GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER<br />Generation provides a framework for the growth of computer industry. The computer era consist...
Memory used electromagnetic relays, data and instructions were fed into the system from punched cards.</li></ul>Software T...
The stored program concept was used.</li></ul>Key Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Bulky in size
Highly unreliable
Limited commercial use
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Generations of computer


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Generations of computer

  1. 1. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER<br />Generation provides a framework for the growth of computer industry. The computer era consists of five generations till today.<br />FIRST GENERATION<br />Period: (1942-55)<br />Technology Used: Thousands of vacuum tubes<br /><ul><li>A vacuum tube is high speed electronic device, which used filaments as a source of electronics & could control and amplify electronic signals.
  2. 2. Memory used electromagnetic relays, data and instructions were fed into the system from punched cards.</li></ul>Software Technology Used<br /><ul><li>The instructions were written in machine and assembly languages.
  3. 3. The stored program concept was used.</li></ul>Key Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Bulky in size
  4. 4. Highly unreliable
  5. 5. Limited commercial use
  6. 6. Difficult commercial Production
  7. 7. Costly
  8. 8. Difficult to use</li></ul>Examples<br />ENAIC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701<br />SECOND GENERATION<br />Period: (1955-64)<br />Hardware Technology Used<br /><ul><li>Transistors because of following properties
  9. 9. Mode of germanium semiconductor
  10. 10. Highly reliable as compared to tubes
  11. 11. Could switch ten times faster than tubes
  12. 12. One-tenth the power consumed by tube
  13. 13. Smaller than a tube
  14. 14. Less expensive to produce
  15. 15. Dissipated less heat as compared to vacuum
  16. 16. Magnetic cores were used for main memory
  17. 17. Magnetic disks and tapes as secondary storage media</li></ul>Software Technology Used<br /><ul><li>High level programming languages (like FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, SNOBOL) were used.
  18. 18. Batch operating system enabled multiple jobs to be batched together & submitted at a time.</li></ul>Key characteristics<br /><ul><li>Ten times faster than first generation computer
  19. 19. Smaller in size
  20. 20. Consumed less power and dissipated less heat
  21. 21. More reliable and less prone to hardware failure
  22. 22. Easier to program than previous generation systems
  23. 23. Commercial production was still difficult & costly</li></ul>Examples<br />Honeywell 400, IBM 7030, CDC 1604, UNIVAC LARC<br />THIRD GENERATION<br />Period: (1964-75)<br />Hardware Technology Used: ICs<br /><ul><li>Integrated circuits are circuits consisting of several electronic components like transistors, resistors, and capacitors grown on a single silicon chip elimination wired interconnection b/w components.
  24. 24. Integrating about 10-20 components named as Small Scale Integration (SSI).
  25. 25. Later, Technology enhanced to integrate about 100 components on a single chip, known as Medium Scale Integration (MSI).
  26. 26. Larger magnetic core memory
  27. 27. Larger capacity magnetic disks & tapes as secondary storage
  28. 28. Mini computers</li></ul>Software Technology Used<br /><ul><li>Timesharing OS came into existence.
  29. 29. Standardization of high level languages (Fortran & COBOL).
  30. 30. Unbundling of software from hardware</li></ul>Key Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Powerful, capable of performing about 1 million instructions per second
  31. 31. Smaller in size than second generation
  32. 32. Consumed less power & dissipated less heat
  33. 33. More reliable & less prone to hardware failures & requiring lower maintenance cost
  34. 34. Cheaper to produce commercially
  35. 35. Scientific, Commercial & Interactive online Applications</li></ul>Example<br />IBM 360/370, PDP – 8, PDP -11, CDC 6600<br />FOURTH GENERATION<br />Period: (1975-89)<br /> <br />Hardware Technology Used<br /><ul><li>ICs with very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, capable of integrating 1 million components on a chip
  36. 36. A Microprocessor contains all circuits needed to perform arithmetic logic & control functions on a single chip
  37. 37. Semiconductor memory
  38. 38. Larger capacity hard disks as in-built secondary storage
  39. 39. Magnetic tapes & floppy disks as portable storage media
  40. 40. Personal computer
  41. 41. Spread of high speed computer network</li></ul>Software Technology Used<br /><ul><li>OS like MS-DOS, Ms-Windows, Apple were developed for PCs
  42. 42. Graphical user Interface (GUI) provides icons and menus to make it user friendly
  43. 43. PC based applications like powerful word processing package, spread sheet package, etc.
  44. 44. Multiple windows on a single screen
  45. 45. UNIX OS
  46. 46. C programming language became popular</li></ul>Key Characteristics<br /><ul><li>PCs were smaller and cheaper than mainframes or minicomputers of third generation
  47. 47. Small, affordable, reliable, easy to use PCs
  48. 48. More powerful Mainframe systems
  49. 49. They were general purpose machines
  50. 50. Easier to produce commercially
  51. 51. Groupware is such application that allows multiple members working on a single project located at distant locations using network
  52. 52. Add-on Hardware feature that allows to invest only in hardware configuration & software of their need and value</li></ul>Example<br />IBM PC, APPLE II, TRS 80, VAX 9000, CRAY-I, CRAY-2, CRAY-X<br />FIFTH GENERATION<br />Period: (1989-present)<br />Hardware Technology Used<br /><ul><li>ICs with ULSI (Ultra Large scale Integration) resulting in chips having ten million components
  53. 53. Larger capacity main memory
  54. 54. Larger capacity hard disks
  55. 55. Optical disks as portable read only storage media
  56. 56. Notebook Computers
  57. 57. Powerful desktop PCs & workstations
  58. 58. Very powerful mainframe
  59. 59. The Internet</li></ul>Software Technology Used<br /><ul><li>A vast ocean of information became readily available to computer users through World Wide Web (www)
  60. 60. Multimedia applications
  61. 61. Internet based applications like e-mail</li></ul>Key Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Portable computers
  62. 62. More powerful, cheaper, reliable
  63. 63. Easier to use desktop machines
  64. 64. Very powerful mainframes
  65. 65. Very high uptime due to hot pluggable components
  66. 66. General purpose machines
  67. 67. Easier to produce commercially</li></ul>Example<br />IBM, Notebooks, Pentium PCs, SUN Workstations, IBM SP/2, PARAM 10000<br />