ASSURE LESSON PLAN 1 ASSURE Lesson Plan Devon Kinne CIMT 543 Summer 2012 Dr. Ziaeehezarjeribi Indiana State University
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 2 ASSURE Lesson Plan There is a huge variety of different formats that teachers can use when developing alesson plan. Smaldino, Lowther, and Russell (2012) created a format of lesson plan calledASSURE. The ASSURE lesson plan model uses ―a step-by-step process to create lessons thateffectively integrate the use of technology and media to improve student learning‖ (Smaldino,Lowther, & Russell, 2012, p. 38). By using this model of lesson plans, students‘ are creativelyengaged in the learning process from the beginning to the end. This model is employed for alesson on modeling, manipulating, and formatting quadratic equations as part of an Algebra 2curriculum for high school students at East High School in Madison, Wisconsin. Students will begin modeling quadratic equations using manipulatives. Students will thentake digital cameras out throughout the school, looking for examples of parabolas in nature andthe school building (see Figure 1). Figure 1 - Roosevelt Bridge. The digital examples will be used to interpolate a quadratic equation that fits the image,with the equation confirmed via graphing calculator. Finally, the students will create apresentation in PowerPoint explaining their real world model and resulting graph and equation.Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to interpolate an equation given a model,
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 3use technology to model parabolas in nature, as well as create a PowerPoint presenting theirfindings. Analyze Learners General The learners are students at East High School in Madison, Wisconsin. ThereCharacteristics are 26 students in the class; 10 females and 16 males. Since this is an Algebra 2 course, the students are primarily either sophomores or juniors in high school. The students who are sophomores are on-track to take AP Calculus their senior year; the junior students are on-track to take Pre-Calculus their senior year. There are 8 sophomores and 18 juniors. Three students in the class have disabilities documented in an individualized education plan (IEP). None of these students receive extra support services in class; one student is permitted extra time on exams. Data regarding free/reduced lunch is not available for the specific class; however, 58% of the school in total is eligible for free/reduced lunch (Madison Metropolitan School District, 2012). There are 17 Caucasian students, 1 Middle Eastern student, three Black students, 2 Hispanic students, and 3 Asian students (see Figure 2).
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 4 Ethnicity 3 Caucasian 2 Middle Eastern 3 Black 17 Hispanic 1 Asian Figure 2 - Ethnicity of students in Algebra 2 course. The students all enjoy using technology during the class time and tend to react enthusiastically when presented with assignments that require the use of technology, especially presentations. Entry Math: Students are already familiar with the general quadratic equation, asCompetencies well as the general shape of a parabola. Students have interpolated linear equations in Algebra 1. Students have prior experience graphing points from Algebra 1 and Geometry, the two courses taken prior to Algebra 2. Technology: Students are proficient using a digital camera, as they have usedFigure 3 - Parabola. it in prior classroom exercises. Students have moderate experience graphing equations using their graphing calculator. PowerPoint is a program that they have all used; however, creating and recording a presentation with audio is a new application for the students. Learning There are a variety of learning styles in this course. On average, students tend
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 5 Styles: to fall into either a logical/mathematical learning style, or visual/spatial. Typically, if the material is taught focusing on both the algorithmic nature of the mathematical rules as well as providing visual/spatial examples, the majority of the students are successful. For example, a student can be taught the mathematical format of a quadratic equation with explanations of what each coefficient is, but seeing visual examples of parabolas and giving examples that demonstrate the differences will provide a well- rounded example that will reach most students (see Figure 4). Figure 4 - Parabolas with different "a" coefficients. A number of the boys in the classroom seem to gain focus of difficult material when they are able to incorporate some kinesthetic activity, such as going out into the hallways and taking measurements or pictures of examples. State Standards and ObjectivesCurriculum Curriculum: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) and Algebra 9-12 Technology Understand patterns, relations, Interpret represe3. Standards: and functions ntations of functions of two variables analyze functions of one variable by
