian, Chinese, Colonial and Malay architecture style are still remains the same with its original design. 3.3.1 Moorish Architecture Moorish Architecture in Malaysia This style of architecture refers to the Islamic architecture that was developed around North Africa and south-western Europe. The style was prominent during 8th to the 15th century. This style was influenced by the Greco-Roman, Berber and Visigoth cultures and tradition hence influencing the Mediterranean culture. The main elements of this style include the interior decorations and relating to nature like the courtyard with gardens, fountains, reflecting pools and landscaping. According to the Islamic laws, decorations on screens and the walls were strictly followed by the rules of the Quran that forbids the copying of natural forms e.g. depicting human figures and animals in the designs. According to Azim (2009), the main canons for Islamic architecture are calligraphies, Arabesque or Islimi, and geometric shapes (Figure 44). The pattern of the stars, crescents, hexagons and octagons are emmbeded within a geometric composition. The designs are usually in primary colours, but most prominent in gold silver and white. This style started to influence the Malaysia architecture at early 20th century (early colonial times) and can also be seen through the Istana Jugra’s decorations, arches and the special materials being clay and tiles to adapt to the climate.
  80. 80. IstanaBandar3.0Design 62 Diagram 13 : Moorish features in Istana Bandar Figure 46 : Crenallation Figure 45 : Ogee Arches Moorish Architecture in Istana Bandar Moorish architecture can be seen in Istana Bandar through its use of geometrical shape in its doors and windows, for example the carve ornament on the wall. Moorish elements such as ogee arches (Figure 45) and crenellated rooftops (Figure 46) can be seen clearly throughout the private space of the palace. The horseshoe arches can be found at the rear of Balai Menghadap.
  81. 81. IstanaBandar3.0Design 63 Figure 47 : Taj Mahal 3.3.2 Mogul Architecture Mogul Architecture in Malaysia The Mogul architectural style started in India after Babur’s victory defeating the Lodi dynasty. Mogul style is a combination of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture. The Mogul dynasty started in 1526 and lasted 320 years. The reason of it being prominent is due to its sculptural effects. The Mogul architecture influences in Malaysia have also started along with the Moorish period in the 20th century during the colonial period of Great Britain. The Istana has been influenced by the mogul architecture in various ways, for example minarets which are located at the front of the building and most of the arches are carved with mogul design (Kamiya, 2010). A lot of Indian significant designs and styles can be seen in Istana Bandar.
  82. 82. IstanaBandar3.0Design 64 Diagram 14 : Mogul features in Istana Bandar Figure 48 : Minaarets Mogul Architecture in Istana Bandar The small minarets (Figure 48) dotting the façades and surroundings of Istana Bandar reflect the prominent element of the palace. The use of ‘Jali’, which is latticed screen, is also apparent and is employed for fixed ventilation above some window types (CA, 2012).
  83. 83. IstanaBandar3.0Design 65 3.3.3 Colonial Architecture Colonial Architecture in Malaysia Through the history of Malaysia, the architectural styles here have been influenced by various methods and the biggest way of being influenced is due to its colonization by different countries. There are a few different sorts of colonial styles of architecture in Malaysia but the most prominent one being a mix of British architecture along with the other certain styles like Moorish and Mogul during the colonial period of Great Britain in Malaysia. The colonial type of style has been part of Malaysia’s design from around the 17th century till the mid 20th century. (Chun, Hasan, & Noordin, 2005). The colonization of Great Britain has led to the construction of numerous administrative buildings in Malaysia. Figure 49 : Ipoh Hall
  84. 84. IstanaBandar3.0Design 66 Diagram 15 : Colonial Architecture in Istana Bandar Figure 50 : Portico in the facade Figure 51 : Windows with western influence Colonial Architecture in Istana Bandar British colonial architectural style is generally apparent in Istana Bandar’s façade and most of its columns (Figure 50). Furthermore it can be seen in some parts of the window decorative elements (Figure 51).
