Georgia

and the American Experience
Chapter 5:
From Royalty to
Independence,
1752-1783
Study Presentation

© 2005 Clairmo...
Section 1: The
Colonial Period
• Essential Question:
–What were the similarities and
differences between the three
colonia...
13 Original Colonies
Comparing the Colonies
New England Colonies
Middle Colonies

Southern Colonies

Land
and
Climate

cold; rugged
terrain wit...
Colonial Transportation
and Communication
• Boats used for shipping and
transportation
• Stagecoaches were available, but ...
•
•
•
•
•
•

Education in the
Colonies
Schooling took place in home or church; boys
were taught practical skills
Girls lea...
Colonial Colleges
• Harvard University-1636, Massachusetts
• William and Mary-1693, Virginia
• Yale University-1701, Conne...
Religion
• In New England- three hours in the
morning and three in the evening.
• Puritans broke away from the
Church of E...
Religion in Colonial
Georgia
• Anglican Church, or Church of England,
made official church of Georgia colony in
1758
• Chu...
Leisure in the North

• Recreation centered around
work-barn raisings, quilting
bees, and corn huskings.
• Puritans-not al...
Leisure Activities in
Southern Colonies
• Fox hunting, horse races, week-long
parties with friends and relatives
popular
•...
Romance and Marriage
• Girls often married in their early teens, 14 or
15.
• Courtships took place at dances, church, or
d...
Section 2: Georgia
Becomes A Royal Colony
• ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– What political forces shaped Georgia
after it became a ro...
Change in Colonial
Government Status
• Proprietary Colony: governed by a Board of
Trustees
• Georgia ceased to be Propriet...
The First Royal
Government

• Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal
governor, arrived in 1754
• Reynolds introduced the...
North America, 1754
• Spain claimed Florida and Mexico
• France claimed land from Louisiana
to the Great Lakes, and parts ...
French and Indian War
Origins
• France and Great Britain wanted the
treasures of the American continent
• Both countries f...
The French and Indian War
• Both sides claimed the
Ohio River Valley area (more than
200,000 square miles)
• The French bu...
What happened
• Washington attacked French soldiers, they
attacked back, Washington surrendered.
• British had lots of los...
Georgia and the War’s
Aftermath

• The war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British
controlled the Ohio Valley
• The Tr...
Results of the French
and Indian War
• British got control of Canada.
• The western frontier was opened to Virginia
and th...
Georgia’s First Assembly
•
•
•
•
•

First met in Savannah in 1755
Passed bills to repair and build roads
Organized a milit...
Governor Henry Ellis
• Believed Savannah was one the world’s
hottest places
• Colonists immigrated to Georgia from South
C...
Governor James Wright
• Wanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to
settlers
• Completed Savannah’s defenses by
strengthen...
Georgia Crackers

• People from Virginia, Maryland, and the
Carolinas settled into middle and western
parts of the colony....
Section 3: The Call for
Independence
• ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– How was Georgia’s role in the
Revolutionary War affected by th...
Unhappy with British Acts
• Great Britain needed money; much
debt and security expenses resulted
from the French and India...
The Liberty Boys
• Georgians who came together to oppose the
Stamp Act
• Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty”
• Som...
Protests Increase
• Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of
Georgia colonial assembly, led
Townshend Act protests
• Townshend Act...
Boston Massacre
• Happened in Boston, Massachusetts.
• March 1770
• Crispus Attucks was killed and four others
Boston Tea Party
December 1773
Continental Congress
• Met in Philadelphia in September 1774 to
protest “Intolerable Acts” (wait for more)
levied against ...
Section 4: The
Revolutionary War Period
• ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– Why was there an American
Revolution?
American Revolution
• April 19, 1775 begins at Lexington and
Concord, Massachusetts
• It was May before word reached Georg...
Second Continental
Congress
• Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and
Concord battles
• Drafted petition for King George I...
Georgia’s Second
Provincial Congress
• Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July
1775
• Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun...
Declaration of
Independence
• Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet
encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold
...
Georgia’s First State
Constitution
• About one-third of Georgians remained loyal
to Great Britain; they were called Tories...
The 1777 Georgia
Constitution
• The governor’s power was limited
• Executive Council (12 legislators) held
greatest power
...
The Articles of
Confederation
• First constitution of the United States of
America
• Ratified (approved) on July 4, 1778
•...
Revolutionary War
Fighting in Georgia
• Savannah captured and looted by British
troops in December 1778; lootings, murders...
Battle of Kettle Creek
(1779)
• Patriot militia led by Andrew Pickens, John
Dooly, and Elijah Clarke surrounded the
Loyali...
Siege of Savannah
(1779)
• 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid
siege to Savannah
• Attack on October 9 resulted in 1,00...
Georgia Wartime Heroes
• Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a
group of British loyalists who bragged of
murdering an Amer...
The War Ends
• Elijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia,and the
Continental Army regain Augusta from British
in June 1781; 11 ba...
Ga History Chap 5
Ga History Chap 5
Ga History Chap 5
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Ga History Chap 5