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 6 investigating rates of change, intercepts, zeros, asymptotes, and local and global behavior Represent and analyze understand the meaning of equivalent forms mathematical situations and of expressions, equations, inequalities, and structures using algebraic relations symbols write equivalent forms of equations, inequalities, and systems of equations and solve them with fluency—mentally or with paper and pencil in simple cases and using technology in all cases Use mathematical models to identify essential quantitative relationships represent and understand in a situation and determine the class or quantitative relationships classesof functions that might model the relationships draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled Technology:International Society for Technology in Education (2007) NETS-S (2007) Creativity or Innovation Create original works as a means of personal or group expression Use models and simulations to explore complex
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 7 systems and issues Communication and Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, Collaboration experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems Critical Thinking, Problem Collect and analyze data to identify solutions Solving, and/or make informed decisions and Decision Making Learning Students will substitute points on a graph into a function form to find the Objectives: equation of a graph correctly 80% of the time. Students will graph quadratic equations on their graphing calculator, choosing an appropriate window to view the graph, 80% of the time. Students will explain the difference between quadratic and linear functions, both by their graphs and their equations, 80% of the time. Students will take a picture with a digital camera of a parabolic function found in nature or architecture. Students will make real-world connections, recognizing shapes around them that can be approximated by quadratic equations, 80% of the time. Students will create a presentation using PowerPoint and score 20/24 or higher on the teacher created "Parabolas Around Us" Power Point Rubric.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 8 Students will take an online interactive quiz and score a 35/44, or 80%, or higher . Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and MaterialsDescription of Select Strategies: Materials A variety of teacher-centered and student-centered strategies will be employed Needed: in this lesson. Teacher-centered strategies will be used to demonstrate, via a presentation, how to create a PowerPoint with recording and audio. The teacher will create a PowerPoint showing pictures, equations, and graphs of linear equations, and explaining how they modeled and interpolated. This lends itself nicely to teacher-centered strategies, where ―the teachers are the ‗drivers‘ who direct the learning in very purposeful ways‖ (Smaldino et al., 2012, p. 70). The majority of the other learning will take place through student-centered strategies. Student-centered strategies have been shown to enhance learning ―when students are actively engaged in meaningful activities‖ (Smaldino et al., 2012, p.72). Students will be given a variety of different graphs and equations to experiment with, in order to try to come up with an algorithm for interpolation. Students will use manipulatives, such as chains, in order to create parabolas and then hypothesize equations that fit these models (see Figure 5).
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 9 Figure 5 - Hanging string and corresponding graph and equation. Students will also be sent out to collect images via digital camera, and then transpose those images onto graphs and come up with corresponding equations. Lastly, students will collaborate with their partners to create their PowerPoint presentation. Select Technology and Media:This lesson involves the use of computers, a printer, a scanner, Microsoft PowerPoint, digital cameras, microphones connected to the computers, a projector connected to a computer, simple jewelry chains as manipulatives, and graphing calculators. The computer lab will be used for this lesson, so each student will have access to a computer and the lab printer. Each of these computers already has Microsoft PowerPoint installed, but would need a microphone to be attached. The Library Media Center has microphones that can be checked out for teacher use. Each student is required to have already purchased a graphing calculator at the beginning of high school. There is a program where students can rent calculators if they cannot afford to purchase one. There is a ceiling mounted projector for use of displaying images and graphs on the whiteboard. One digital camera is all that is required, but up to five would be preferable so that each group could go out
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 10 independently with their own camera to capture images. The scanner can be checked out of the LMC and can be brought to the computer lab. In order to evaluate the qualities of the technology and media being used, a Selection Rubric can be applied. Smaldino et al. (2012) provide a rubric with the following categories: alignment with standards, outcomes and objectives, accurate and current information, age-appropriate language, interest level and engagement, technical quality, ease of use, bias free, and user guide and directions (p. 46). Alignment with standards, outcomes, and objectives: The PowerPoint software, digital cameras, and graphing calculators proved the tools needed for the student to meet the learning objectives. Accurate and current information: not applicable for the technology chosen Age-appropriate language: PowerPoint and the graphing calculators use language that is appropriate for high school students Interest level and engagement: PowerPoint has a variety of features that allow the students to personalize their program and create their own unique presentation, which engages students. Technical quality: PowerPoint and the graphing calculators have excellent technical quality. Ease of use: the calculators require training to use and periodic review; this training has occurred each year and is modeled by the
