17.2 - The Northern Renaissance


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The Renaissance in norther Europe with a look at some artists.

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17.2 - The Northern Renaissance

  1. 1. The Northern Renaissance
  2. 2. <ul><li>By about 1450, the Renaissance is finally starting to move outside of Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The plague has passed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hundred Years War is over. </li></ul><ul><li>More money to be had for other goods. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The tone of the Northern Renaissance, however, is different from what was seen in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>While wealthy merchants and rich, independent city-states led the way in Italy, this was not the case in the north. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due in part to the plague and the Hundred Years War, northern Europe had strong centralized power structures in the form of monarchies. They didn’t have uppity city-states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, it was mainly the kings and some nobles who were responsible for the Renaissance’s spread there, not wealthy patron families. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s also more religious there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While the Italian Renaissance was not strictly secular, it was more so than the Northern flavor. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A big mover and shaker was France’s King Francis I, who reigned from 1515-1547. <ul><li>Francis became known as the Father and Restorer of Letters. He was quite the humanist. </li></ul><ul><li>The two previous French kings had warred with (and therefore interacted with) Italy, but Francis was the first one to really embrace the new ideas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>He sponsored a lot of art, and even lured Leonardo de Vinci to France. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was near the end of de Vinci’s life and he wasn’t that productive, but he brought his stuff with him – including such pieces as the Mona Lisa, which is France has it and not Italy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He was a great reader, a good poet, and greatly expanded the royal library. He even opened it up to all scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>He did a lot with architecture. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Chateau de Chambord
  7. 7. Chateau de St. Germain-en-Laye
  8. 8. Château de Fontainebleau
  9. 9. Rebuilt the Louvre
  10. 10. <ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Art followed the Italian techniques and used a lot of perspective and realism. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the bigger names: </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Albrecht Durer </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Hans Holbein (the Younger) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Look at the detail:
  14. 14. <ul><li>Jan van Eyck </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Writing also goes humanist, but, like with the rest, with a Christian bent, giving rise to Christian Humanism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human freedom and individualism are compatible with Christianity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human existence isn’t valued merely in itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You see this a lot with Erasmus. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Guttenberg and the printing press </li></ul><ul><li>The printing press is one of the greatest inventions in history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was invented by Johann Gutenberg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously, literary works had to be transcribed by hand, usually by monks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was tedious, time-consuming work and made books very expensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The printing press allowed works to be cheaply mass-produced. Suddenly the written word could be accessible to the masses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In three years, a monk could produce one Bible… Gutenberg, 180 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>The press actually derived from a modified olive press. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s big thing was the durable types used and the ability to easily move around the letters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the first projects Gutenberg undertook was printing 200 copies of the Bible with 42 lines per page. Some were on vellum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are currently 11 complete copies on vellum and 48 relatively intact copies on paper. They can be sold for millions (but aren’t sold that often). </li></ul></ul>