  1. 1. Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence, 1752-1783 Study Presentation © 2005 Clairmont Press
  2. 2. Section 1: The Colonial Period • Essential Question: –What were the similarities and differences between the three colonial regions?
  3. 3. 13 Original Colonies
  4. 4. Comparing the Colonies New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies Land and Climate cold; rugged terrain with rocky soil milder climate; rich soils mildest climate; rich soils Farming small family farms larger farms; wheat large plantations; tobacco, rice, silk, indigo Other Industry shipbuilding, whaling, fishing, and furniture building manufacturing, mining, textiles, shipbuilding casks and barrels from longleaf pine forests
  5. 5. Colonial Transportation and Communication • Boats used for shipping and transportation • Stagecoaches were available, but slow mode of transportation • Many old Indian trails were used • Newspapers read in cities; news often old when it arrived in rural areas
  6. 6. • • • • • • Education in the Colonies Schooling took place in home or church; boys were taught practical skills Girls learned homemaking skills Apprentices learned specific skills from master craftsmen First public schools began in New England; only boys attended; colleges and universities were founded by churches. Wealthy families in South hired private tutors or had their sons schooled in Europe Primitive “Old Field Schools” opened for boys from “common” families
  7. 7. Colonial Colleges • Harvard University-1636, Massachusetts • William and Mary-1693, Virginia • Yale University-1701, Connecticut • University of Pennsylvania-1740 • Princeton University-1746, New Jersey-Presbyterians • Columbia University-1754, New York-Anglicans • Brown University-1764, Rhode Island-Baptists • Rutgers-1766, New Jersey • Dartmouth-1769, New Hampshire-Congregationalists All are Ivy League schools except William and Mary and Rutgers.
  8. 8. Religion • In New England- three hours in the morning and three in the evening. • Puritans broke away from the Church of England. Reading was very important. • Those that did not conform were punished, caned, banished, and displayed publicly.
  9. 9. Religion in Colonial Georgia • Anglican Church, or Church of England, made official church of Georgia colony in 1758 • Church attendance expected; shorter sermons and music common. After church was a social time. • Moravians and Jews also practiced religion in Georgia
  10. 10. Leisure in the North • Recreation centered around work-barn raisings, quilting bees, and corn huskings. • Puritans-not allowed to gamble, dance, play cards or wear frilly clothes. Could be punished by dunking chair.
  11. 11. Leisure Activities in Southern Colonies • Fox hunting, horse races, week-long parties with friends and relatives popular • Food central to large social gatherings • Children’s games: jump rope, hoops, tennis, London bridge, hopscotch, leap frog, yo-yos and puzzles • Storytelling was a great pastime.
  12. 12. Romance and Marriage • Girls often married in their early teens, 14 or 15. • Courtships took place at dances, church, or during supervised home visits • Weddings were a day-long affair with great celebrations. • Some wealthy families arranged marriages for business gain, love was not considered essential. • Husbands were expected to provide; wives could not own property. Divorce was rare. If the husband died, then the wife should remarry after two or three months. Click to return to Table of Contents
  13. 13. Section 2: Georgia Becomes A Royal Colony • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What political forces shaped Georgia after it became a royal colony?
  14. 14. Change in Colonial Government Status • Proprietary Colony: governed by a Board of Trustees • Georgia ceased to be Proprietary Colony in 1752 • Royal Colony: colony directly governed by the King • Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1752; some people returned to Georgia who had left the colony while it was proprietary
  15. 15. The First Royal Government • Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal governor, arrived in 1754 • Reynolds introduced the idea of selfgovernment • Two-chamber legislature set up: Commons House of Assembly (Lower House) and Governor’s Council (Upper House) • Court of Conscience settled disputes; overseen by justice of the peace • Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could vote
  16. 16. North America, 1754 • Spain claimed Florida and Mexico • France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great Lakes, and parts of Canada; New Orleans (south) and Detroit (north) anchored French settlements • Great Britain had established the 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast