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 11 instructor at the beginning of each lesson. PowerPoint requires a small amount of training prior to use but then is relatively easy for this population. Bias free: PowerPoint and the graphing calculator are bias free. User guide and directions: The graphing calculator does not have an easy-to-use user guide; students tend to ask other students or the teacher for assistance. PowerPoint has an excellent help feature, but students will likely look for help and guidance from peers and the teacher. Select Materials:The materials for this lesson include a whiteboard with a grid and set of axis drawn on it, a chain for each group (5 groups of 5 students each, one group of 6), 52 pieces of grid/axis paper found at http://mathbits.com/mathbits/studentresources/graphpaper/14x14axes.pdf, 6 transparency sheets with a grid printed on them, 26 copies of a teacher-created rubric to evaluate the PowerPoint (found in Appendix 1, modified from http://www.sd13.org/~cmueller/ATN%20webquest/IntegersPhotoStoryRubric. pdfand http://www.scribd.com/doc/12840228/Digital-Storytelling-Rubric) and 26 teacher-created worksheets (found in Appendix 2) with problems and discussion questions for the students to work on for homework and in class. Due to the unique lesson and learning that will be taking place, a teacher- created worksheet is needed in order to address the specific details from the lesson. The teacher will draw an axis/grid on the white board for use; optionally, the grid/axis paper found
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 12 http://mathbits.com/mathbits/studentresources/graphpaper/full%20page.pdf can be projected onto the white board. This grid will also be printed onto transparency paper for the students to lay over their digital image. The jewelry chain can be purchased from a craft store for use in this project or simple yarn can be used for a string. Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials Preview: I will preview the PowerPoint software to ensure that it remains appropriate for my students. Prepare I will reserve a week in the school computer lab to ensure the students have Materials: adequate time to experiment and utilize the technology. I will check the ceiling-mounted projector, as well as turning on and opening PowerPoint in at least 26 computers. I will ensure the printer is working and will create the transparency grids. I will take sample pictures with each digital camera and upload them onto the computer so that they can be used for examples. I will print off a copy of the grid/axis paper and make 52 copies (2 per student). I will create a worksheet for the students to use and make 26 copies of it. I will purchase jewelry chains or yarn and cut them into varying lengths for use in the interpolation. Prepare Prior to class starting, I will get the computer lab up and running. When theEnvironment: students enter on the days where we will be using PowerPoint, the computers will already be turned on and ready for the students to log on. I will meet with the library media specialist to get the microphones and scanner and test and install them prior to class to make sure they all work as needed. I will check to
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 13 make sure the computer and overhead projector work as expected. Provide the I will open the lesson doing an example of a linear graph, and review how to Learning interpolate in order to come up with an appropriate equation. I will then hang aExperiment: chain from its two ends, spread apart, on the graph. Students will be asked what shape is created and the general form of an equation to match it. I will split students up into small groups of 5 students (one group of six), keeping in mind ability level. In the small groups, students will then problem-solve as a group how to come up with an equation to match the graph. I will then guide students through various ways to come up with the equation (selecting points on the graph, solving systems of equations) and let the students work on this independently. Students will then graph the equation to compare the resulting graph with their chain graph. Each group will then create their own parabola with their chain, and interpolate the equation. The students will then present their graphs and equations. Afterwards, students will be sent out in order to find pictures of parabolas in nature and architecture on the school grounds; this type of project is routinely done and therefore the students understand school rules and protocols for doing this. Students will then upload their pictures to the computer and do the same process as done with the chains. They will first print the picture and place the transparent grid on top to interpolate. Students will then come up with an equation and graph it on their graphing calculator. The teacher will scan the picture with interpolated graph on transparency onto the computer, and help to upload the graphs from the calculator onto the computer. Students will then work on creating their PowerPoint, including the
