Equine med report


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Equine med report

  1. 1. OPHTHALMIC DISEASES/DISORDER OF HORSE VM175 disease/ disorder Other name Brief description Epide miolo gy Pathogenesis Clinical signs Lesions Diagnosis Differe ntial diagno sis Treatment Control/p revention Entropion -turning in of the edges of the eyelid so that the eyelashes rub against the eye surface -The turning in of eyelashes or facial hairs causes discomfort and irritation of the conjunctiva and cornea. Extremely long lashes can cause scarring, abnormal coloring, and possibly the formation of slow-healing sores or ulcers on the cornea. -Blepharo- spasm -Lacrimation -Photophobia -Scarring -abnormal coloring -Physical exam -surgery (Eversion of affected eyelids through placing sutures at the lid margin to roll out the offending eyelid margin -It is congenital ,cannot be prevented Laceration of the eyelid -rips or tears in the eyelid. Common in horses Eyelid laceration is often common in horses. If eyelid defects are not closed or handled improperly, complications are as conjunctivitis , corneal abrasions, exposure keratits. -Laceration of the eyelids -Physical exam -clean the wound and use stitches to repair it so that minimal scarring occurs.
  2. 2. Bacterial Blepharitis -Diffuse eyelid swelling that is warm and painful on palpation Fever -Inflammation of the eyelids can -result from the spreading of a generalized inflammation of the skin, local glandular infections, or irritants ,Infection with certain fungi or bacteria. -sudden onset edema -hyperemia of lids with pruritus -thickening and fibrosis of the lids loss of hair -Edema -loss of hair -thickening and fibrosis of the lids -Base on history -clinical sign -allergen testing. -Orbital celluliti s - Eyelid trauma -Meibo mianitis . -Warm compress -antibiotic therapy(penicillin, ceftiofur, ampicillin, for 4-7 days ) and analgesic (phynylbutazone) Absence of nasal tear duct opening -congenital absence of the opening of the nasal tear duct at the lower end in the nose -This is a most common developmental anomaly in the equine nasolacrimal system causing further complications if not corrected. -watering eyes and longterm - conjunctivitis in foals. -persistent epiphora -Ocular pain -clinical sign -fluoresce in dye -surgically opening the blocked passage and keeping it open by inserting a tube during healing. No prevention Dacryocyst itis -inflammation of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. -Infections of the nasolacrimal duct occasionally occurs in horses. Foreign bodies chronic obstruction of the duct, or infection by opportunistic microorganisms causes dacryocystitis. ocular discharge, reflux exudation, hyperemia. -Dacryocy storrhino graphy. - conjucti vitis -Daily lavage of duct - topical antibiotic therapy -Tubing (polyethylene or silicon) suture temporarily catheterized in the duct. Dry eye - Keratoc onjunct ivitis sicca -Dry eye syndro me -an eye disease caused by eye dryness, which, in turn, is caused by either decreased tear prod uction or increased tear film evaporation. -dry eyes can lead to tiny abrasions on the surface of the eyes. In advanced cases, the epithelium undergoes pathologic changes, namely squamous metaplasia and loss ofgoblet cells. Etiology can be congenital drug related –squinting - mucoid discharge -nonhealing ulcers -dry appearance -dull cornea with vascularization -Sore and scarring of the cornea -clinical signs -Rose Bengal stain - schirmer tear test -Antibiotics (Topical 2% cyclosporine or 0.o3% tacrolimus ) -Surgical therapy for KCS: –1. Nictitans flap - to protect cornea when ulcerated –2. Conjunctival flap - Deep corneal ulcers,
  3. 3. or systemic diseases pigmentation of cornea to provide corrective tissue and blood vessels. –3. Parotid duct transposition Conjunctiv itis Pink eye -Inflammation of the conjunctiva -Pink eye can be cause by physical trauma, bacterial(mycoplasma), viral(herpes) that causes inflammation of the conjunctiva that can lead to blindness if not treated early. –hyperemia -chemosis -Serous discharge -follicular hyperplasi -mild ocular disconfort -Conjuctival scrapings and culture - Schir mer tear test -biopsy. -kerato conjunc tivitis -antibiotic ointment 2-3x a day and anti- inflammation -Good sanitation practices and good manageme nt Corneal ulcers -A corneal ulcer occurs when the corneal epithelium is disrupted to the extent that corneal stroma is exposed. A shallow ulcer involves just disruption of epithelial cells, while a deep ulcer would involve significant loss of stroma as well. Extremely deep ulcers can entirely remove corneal epithelium and corneal stroma, exposingDescemet’s Membrane -Many equine corneal ulcers occur as a result of injury to the eye, with inflammation of the cornea. Corneal ulcers may be complicated by a fungal invasion; this is termed equine ulcerative keratomycosis. The fungus, which is normally present in the conjunctiva, multiplies rapidly after injury to the cornea and causes inflammation and ulcers. -Blepharo spasm (a closed eyelid) -Photophobia (avoiding light) -Increased Lacrimation -Miosis -corneal ulcers -Ophthal mic exami nation -fluoros cein dye -Systemic anti- inflammatory and painkiller Flunixin (Finadyne) -Topical Antibiotic -Conjunctival flap surgery -Amniotic Membrane Transplants -Penetrating Keratoplasty -Lamellar Keratoplasty