  17. 17. French and Indian War Origins • France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of the American continent • Both countries feared the other would gain the most power • France had the stronger army with more experienced leadership; British had better navy • Both sides had allies with certain Indian tribes
  18. 18. The French and Indian War • Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley area (more than 200,000 square miles) • The French built several forts in the area; many Indians sided with the French • The Virginia governor sent Captain George Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity (near today’s Pittsburgh); a battle erupted….
  19. 19. What happened • Washington attacked French soldiers, they attacked back, Washington surrendered. • British had lots of losses for the next few years. • Washington went as an aide to Major General Braddock at Fort Duquesne, major battle, Braddock was killed, British retreated. • Washington learned from Braddock’s mistakes, later commanded the Virginia militia, then defeated the French.
  20. 20. Georgia and the War’s Aftermath • The war soon spread to Europe; by 1758, the British controlled the Ohio Valley • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war.. • Treaty of Paris set Georgia’s western boundary at the Mississippi River • Proclamation of 1763 (King George III): Georgia’s southern boundary set at St. Mary’s River; Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains • Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and in the coastal region
  21. 21. Results of the French and Indian War • British got control of Canada. • The western frontier was opened to Virginia and the other colonies. • Great Britain got Florida from Spain, because Spain fought with the French. • France lost all of its land after 150 years. • Left Great Britain with a large amount of debt, which led to the Revolutionary War.
  22. 22. Georgia’s First Assembly • • • • • First met in Savannah in 1755 Passed bills to repair and build roads Organized a militia Codes created to limit rights of slaves Governor Reynolds was replaced in 1757 by Captain Henry Ellis
  23. 23. Governor Henry Ellis • Believed Savannah was one the world’s hottest places • Colonists immigrated to Georgia from South Carolina and the West Indies • Offered large land grants and slavery increased (3,600 slaves by 1759) • The economy flourished; more farms and goods to buy • In 1761, Ellis became royal governor of Nova Scotia, in Canada
  24. 24. Governor James Wright • Wanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to settlers • Completed Savannah’s defenses by strengthening forts and building palisades (fences made of sharpened stakes) • Sunbury became Georgia’s official port of entry • Land purchases increased greatly • More schools established, but for upper class children
  25. 25. Georgia Crackers • People from Virginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas settled into middle and western parts of the colony. • Got their name from the use of whips to drive cattle, or from the cracking or pounding of corn. • Plantation owners viewed them as “undesirable people” • Soon, these lower class people were called “ crackers,” which was meant as an insult. • Crackers were not welcome and thought of as ones who did not obey the colony’s laws. Click to return to Table of Contents
  26. 26. Section 3: The Call for Independence • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – How was Georgia’s role in the Revolutionary War affected by the attitudes of the colonists?
  27. 27. Unhappy with British Acts • Great Britain needed money; much debt and security expenses resulted from the French and Indian War • Sugar Act: tax on sugar and molasses imported from the West Indies • Stamp Act: tax on newspapers, legal documents, and licenses • Georgians disapproved of these acts
  28. 28. The Liberty Boys • Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act • Part of larger group, the “Sons of Liberty” • Some called them “Liberty Brawlers” • Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s Tavern • Georgia was the only colony to actually sell the stamps • The Stamp Act was eventually repealed
  29. 29. Protests Increase • Noble Wimberly Jones, speaker of Georgia colonial assembly, led Townshend Act protests • Townshend Acts: placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints • Governor Wright disbanded the assembly to try to end the protests
  30. 30. Boston Massacre • Happened in Boston, Massachusetts. • March 1770 • Crispus Attucks was killed and four others
  31. 31. Boston Tea Party December 1773