  85. 85. IstanaBandar3.0Design 67 3.3.4 Malay Architecture Malay Architecture in Malaysia The traditional Malay architecture shows a unique archi- tectural process ideally suited to tropical climatic conditions such as wide roof overhangs and high-pitched roofs. Building on stilts allows cross-ventilating breezes beneath the dwelling to cool the house and compliment the tropical climate. The traditional designs in houses (Figure 52). did not in- clude any nails but rather relied on the tongue and groove con- struction technique in its post and beam construction of hardwood connected by wedges. The Malayan architectural style in Malaysia started as early as pre-15th century till the present. The Malayan architecture consists mainly of wood carvings as ornamentation especially in a floral manner. The roofs are also designed to suit the humid tropical climate is usually high pitched and overhanging (Chun, Hasan, & Noordin, 2005). Figure 52: Traditional houses
  86. 86. IstanaBandar3.0Design 68 Diagram 15 : Malay Architecture in Istana Bandar Figure 53 : Gable Finial Figure 54 : Sulur Bayung Malay Architecture in Istana Bandar The Istana Bandar shows a high trait of Malay architecture, starting from roof design with unique wood carvings that allow special ventilation in and out of the building. The presence of open spaces and high ceilings are also another trait of this type of architecture.
  87. 87. IstanaBandar3.0Design 69 3.3.5 Chinese Architecture Chinese Architecture in Malaysia In Malaysia, Chinese architecture is of two main types: traditional and Baba-Nyonya. Baba-Nyonya are Chinese who migrated to Malaya and overtime, blended their culture with the locals. Baba-Nyonya can be found mainly in Penang and Melaka due to job opportunities at the time (Figure 55). Baba- Nyonya architectures are mixtures of Malay and Chinese with minor influence from British Victorian elements. Overall Chinese decorations are more focused on luck, feng shui and wealth. Traditional Chinese emphasis more on elements such as dragons and gods feature to bring them luck with the focused more on belief and symbolism. One of important elements in Baba-Nyonya architecture are the open courtyard allows rain into the house which symbolism wealth coming into their lives (Visit Malaysia, 2014). Figure 55 : Baba-Nyonya house in Malacca
  88. 88. IstanaBandar3.0Design 70 Diagram 16 : Chinese Architecture in Istana Bandar Figure 56 : The Bumbung Limas influenced from chinese pagoda roof Figure 57 : The chinese ventilation block Chinese Architecture in Istana Bandar Istana Bandar shows some traits of Chinese architectural styles in a few areas of design. It may not be the most prominent style, but enough of it to be part of one of the main styles through ornaments, roof style (Figure 56), ventilation blocks (Figure 57) and courtyard.
  89. 89. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 71 4.0 Architecture Element Architecture Elements are the unique details and component parts that, together, form the architecture style of houses, buildings and structures.The period between late 18th and early 20th centuries saw the assimilation of colonial style architecture elements into local Chinese and Malay elements. The architecture elements in Istana Bandar are generally combined from Anglo-Indian, Straits Eclectic and Malay. Generally, a typical colonial-influenced structure is a two- storey building which expresses the Western and local architectural traditions modified by the use of local methods of building construction and building materials (Ahmad, 1994). These includes raised structures, projecting porches with arches or classical columns, high ceilings, wide verandas, big openings, plastered brick walls, hipped roofs, internal courtyards, stables, circular driveways, ample gardens and servants’ quarters. Such buildings, like Istana Bandar, usually respond to the local climate by the introduction of elements such as veranda, front porch, internal courtyard, ventilation grilles, big openings and high ceilings. The architectural styles of Istana Bandar, its grandiose scale, decorative building elements and lavish interiors became the distinctive characteristic of the social hierarchy of its resident.