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 14 pictures, graphs, and audio describing how they found the pictures, interpolated, and graphed the result. For homework, students will complete a worksheet created by the teacher and self-score, with a score of 80% demonstrating satisfactory knowledge. The rubric will be applied to the student‘s PowerPoint presentation; groups will be allowed to make any changes or modification and resubmit their PowerPoint for a higher grade. Students scoring less than 80% on the worksheet or PowerPoint will be given time for revisions on the class computer. Students will be able to work on the PowerPoint from any school computer, as they all have the application installed. Students also have the option of coming to ―math lunch‖, a study group during lunch where students can make changes and have help with their current math assignments. Require Learner Participation Engage After the topic is introduced and modeled by the teacher, students are broken Learners in into small groups to practice the techniques of interpolation and writing and Practice: graphing quadratic equations. Each small group with create their own graph and equation, practicing the technique. Students will then communicate their experience with the class, giving time for teacher and peer feedback and corrections. Students will then engage in utilizing digital cameras to find examples of math in their environment, and then repeat the process of the interpolation, solving, and graphing quadratic equations via the computer and graph paper. Students will then create a PowerPoint using the software as a production tool to create their presentation.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 15 Provide Students receive immediate feedback from the class and teacher in their initial Performer presentation of the chain parabola and interpolation of an equation. This will Feedback: assist them in correcting mistakes prior to applying the process to the digital photos. The PowerPoint rubric will be used to grade their presentations, focusing on the digital images they took, audio explanation, and graphical interpretation. Students will also complete a worksheet and self-score themselves, providing immediate feedback, to determine if they got the 80% needed to demonstrate satisfactory performance. Evaluate and ReviseAssessment: The objectives used in this lesson lend themselves into authentic assessment. Students will be assessed on their PowerPoint by using the rubric in Appendix 1. They need to score a minimum of an 80% on the rubric. Students will also complete a worksheet in which they demonstrate skills and answer questions more based off of conventional tests. Once the worksheet has been completed and checked by the teacher for completion and general proficiency, they will be given a score sheet to self-score their assignment, and write a paragraph explaining their mistakes and corrections made. Students must score a minimum of 80% on the worksheet. Reflection: Ongoing reflection will take place by the teacher. I will informally talk with the students throughout the process, to determine what parts the students enjoy and what parts are confusing. Students are also asked on every chapter test about the specific activities and what they liked and found helpful, and what they struggled with. This is a process that has been in place and will continue
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 16 to be used, as it provides helpful feedback from the students. Revision: I will examine any discrepancies between the objectives and the assessment data. I will also examine what I was expecting to happen, the quality of the PowerPoint, and the time frame to produce and present the materials, to ensure that it meets my expectations. I will make notes as we go along as to changes to the structure of the class that need to be employed to make the lesson more effective, as well as evaluating the technology used.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 17 Appendix 1 Parabolas Around Us PowerPoint RubricCATEGORY 4 3 2 1Mathematical Substantial Substantial Substantial Substantial Concepts understanding of understanding of understanding of understanding of the math concepts at least 3 of the 4 at least 2 of the 4 only 1 of the 4 of quadratic concepts is concepts is concepts is equations, evident evident evident. interpolation, graphing, and parabolas is evident General PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint contains at least 5 contains 4 contains 3 contains fewer images and 5 images and 4 images and 3 than 3 images matching graphs matching graphs graphs, which and graphs, and appropriate and appropriate may not match, which may not narration and narration and and is missing match, and is transitions. transitions. some narration missing narration and transitions. and transitions.Mathematical Correct Correct Correct CorrectTerminology terminology & terminology & terminology & terminology &and Notation notationare always notationare notationare used, notation is not used whenwriting usually used but may be consistently used equations or whenwriting sometimes used whenwriting explaining a graph. equations or incorrectly or equations or explaining a unclearly explaining a graph. whenwriting graph. equations or explaining a graph. Design of Format is Format is Format is Format is not PowerPoint exceptionally creative and visually visually creative and visually appealing but appealing with visually appealing. appealing. The some slides are many slides that The colors work colors work cluttered or are cluttered or together to make a mostly together empty. The empty. There is consistent theme. to make a colors sometimes no consistent Fonts are easy to consistent theme. clash with no color theme. read. Fonts are easy to consistent theme. Fonts are read. Fonts are difficult to read. somewhat difficult to read.