What is Syntax A major component of the grammar of a language that concerns the way in which words combine to form sentences and the rules which govern the formation of sentences.
What we will study in syntax? The Phrase The Clause The Sentence
The Phrase A group of words which function as a unit and it does not contain a finite verb (except for verb phrase)E.g. The man on the wall next year.Phrase divided into 5:Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, Prepositional Phrase, Adjective Phrase, Adverb Phrase.
Noun Phrase (NP) A group of word with a noun as a headword. e.g. The man a boy the student
Verb Phrase (VP) A group of words with a verb as a headword. e.g. John Closes the door Mary is singing
Adjective Phrase A group of words which modifies noun. The words can be attributive (following the noun) e.g. the child laughing happily.Or can be predicative (following the verb) e.g. the letter was unbelievably rude.
Adverb Phrase A group of words which function like an adverb. e.g. he almost always arrives on time. Jenny will come to my house next year.
Prepositional Phrase A group of words that begins with a preposition. e.g. he arrived by plane Steve opens the bottle with his teeth.
THE CLAUSE A group of words which contains a finite verb. There are three kinds of clause. Independent Clause Subordinate Clause Relative Clause
Independent Clause Can stand alone as a simple sentence. e.g. Henry walked home from school He cries loudly.
Subordinate Clause Can’t stand alone as a sentence. e.g. John takes a bath before he goes to school. Although Mary is sad, she looks happy
Relative Clause Clause that has a relative pronoun on it. e.g. The man who closes the door is my nephew. The man whose wallet is stolen is a doctor.
THE SENTENCE the largest unit of grammatical organization within which parts of speech and grammatical classes are said to function. There are 4 sub types of sentence Declarative (statements or assertions) e.g. I can swim Imperative (give orders, make request) e.g. Come here Don’t do that. Interrogative (ask question) e.g. can you swim? Who are you? Exclamatory (express surprises, alarm, indignation) e.g . What a fooI was! Oh My God!