  90. 90. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 72 4.1 Elements of the Building 4.1.1 Façade The façade of Istana Bandar is typically combination of all architecture style that influenced the building, such as Moorish, Mughal, Malay, Chinese and Colonial architecture. Although the façade is not used as the main entrance of Istana Bandar, it depicts the greatness at the overall palace, this is because the is located in the most prominient part of Kampung Bandar. Figure 58 : The facade depicture different architectural styles in Istana Bandar
  91. 91. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 73 4.1.2 Columns Columns are vertical structural members used to transfer the load of the weight of the structure above to the other structural elements below such as roof truss, archivolt and the beams. Istana Bandar Jugra’s columns are influenced by Greek Architecture. They are known to look straight from a distance. But up close, the columns might be tilting, to better support each building. The Greeks wanted things to be beautiful and strong. These are the few types of Greek Columns: 1. The Doric style which are mostlt olain in its design 2. The Ionic design is famous for its scrolls ornament. 3. The Corinthian style is quite fancy with leafy elements. This system was developed according to three styles. Each order consists of an upright support called acolumn that extends from the base at the bottom with a shaft in the middle and a capital at the top (Fig 60) . The capital was often a stylized representation of natural forms, such as animal horns or plant leaves. It is divided further into three different parts: • The architrave (lowest part) • The frieze (middle) • The cornice (top) Figure 60 : Basic element of greek columns. Figure 59 : Classical orders column
  92. 92. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 74 These elements were further elaborated with decorative moldings and ornamentation. Each component of a classical order was sized and arranged according to an overall proportioning sys- tem based on the height and diameter of the columns. A Tuscan column resembles a Doric Column from ancient Greece. Both column styles are simple, without carvings or ornaments. However, a Tuscan column is more slender than a Doric column. In conclusion it is stronger than any other types of columns projecting masculity outlooks. Tuscan Column is widely used in Istana Bandar with different height and diameter. Most of the column are made with concrete and timber columns are mainly used in Balai Rong Seri (Fig 63) and the walkway . TIMBER COLUMN Diagram 17 : Types of Column in Istana Bandar Figure 63 : Balai Rong Seri First Floor Figure 61 : Timber column used in the inner part of the Balai Rong Seri Figure 62 : Concrete column used on the first floor in Balai Rong Seri CONCRETE COLUMN
  93. 93. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 75 As shown in Diagram 18 , most of the columns located on the ground floor are concrete columns.The columns that are supporting a roof along the walkway of the ground floor is slimmer than other columns. They are timber columns as they are only supporting a single story roof. The columns used in the skylight unit, Kamar Beradu (Fig 64) are simpler than other columns used in the Istana Bandar Jugra. They do not have any capital or base. Figure 64 : Columns in Kamar Beradu Column in the walk ways Column in Kamar Beradu Diagram 18 : Concrete Column in Istana Bandar
  94. 94. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 76 Columns also can used to articulate the extent and decorate the walls (Fig 65). It allow walls to be thinner than a usual load bearing wall. The columns at Istana Bandar manipulate this advantages by modified the capital of column with malay ornament. The arch on the top of column also help to distribute the weight of the ceiling from the first floor to both of the columns (Fig 66). Figure 66 : Arches on the top of column distribute the load. Figure 65 : Pilaster
  95. 95. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 77 4.1.3 Windows Based on the type of window mechanism, there is only one type of window in Istana Bandar which is the casement window. Casement window has two swing panels to create opening. This window is made from timber with slender steel bars behind the shutters to provide security for the building. There are 18 different types of double shutter casement windows in Istana Bandar. It can be differentiate by the type of vents designs on top of the windows, ornaments and bracket designs of the panels itself. Based on the transom design, it can be differentiate in 5 types of windows, which is: a. Double shutter casement window b. Double Shutter Casement window with Louver c. Double Shutter Casement Window with Lattice. d. Double Shutter Casement window with pointed trefoil fixed glass e. Double Shutter Casement window with glass
  96. 96. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 78 a. Double shutter casement window This normal casement window is differentiated by the panel and ornament details. Casement window can provide 100% opening. The ornament details that surround the window help to enhance different architecture style, while the panel details give another advantage to the window. For example, the fix glass allow sunlight to penetrate into the space while the windows with louvered panel provided ventilation and at the same time minimizing the heat from the outside. Window15 This window type has a simple Western influenced decoration (Fig 67). The window uses trellis for security reason. This allows the user to fully open the window and still feel safe. When closed, the window completely shuts off sunlight and ventilation. Ground Floor First Floor Diagram 18 : W5 location plan Figure 67 : W5
