describes markets such that no participants are large enough to have the market power to set the price of a homogeneous product.
If your sales forecast is inaccurate, how far off can you be and still be profitable? Ideally, you want to be able to be off by a factor of two or more (your sales are half of your forecast) and still be profitable.Have you figured salary for yourself in your costs? If not, your profit has to be enough for you to live on and still have money to reinvest in the company. This may seem obvious, but many entrepreneurs seem to miss this simple concept, either by miscalculating costs or by inadequate market research to determine fair pricing. Simply put, if people won't readily pay enough more than your cost to make you a fair profit, you need to reconsider your business model entirely. How can you cut your costs substantially? Or change your product positioning to justify higher pricing?
Cumulative discounts may be offered to resellers who purchase large quantities over time but who do not wish to place large individual orders.
For example, the travel industry offers much lower off-season rates. Such discounts do not have to be based on time of the year; they also can be based on day of the week or time of the day, such as pricing offered by long distance and wireless service providers.
What is Pricing?Is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products.
Two ViewsBuyers’ View – For those making a purchase, such as final customers, price refers to what must be given up to obtain benefits.Sellers’ View - To sellers in a transaction, price reflects the revenue generated for each product sold and, thus, is an important factor in determining profit.
Common QuestionsAre they getting their money’s worth?Can they afford that certain product?Can I have a discount?Why is it so expensive?
What a Price should do!• Achieve the financial goals of the company. (e.g., profitability)• Fit the realities of the marketplace. (Will customers buy at that price?)• Support a products market positioning.
Factors that affects Pricing Cost Customer Competition Other Factors•Suppliers prices •Growth in •perfect •Role of Middle customers income competition Man•Price inflation •Perception about •Imperfect•Exchange rate future prices Competitionmovements •Quality perception• Quality • Demand
Pricing StrategiesPenetration pricing• Here the organization sets a low price to increase sales and market share. Once market share has been captured the firm may well then increase their price.
Pricing StrategiesSkimming pricing• The organization sets an initial high price and then slowly lowers the price to make the product available to a wider market. The objective is to skim profits of the market layer by layer.
Pricing StrategiesCompetition pricing• Setting a price in comparison with competitors. Really a firm has three options and these are to price lower, price the same or price higher.
Pricing StrategiesProduct Line Pricing• Pricing different products within the same product range at different price points.
Pricing StrategiesBundle Pricing• The organization bundles a group of products at a reduced price.
Pricing StrategiesPsychological pricing• The seller here will consider the psychology of price and the positioning of price within the market place.
Pricing StrategiesPremium pricing• The price set is high to reflect the exclusiveness of the product.
Pricing StrategiesOptional pricing• The organization sells optional extras along with the product to maximize its turnover
Basic Guidelines• Your price must be enough higher than costs to cover reasonable variations in sales volume.• You have to make a living.• Your price should almost never be lower than your costs or higher than what most consumers consider "fair"
Price DiscountsQuantity discount - offered to customers who purchase in large quantities.Cumulative quantity discount - a discount that increases as the cumulative quantity increases.
Price DiscountsSeasonal discount - based on the time that the purchase is made and designed to reduce seasonal variation in sales.Cash discount - extended to customers who pay their bill before a specified date.
Price DiscountsTrade discount - a functional discount offered to channel members for performing their roles.Promotional discount - a short-term discounted price offered to stimulate sales.