  32. 32. Continental Congress • Met in Philadelphia in September 1774 to protest “Intolerable Acts” (wait for more) levied against the Massachusetts colonists, Quartering Act. • Georgia was not represented • Urged colonies to establish “Committees of Safety” • Agreed to stop all trade with Britain • Carried on its work in secret Click to return to Table of Contents
  33. 33. Section 4: The Revolutionary War Period • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – Why was there an American Revolution?
  34. 34. American Revolution • April 19, 1775 begins at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts • It was May before word reached Georgia. • Radicals broke into storehouse in Savannah and stole 600 pounds of gunpowder. • Congress appoints Washington commander of colonial armies. • Peace was a long way off.
  35. 35. Second Continental Congress • Met in Philadelphia after Lexington and Concord battles • Drafted petition for King George III, asking for end of unfriendly steps against the colonies • George III refused to accept the petition • Authorized Continental Army • Georgia’s Lyman Hall arrived in May 1775
  36. 36. Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress • Held at Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah in July 1775 • Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent Georgia in Philadelphia • Delegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for Georgians • Governor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia
  37. 37. Declaration of Independence • Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” pamphlet encourage colonies to break from Great Britain; sold more than 500,000 copies • Other pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinion • Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776 • August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence • The Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war
  38. 38. Georgia’s First State Constitution • About one-third of Georgians remained loyal to Great Britain; they were called Tories • The Whigs influenced a state constitution allowing separation of powers and giving citizens rights to agree how they were governed • May 1777: Constitution adopted at Constitutional Convention in Savannah • Eight counties formed: Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Richmond, Wilkes, and Liberty
  39. 39. The 1777 Georgia Constitution • The governor’s power was limited • Executive Council (12 legislators) held greatest power • Council could overrule the governor’s decisions • John Treutlen appointed Georgia’s first governor • Georgia’s 1777 Constitution changed in 1789
  40. 40. The Articles of Confederation • First constitution of the United States of America • Ratified (approved) on July 4, 1778 • Went into effect in January 1781, when ratified by Maryland and Virginia
  41. 41. Revolutionary War Fighting in Georgia • Savannah captured and looted by British troops in December 1778; lootings, murders, and burnings occurred • Sunbury port captured in early 1779; Augusta was also attacked • Georgia militia not effective against welltrained British troops • Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia
  42. 42. Battle of Kettle Creek (1779) • Patriot militia led by Andrew Pickens, John Dooly, and Elijah Clarke surrounded the Loyalist camp. • The Georgia militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia • Great victory for morale of the militia and Georgians seeking independence • Won badly-needed weapons and horses from the British.
  43. 43. Siege of Savannah (1779) • 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French laid siege to Savannah • Attack on October 9 resulted in 1,000 American and French deaths in less than an hour; only 40 British troops died • Polish Count Casimir Pulaski killed • Savannah remained under British control for nearly four more years • Guerrilla warfare continued in the Georgia backcountry
  44. 44. Georgia Wartime Heroes • Nancy Hart single-handedly captured a group of British loyalists who bragged of murdering an American colonel; Hart County is the only county named for a woman • Austin Dabney fought with distinction and was wounded at Kettle Creek; he also saved Elijah Clarke’s life during that battle
  45. 45. The War Ends • Elijah Clarke, the Georgia Militia,and the Continental Army regain Augusta from British in June 1781; 11 battles or skirmishes fought in Georgia during the war • George Washington, with French help, force British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781 • British leave Savannah in the spring of 1782 • Treaty of Paris (September 1783) ends war; treaty is signed by United States, Great Britain, and France Click to return to Table of Contents

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