• ELEMENT IN THE CELL1. There are about 92 element occurring naturally in nature.2. From these 92 element, only about 25 element are needed to build living organisms.3. Not all these element found in all living cell.4. Main element (CHON) are the most frequently found elements in cells, forming about 96% of the human body mass.5. Trace-elements are the elements are found in small quantity in cells, but are important in biological processes.
CHEMICAL COMPOUND IN THE CELL1. Chemical compounds in the cell can be divided into two major group:• Organic• Inorganic2. Organic compounds are:• Chemical compounds contain carbon (exception are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbides and carbonates which are typically considered as inorganic)• Are usually found in and originate from living organism.• Usually consist of macromolecules (large molecules).3. Inorganic compounds are:• Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon• Usually a smaller and simpler than organic compounds• Founds in cells water, acids, alkalis and mineral salts
• There are 4 main group of organic compounds in cells:I. CarbohydratesII. LipidsIII. ProteinsIV. Nucleic acids• CarbohydratesI. The carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a molecule usually 2:1.II. Many carbohydrates have the general formula CX(H2O)Y,where x is approximately equal to y.III. Three basic types of carbohydrates are monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides
• Monosaccharidei. Monosaccharide also called simple sugarii. The common monosaccharide are six-carbon sugar with a molecular formula of C 6 H 12 O 6iii.Example of monosaccharide are glucose, fructose (fruit sugar) and galactoseiv. Glucose is the most common monosaccharide and respiratory substratev. Monosaccharide are sweet-tasting crystalline substances which are
• Disaccharidesi. Disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharide molecules combining together with the elements of a molecule of water. The chemical reaction of the formation is known as condensation.ii. The general formula of a disaccharides is C12H22O11iii. Disaccharides also called double sugar.iv. Disaccharides can be broken down to their constituent monosaccharide by a chemical reaction involving the addition of water. The reaction is know as hydrolysis.
v. Like monosaccharide, they are sweet-tasting crystalline substances that are soluble in water. Condensation + + H2 O Hydrolysis C12H22O11 water C6H12O6 C6H12O6 sucrose glucose fructosevi. The most common disaccharides are maltose, lactose and sucrose.
• Polysaccharidesi. Many monosaccharide molecules join together in a condensation reaction (with the removal of water molecules) to form a large polysaccharides molecules.ii. Polymerisation is the process of condensing many individual monosaccharide molecules to form a large polysaccharides molecules.iii. In polymerisation, the individual monosaccharide molecule are called monomers.iv. Polymerisation of monosaccharide forms:• Glycogen – in humans and animals• Starch and cellulose – in plants
glucose Starch structureSub unit: GlucoseConsists of two components.a) Unbranched, helical chains of glucose unitsb) Branched chains of glucose unitsMajor storage of carbohydrate in plants
glucose glycogen•Sub unit: Glucose•Molecules with many side branches•Major storage of carbohydrates in animals and fungi, for examples, in muscle cells and liver cells
glucose cellulose Straight unbranched chain of glucose units Plant cell wall
• Reducing and non-reducing sugara) Some sugars act as mild reducing agentsb) Two common test reagent to test for reducing sugar are:i. Benedict’s reagent (alkaline solution of CuSO4)ii. Fehling’s reagent (alkaline solution of CuSO 4)c) Reducing sugars reduce Cu²+ (blue solution) to Cu+ (brick red precipitate) in both reagents.
• Proteins1. Proteins are compounds of these element: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen sulphur and phosphorus.2. Amino acids are the subunits of all proteins.3. Each amino acids carries two functional group:a) A carboxyl group (- COOH) which is acidic andb) An amino group (-NH2) which is basic. COOH carboxyl group C NH2 amino group
• Two amino acids can combine together to form a dipeptide by a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of the other. The resulting a bond liking the two amino acids that is called a peptide bond. H2O O Peptide bond h cooh Hn c n condensationC C c c NH2 hooc h nh2 hooc
• Long chains of amino acids are called polypeptides.• A polypeptide is formed by the condensation reaction of many amino acids, with the removel of water.• A polypeptide chain can also be hydrolysed, with the addition of water molecules to form individual amino acids. PROTEIN STRUCTURE• Primary-linear sequence of amino acids• Secondary structure- forming ahelixor pleated sheet.• Tertiary structure- compact structure• Quaternary structure- 2 or more tertiary structure
LIPIDS• Lipids a diverse group of substance that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The proportion of oxygen is lower than that in carbohydrates. For example, the general formula of stearic acid is C 18 H 36 O 2.• All lipids are insoluble in water• Lipids dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvent such as ether and ethanol.• The main types of lipids are:a) Fatsb) Oilsc) Waxesd) Phospholipids
Fats and oils• Fats are solid at room temperature (20°C), whereas oil are liquid• Each molecule of fats or oils is made up of one glycerol combine with three fatty acids which may be the same or may be different. Three molecule of water are remove in this condensation reaction. Condensation (- H2O) + Hydrolysis (+ H2O) glycerol 3 fatty acids Triglyceride + molecules 3 water molecules
• These molecules of fats and oils are known as triglycerides.• Fats often contain only saturated fatty acids.• Oils usually contain unsaturated fatty acids.• In a saturated fatty acids , the carbon atoms are bonded to the maximum number of other atoms. Saturated fatty acid has only single bond and the hydrocarbon chain is relatively straight.• Unsaturated fatty acids has double bond in the form of –CH=CH- in the hydrocarbon chain. Fatty acids; those with two or more double bond are called polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Type of Example Structural formula fatty acidsSaturated Stearic acid CH3(CH2)16COOHUnsaturated Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH• Fats and oils function efficiently as energy storage material. Fats and oils provide 38kJ per gram, while carbohydrates can provide only 17 kJ per gram.