  97. 97. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 79 Window 7 This casement glass window is decorated with elements of the Greek column. (Fig 68). Figure 68 : W7 Diagram 19 : W7 location plan First Floor
  98. 98. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 80 Window 8 Located on the first floor, the window design is a mixture of Malay with the use of louver, and Mogul with the imitation of the onion dome with minarets (Fig 69). This design provides ventilation through the adjustable louvers even when the window is closed. Figure 69 : W8 Diagram 20 : W8 location plan First Floor
  99. 99. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 81 W13 This window has a simple western window panel. It is also decorated with a top and bottom cornice originated from western influence, georgian style (Fig 71). Figure 70 : W13 Diagram 21 : W13 location plan Ground Floor Figure 71 : Georgian style windows
  100. 100. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 82 W15 AsimpleWestern window type with no use of decorative elements. It is fitted with security bars for protection purposes (Fig 73.). Figure 72 : Exterior of W15 Diagram 22 : W15 location plan Ground Floor Figure 73 : Interior of W15
  101. 101. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 83 b. Double Shutter Casement window with Louver The louvered vent provides maximum air ventilation and at the same time it can prevent the rain water and the penetration of natural light. There are two types of windows with louvered vent in Istana Bandar, casement window with lattice panel and casement window with normal panel. Window 11 This is a western influence double casement window with simple panel and Malay louver head (Fig 74). There is no apparent decorative element that can be seen. Ground Floor Diagram 23 : W11 location plan Figure 74 : W11
  102. 102. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 84 Window 17 This is a Western style casement window with Malay louvered panels and head which provides excellent ventilation. It is also decorated with Western style cornice (Fig 75). This window type surrounds the main balai menghadap. Diagram 24 : W17 location plan Figure 75 : W17 First Floor
  103. 103. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 85 Window 18 This is a double casement window with Moorish influenced lattice design on the window panel and louvered head for ventilation (Fig 76) . It seems as if it is resting on a balustrade decoration below it. Diagram 25 : W18 location plan Figure 76 : W18 First Floor
  104. 104. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 86 c. Double Shutter Casement Window with Lattice The lattice on top the window provides air ventilation no matter the shutter is closed or opened. Unfortunately, it does not have the function like the louvered vent to keep out of the rainwater. The panel on the casement window also varies in the design and size. Window 10 This window type has a Western influenced window panel and Morish design ventilation opening. The ornaments above and below the window has a Western influence. Diagram 26 : W10 location plan Figure 77 : W10 Ground Floor
  105. 105. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 87 Window 16 This is a simple window panel with a Moorish wooden lattice head (Fig 78). It has a unique ornament decoration on 4 corners of the window panel. Diagram 27 : W16 location plan Figure 78 : W16 Ground Floor
  106. 106. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 88 d. Double Shutter Casement window with pointed trefoil fixed glass (Window 9) The pointed trefoil window highlights the Mogul architecture style. Its function is to allow the natural light to penetrate into the room and illuminate the interior space and in the same time reduce the heat and protection to the rain. This types of windows can be found in the private place, the royal bedroom. Diagram 28 : W9 location plan First Floor Figure 79 : W9
  107. 107. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 89 e. Double Shutter Casement window with glass The fixed windows allows naural light to penetrate through the space and illuminate the interior space. At the same time, it prevents the interior environment from heat and rain. The ornament on the wall is added to surround the window which enhance western influence on the building. Window 1 This window’s ornament is a combination of Western and Mogul elements (Fig 80); Mogul being the minaret while the rest feature is Western. The double shutter casement window and its glass head is of western influence. Diagram 29 : W1 location plan First Floor Figure 80 : W1
  108. 108. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 90 Window 2 This window type is wider than the rest of the windows in Istana Bandar (Fig 81). It has Western window panels with glass lattice head. The ornament has a mixture of Western architraves with an arch flanked by two Mogul minarets. Diagram 30 : W2 location plan Ground Floor Figure 81 : W2
  109. 109. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 91 Window 3 This casement window has glass lattice panel influenced from both Moorish and Western influence. The ornament has a mixture of Mogul and Western elements; the Mogul element being the minaret ornament. Its head has three small sized glass panel which is of Western influence. Diagram 31 : W2 location plan Ground Floor Figure 82 : W2
