Short stories ppt 2


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Short stories ppt 2

  1. 1. Short Stories
  2. 2. Elements of A Short Story <ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadowing </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Story </li></ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plot The series of related events that make up the story.
  4. 4. Bare Bones of A Plot <ul><li>Plots are built on four main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Situation (Exposition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution (Denouement) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Plot Line Exposition Complications (Rising Action) Climax Falling Action Resolution
  6. 6. Plot <ul><li>Exposition - Opening of the story; characters and conflict are introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Complication - Conflicts introduced; main character takes action to resolve conflicts. (Also known as rising action.) </li></ul><ul><li>Climax - Key scene of the story; tense, exciting or terrifying moment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plot <ul><li>Falling Action - Conflicts begin to resolve; story tapers off…. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution - Occurs at the very end of the story; conflicts are resolved. (Also called the denouement.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Character A person, animal, natural force or object in a story or play.
  9. 9. Characterization The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization .
  10. 10. Characterization <ul><li>Direct Characterization - Writer tells the reader directly what kind of person the character is. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Characterization - Reader has to use his or her own judgement to identify personality traits of a character </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characterization <ul><li>Static – No change throughout story </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic – Develops and grows over the course of the story </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characterization <ul><li>Round – Many different personality traits (good & bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat – Shows only one personality trait </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist – Main character of a literary work </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist – Character or force in conflict with the protagonist </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characterization <ul><li>Motivation – Reason that explains or partially explains why a character thinks, feels, behaves or acts in a certain way. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Character <ul><li>There are five considerations for creating a character: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Characters’ feelings </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Point of View The vantage point from which the author has chosen to tell the story.
  16. 16. First Person One of the characters is actually telling the story, using the pronoun “I.”
  17. 17. Third Person Narrator is an outside storyteller. (can be “limited” or “omniscient” point of view.)
  18. 18. Omniscient “All Knowing” Person telling the story knows everything there is to know about the characters and their problems.
  19. 19. Limited Narrator only knows one character’s thoughts and feelings.
  20. 20. Point of View The narrator is not always the author.
  21. 21. Setting The time and place of a story or play.
  22. 22. Setting <ul><li>One purpose of setting is to provide background - a place for the characters to live and act in. </li></ul><ul><li>In some stories, setting provides the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Places where people live and make their homes can reveal a great deal about their characters. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Setting <ul><li>Setting can also provide atmosphere or mood - it affects the way a reader feels. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest story plots in the world is the one in which a person fights against something in the physical world - a drought, a horde of ants, the heat of the desert, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Describing the Setting <ul><li>What kind of place does the story take place in? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the season, climate, and time of day? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the characters in conflict with the setting? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Describing the Setting <ul><li>Does the setting help to understand their personalities? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of atmosphere does the setting create? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conflict <ul><li>A struggle or clash between opposing characters or forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External : Man v. Man, Man v. Nature, Man v. Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal : Man v. Himself, Man v. Fate (God) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Symbolism Anything that stands for or represents something else. Examples: Red rose American Flag
  28. 28. Theme Central idea of a work of literature
  29. 29. Theme <ul><li>A theme makes some revelation about a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject of the story is NOT THE SAME as the theme of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject is simply the topic of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Theme is not “love.” Ask yourself…what about “love”? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Theme A theme is usually not stated directly in the story.
  31. 31. Finding a Theme <ul><li>Does the title signify something important about the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the main character change in the course of the story? Does he or she realize something he or she didn’t know before? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any important statements about life or people made in the story - either by the narrator or the characters? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Irony <ul><li>A contrast between expectation and reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what is said and what is </li></ul><ul><li>really meant. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what is expected to happen </li></ul><ul><li>and what really happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what appears to be true </li></ul><ul><li>and what is really true. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Irony <ul><li>Verbal - a writer or speaker says one thing but means another </li></ul><ul><li>Situational - what we expect to happen is different than what actually happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic - Audience or reader knows what is happening but the characters do not. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Foreshadowing – Clues to suggest events that have not happened yet in the story; creates suspense. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense - The uncertain feeling about what is going to happen next in a story. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Mood – (Atmosphere) Feeling created in the reader by the piece of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Tone - The way the writer feels about the story & the characters </li></ul>
  36. 36. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Allusion – References in a piece of writing that refer to the Bible, a time in history or another work of literature or art. </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Story – Story within another story. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect – Way a character speaks (directly related to setting & time period) </li></ul>