Waxes• Waxes are similar to triglycerides, but the fatty acids are bonded to long-chain alcohols rather than glycerol• Waxes are usually hard solids at room temperature• Waxes are used to waterproof the external surface of plants and animal. The cuticle of a leaf and the protective covering on an insect’s body are made of waxes.• Wax is also a constituent of the honeycomb of bees
Phospholipids• Phospholipids have a similar structure to triglycerides but one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group• The end of the phospholipids molecule containing the phosphate group is hydrophilic. The other end containing the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acids is hydrophobic.• The hydrophilic end is soluble in water while hydrophobic is insoluble in water.• Phospholipids bilayer from the basis of all cell membrane.
Steroids• A steroid molecule has a complex ring structure• Steroid occur in plants and animals• Examples of steroids are cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone. Steroid Function cholesterol Strengthens the cell membrane at high body temperature testosterone Male reproductive hormone estrogen and female reproductive hormone progesterone.
• Saturated and and saturated fats• Animal fats such as lard, butter and cream are example of saturated fats• Vegetable oil such as olive oil and sunflower oil are example of unsaturated fats.
Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Similarities1. Both are triglycerides2. They yield 38 kJ per gram3. Their molecules congregate into globule because of their hydrophobic properties DifferencesSaturated fats Unsaturated fatsHigher melting point Lower melting pointMost are solid at room Most are liquid at roomtemperature temperatureMore likely to cause disease of the Less likely to cause disease of theheart and arteries heart and arteriesMore stable at room temperature Unstable at room temperatureand less readily become rancid and less readily become rancid
ENZYMES• Enzymes are protein molecules act as biological catalysts. They speed up the rate of metabolic reactions and do not chemically changed at the end of the reaction• The substance whose reactivity is increased by an enzymes is knowing as a substrate
THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES• Enzymes speed up the rates of biochemical reactions in cells.• Only a small amount of enzymes is needed to catalyse a lot of substrate.• Enzymes are very specific – each class of enzymes will catalyse only one particular reaction.• Enzymes are not used up or destroyed in the reactions that they catalyse, but can be reused again.• Enzymes catalyse reversible reactions• Many enzymes are only able to work with in presence of a coenzymes (or cofactor).• Enzymes are effected by changes in temperature and pH
NAMING OF ENZYMES• An emzyme is named by taking its substrate name and adding the suffix ‘-ase’• Example, protease catalyses the hydrolysis of protein.• The ‘-ase’ rule does not apply to enzymes discover before the ‘-ase’ idea was introduced. For example, pepsin, rennin, ptyalin and tripsin.• The modern classification of enzymes was decided by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) in 1961
INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES• Intracellular emzyme that catalyses reaction within a cell and formed by the free ribosome in the cytoplasm.• Extracellular emzyme that leaves the cell and catalyses reaction outside the cell and synthesised by ribosome attached to the rough endoplasmic recticulum.
MECHANISM OF ENZYMES ACTION• Each enzyme molecule has a region with very precise shape called active site.• The substrate molecule fit into the active site of the enzymes like a key into a lock, forming an enzyme- substrate complex, a temporary structure.• Reaction take place at active site to form a product.• The product have a different shape from the substrate and therefore repelled from a active site.
• THERE ARE 4 FACTORS AFFECT THE ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES1. pH2. Temperature3. Concentration of enzyme4. Concentration of substrate The effect of pH on enzyme activity• Each enzyme has a optimum pH at which its rate of reaction is the fastest. i.e. pepsin at pH 2,(acidic) amylase pH 7 (neutral) and trypsin at pH 8-9 (alkaline)
The effect of temperature on enzyme activity• The rate of reaction will increase up to maximum, known as optimum temperature.• After the optimum temperature around 37ºC- 40ºC, the rate of reaction falls quickly because of the bonds maintaining the structure of the enzyme start to break and the active site loses its shape.• At 60ºC, enzyme activity will stop altogether because the enzyme is denatured
The effecT of subsTraTe concenTraTion on enzyme acTiviTy1. Increase the substrate concentration will increase the chance of enzyme-substrate collision, and the rate of reaction will increase.2. Addition of substrate will not increase the rate of reaction anymore because the constant enzyme concentration becomes the limiting factor.
The effecT of enzym concenTraTion on enzyme acTiviTy1. When the concentration of enzyme increase, there are more chance enzyme-substrate collision. The rate of reaction increase linearly as long as no other factors are limiting. The uses of enzymes1. Enzyme can extracted from any living organism, and used either at home or in industry2. Enzymes that are commonly used in daily life are:a. Papain-found in papaya used to tenderise meatb. Protease-used to tenderise meat and remove hair from the skin etc.
Health problems Leads to What Deficiency Definition CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Water OF THE CELL How Compound MechanismElement Consists of Enzymes Can be classified Forms Includes Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Why Importance Affected by Break down into Form Simpler Factors molecules