  110. 110. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 92 Window 4 This is a double shutter casement window which has a Western influence along with its ornaments. Its head, also Western, has three small sized glass panel, allowing sufficient light into the room. Diagram 32 : W4 location plan Ground Floor Figure 83 : W4
  111. 111. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 93 Window 6 This Western type window has single piece glass head above its panel. The ornaments are Western-based with two Moorish minaret on the top. Diagram 33 : W6 location plan First Floor Figure 84 : W6
  112. 112. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 94 4.1.4 Door There are more than 40 doors in Istana Bandar with different size and location. Basically there are two types of door based on the mechanism; a single hinged door and double hinged door. Single hinged door Single hinge door has only one swing panel to create opening. In Istana Bandar, this door is made from timber with Chinese Block ornament on the top to provide ventilation when the door closes. This types of door is used as opening for toilet (Fig 85). Diagram 34 : D16 location plan Ground Floor Figure 85 : D16
  113. 113. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 95 2. Double Hinged Door Double Hinged door is made up of two swing doors with its hinges on both side of the door frames. These types of doors are also made from timber with a single rebated jamb. A single rebated jamb caused the door in Istana Bandar to be opened only in one direction, inward or outward. There are 25 types of double hinged doors in Istana Bandar with different windows types on the top of door, total number of panels or the size of the door leaf itself. The doors are categorized into a few category below: a. Double Hinged Doors b. Double Hinged Doors with 6 architrave c. Double Hinged Doors with fan light window d. Double hinged door with jalousie windows e. Double hinged door with fixed windows f. Double Hinged door with pointed trefoil arch g. Arched top braced door
  114. 114. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 96 a. Double Hinged Doors Door 7 This simple Georgian architecture style door characterized by the panels placed between two prominent columns. The door leads to a small room which reflects its simple design. Diagram 35 : D7 location plan Ground Floor Figure 86 : D7
  115. 115. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 97 Door 18 This double hinged door is located in the ground floor of Balai Rong Seri. The door panels have simple carving expressing the simplicity of the room that it leads to. The lintel extends out links to the ground in a pilaster type formation Diagram 36 : D18 location plan Ground Floor Figure 87 : D18
  116. 116. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 98 b. Double Hinged Doors with 6 architrave There are various types of normal double hinged doors in Istana Bandar that is differentiated by the total number of panel, size and the architrave detail. Most of the door with plain architrave can be found all around Istana Bandar, while the decorative architrave door is only used in the main façade. Door 14 This door is slightly special as there is a ventilation window above the door to improve ventilation in the space. It is located inside the room of the Kamar Beradu. Diagram 37 : D14 location plan Ground Floor Figure 88 : D14
  117. 117. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 99 Door 26 This Georgian style door has varying raised panels and layered trim board with decorative molding. The size is also larger than most doors that can be found in Istana Bandar because it is used as the main entrance from the portico into the balai menghadap. Diagram 38 : D7 location plan First Floor Figure 89 : D7
  118. 118. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 100 Door 8 This door is under the Georgian architecture style characterized by the placement of panels between two columns capped with a decorative crown supported by decorative pilasters First Floor Diagram 39 : D8 location plan Figure 90 : D8
  119. 119. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 101 Door 15 This simple Western style double hinged door is decorated with plain architrave and no prominent features. This door provides a complete privacy as no degree of transparency is seen. Ground Floor Diagram 40 : D15 location plan Figure 91: D15
  120. 120. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 102 Door 23 Another door that is influenced by the Georgian style. It is located at the ground floor below the corridor of balai rong seri. Ground Floor Diagram 41 : D23 location plan Figure 92 : D23
  121. 121. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 103 Door 25 This door leads to a room in the Balai Rong Seri. The design shuts off ventilation which provides privacy for the user. This space is a public space but the privacy of the room can be improved as long as the doors are closed. First Floor Diagram 42 : D25 location plan Figure 93 : D25
  122. 122. IstanaBandar4.ArchitectureElement 104 c. Double Hinged Doors with fan light window This type of door can be found mostly in semi-public space such as Balai Mengadap Diraja and pejabat. The fan light windows is to highlight the Georgian architecture style. In addition, this design allows sunlight to diffuse into the room and light up the interior space. Door 10 There are 3 carved design on each panel all carved at rectangular shapes. This door design is widely used in Balai Mengadap First Floor Diagram 43 : D10 location plan Figure 94 : D10