7.1 - History and Government of Canada

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Quickie Canadian history.

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7.1 - History and Government of Canada

  1. 1. History and Government of Canada
  2. 2. It looks like this.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Was originally populated by those nomads who came across Beringia </li></ul><ul><li>In Canada, their descendants, those who we in the U.S. call Native Americans, are referred to as First Nations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The first Europeans on the scene were the Vikings. Wait… not those Vikings.
  5. 5. These Vikings!
  6. 6. Erik the Red landed in Greenland around 980 and then his son Leif Ericson founded a colony in Newfoundland about 1000. Leif
  7. 8. L'Anse aux Meadows
  8. 9. It appears that the settlement was abandoned after a few years due to bad relations with the native people in the area.
  9. 10. <ul><li>It wasn’t until nearly 500 years later that Europeans set foot on Canadian soil again. </li></ul><ul><li>It was 1497 when John Cabot came along. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>By the 1500’s and 1600’s, both England and France had begun colonizing parts of eastern Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>France colonized around the St. Lawrence Seaway and down the Mississippi while the English stayed on the Atlantic seaboard of the now-U.S. and also around Hudson Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>They both engaged in extensive fishing and fur trapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Not surprisingly, their interests started conflicting and the French and Indian War broke out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So-called because it was against the French and their Indian allies (the British had their own). The Quebecois call them the Intercolonial Wars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirrored wars going on in Europe. This was kind of a proxy war. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. When the war was over, France ceded (gave up) to Britain all of its Canadian territory and its now-U.S. territory east of the Mississippi.
  12. 15. <ul><li>The problem, though, was that French settlers stuck around. </li></ul><ul><li>They were French and Catholic while the English were Protestant and… well… English. That and most of them had just warred against each other. This blend of cultures didn’t blend well at all. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, in 1791, Canada was split into two provinces: upper and lower Canada. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Lower Canada was French and Upper Canada was English.
  14. 17. <ul><li>By 1867, the Dominion of Canada was created, a loose confederation of provinces (a federal structure). </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of Ontario (formerly Upper Canada), Quebec (formerly Lower Canada), and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>The Dominion quickly added more territories and provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>British Columbia was added in 1871, giving Canada a Pacific coast province, for example. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Canada Today
  17. 21. <ul><li>Much like the U.S., Canada faced a change from an agrarian economy to an industrial and service economy. </li></ul><ul><li>People tended to settle in the south of Canada mainly because it was warmer there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also closer to the U.S. and its trade. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Remember this? Look where most of the lights are in Canada.
  19. 23. Population Density
  20. 24. <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Was officially a subject of Great Britain until 1931 when Britain recognized Canada’s independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is now part of the British Commonwealth – it’s independent of GB and has its own government and head of government (the prime minister), but the British monarch is still the symbolic head of state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses a parliamentary government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of two houses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Commons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by the people. There must be a new election within 5 years of the last one. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members are appointed by the Prime Minister and may serve until age 75. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Whichever political party is able to cobble together a majority confidence in the House of Commons chooses somebody to be the Prime Minister. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, let’s say there four parties with representatives in the House of Commons: A with 40%, B with 15%, C with 25%, and D with 20%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Party A joins with Party B, that gives them an alliance of 55% - a majority. That means Party A chooses the Prime Minister. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Canadian Parliament Building
  23. 27. O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

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