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 18 Audio Audio explaining Audio explaining Audio explaining Audio is missing each slide is the majority, but the some, but not from the majority present. The pace not all, of the all, of the slides of the slides. The is moderate and slides is present. is present. The pace is too fast or helps the audience The pace is pace is often too too slow and no understand each occasionally too fast or slow but attempt is made slide. fast or slow but an attempt is to regulate it. generally good. made to regulate The content does The audio helps it. The audio not explain the the audience content is mathematics. understand each somewhat slide. confusing. Images All images are Most images are Some images are Images are clear, fit clear, fit clear but others missing or are appropriately in the appropriately in may be out of out of focus and screen, and have the screen, and focus. Images fit do not fit the labels explaining have labels appropriately in screen. Labels key elements. explaining key the screen some are missing. elements. Some of the time. Few labels may be labels are there missing. explaining key elements.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 19 Appendix 2Pictures – For each picture, circle what type of equation (quadratic or linear) would best fit theimage. Give an example equation that could be used to describe the image. (Kolk, 2011) (Kolk, 2006)Quadratic Linear Quadratic LinearEquation: _______________________ Equation: _____________________ (Wheeler, 2001) (Ware, 1980)Quadratic Linear Quadratic LinearEquation: _______________________ Equation: _____________________
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 20(Van, 2009) (Clementi, 2010).Quadratic Linear Quadratic LinearEquation: _______________________ Equation: _____________________Graphing – Graph the following equations on the attached graph paper. Make sure to label theaxis and provide a scale. 1. y= 2. y = 3. y = 4. y =Equations – Create an equation that represents the following graphs..Equation: _________________ Equation: ___________________
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 21Equation: _________________ Equation: ___________________Discussion Questions – Answer the following questions in full sentences. 1. What is the difference between quadratic and linear equations? How can you tell the difference from their equations? From their graphs? 2. Give three examples of things in nature or architecture that are parabolas.
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 22 ReferencesBiddinger, N. (2009).NYC Bridge [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=nycmarch2008_biddinger%28220%29.jpgClementi, C. (2010). St. Elmo’s [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=sdc11237.jpgConrad, J. (n.d.). Digital storytelling: Autobiographical narrative photo story. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/12840228/Digital-Storytelling-RubricDeWeerd, C. (2011). Delicate Arch [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=100_8300.jpgHayden, C. (2010). Male Monarch Butterfly [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=taggedmalemonarch2.jpgInternational Society for Technology in Education.(2007). NETS for students 2007. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/nets-for-students/nets-student-standards-2007.aspxLamoureux, C. (2005). Oak Alley Plantation [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=screensaver0691.jpgKolk, M. (2006).Cahoursaquitaine[Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=028cahors01.jpgKolk, M. (2011).Wacosuspension bridge[Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=waco_suspension_bridge.jpgMadison Metropolitan School District.(2012). Official third Friday September enrollment by low income.Retrieved May 19, 2012, from https://infosvcweb.madison.k12.wi.us/node/989Math Wearhouse. (2012). Interactive parabola. Retrieved June 10, 2012, from http://www.mathwearhouse.com/quadratic/parabola/interactive-parabola.php
ASSURE LESSON PLAN 23Mueller, C. (2008). Integers photo story rubric. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.sd13.org/~cmueller/ATN%20webquest/IntegersPhotoStoryRubric.pdfMtpaley. (2009). Spider web covered with dew. Retrieved June 21, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SpiderCatenary.jpgNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Math standards and expectations: Algebra grades 9-12. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.nctm.org/standards/content.aspx?id=312Roblyer, M.D. &Deering, A.H. (2010).Integrating educational technology into teaching (5thed.). Pearson Education, Inc: Upper Saddle River, NJ.Smaldino, S.E., Lowther, D.L., & Russell, J.D. (2012).Instructional technology and media for learning(10thed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.Van, William. (2009). Rooseveltbridge [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.edupic.net/Images/Math/roosevelt_lake_bridge312.JPGWare, Ann. (1980).Capitol[Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=capitol21.jpgWheeler, Tony. (2001). Shakespeare’s globe theatre [Photograph]. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://pics.tech4learning.com/details.php?img=shakespear_globe.jpg