  4. 4. Corneal abscesses - Pus-filled sores in the connective tissue of the cornea -Causative agent organism are deposited in the stroma at the time of injury to the cornea or gain intrance to the stroma within few days from the resident conjuctival flora, the lost epithelium heal quickly by migration and mitosis of cells and seal the bacteria or fungi within the stroma allowing abscess formation -Lacrimation -Photophobia - blepharospas m -Abscessed stroma it is dense white or yellow spot Eye examina tion Corneal ulcera tion -antibiotics natamycin (5%) Topical atropine flunixin meglumine omeprazole Doxycycline: Trimethoprim Fluconazole - Voriconazole Penetrating Keratoplasty Corneal laceration -Corneal laceration are usually linear or triangular corneal wounds , -Corneal ulceration when not treated immediately cause lead to abscess. It will serve as a point entry of organism -swelling - prolapse of the iris -swelling of the ciliary bodies -blood in the eye. -Corneal ulcers -Ophthal mic exam -fluores cein dye - Corneal abscess - antibiotics -Topical atropine -systemic NSAIDS -Surgical debridement -suturing large flap of corneal tissue -routine exami nation Equine recurrent uvietis -Moon blindne ss -Peri odic opthal mia iridocy clitis -Most common cause of blindness in horses. Uveitis refers to inflammation of the uveal tract of the eye - Mostly affect adult horses -Specific conditions or agents that may cause this disorder include certain bacteria, parasitic worms, equine influenza (a viral illness), tooth root abscesses, and hoof abscesses. , there are periods of active inflammation of the uvea, followed by varying periods with no signs at all. During the so-called inactive periods, mild inflammation continues in most horses -frequent squinting -watering eyes, -cloudiness of the cornea, and contraction of the pupil -An active episode may include inflamed cells infiltrating the retina or choroid, partial separation of the retina, retinal bleeding, and a hazy appearance to the vitreous (the clear “jelly” that fills the -clinical signs, and history lesion - conjunctiv al biopsy -serology for bacterial and viral agents. Aggressive medication of systematic and local corticosteroids, anti- inflammatory and antibiotics To protect your horse's vision, eye examinatio ns should be included in its routine care. Glaucoma The glaucomas represent a group of Most comm The glaucomas are a group of diseases resulting from -Enlarged eye -Corneal -presence of corneal striae Tonometry (Auriculopa -Reduce IOP. Dorzolamide and
  5. 5. diseases characterized by increased pressure within the eye. This can be primary, secondary or congenital type on in older horses and appalo za breeds alterations in the formation and drainage of aqueous humor (clear eye fluid), which causes an increase in intraocular (within the eye) pressure (IOP) above that compatible with normal function of the retina and optic nerve. The high pressure eventually destroys the retina and optic disk edema –Branching linear stria –Not painful –IOP > 30 mmHg Tonopen –Mydriasis –Blindness (IOP tolerant eye) or corneal endothelial "band opacities" lpebral nerve blocks) - xylazine (a common tranquilizer ) -decreased intraocular pressure by 23%. - Manometry determined IOP = (1.38 X Tonopen IOP) + 2.3mmHg Timolol BID; Cosopt -surgical therapy –Intravitreal gentamicin –(25 mg + 1 mg Dex) –Cyclocryo therapy –Enucleation/ Intraocular prosthesis Cataracts -Cataracts are a condition in which the lens becomes covered in a cloudy film that affects sight, eventually causing total blindness -Foal and old horses -In foals, cataracts are the most common congenital defect of the eye. In adult horses, most cataracts occur as a result of the inflammation of the anterior uvea associated with equine recurrent uveitis -Lens become covered in a cloudy film - Ophthalmos copy -Surgery - Congenital insome breeds, affected horse should be excluded from breeding. Lens displaceme nt The displacement may be due to trauma, longterm inflammation of the uvea (as occurs in equine recurrent uveitis), or glaucoma. -The normal lens is suspended behind the iris and pupil In some ocular diseases these fibres become damaged either by inflammation in adjacent structures or by being stretched when the eye expands under increased intra-ocular pressure Leakage of vitreous glassy disc lying directly behind the cornea Ophthalmic exam -The only effective treatment is surgical removal of the lens. Affected animal should be excluded from breeding Chorioreti nitis Inflammation of the retina and choroid -It can be caused by infectious agents such as -Swelling -bloodshot -“bullet-hole” lesions -Ophthal mic exam anti-inflammatory therapy
  6. 6. is frequently a result of a generalized infection leptospirosis, equine herpesvirus-1, Onchocerca cervicalis, a poorly controlled immune system, trauma, or vascular (blood vessel) disease. eyes - nodules or masses in the eye itself. -diffuse lesions “horizontal band” flunixin meglumine (Banamine) or phenylbutazone (Bute) Retinal displaceme nt -Retinal detachment is a separation of the nine layers of the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium -When the retina become detached, it is separated from the back of the eye and from part of its blood supply, preventing it from functioning properly. -excessive or prolonged dilation of the pupil -pupils of different sizes -vision impairment, -bleeding within the eye. corneal edema, a cloudy vitreous present Eye examinatio n -Laser surgery - anti-inflammatory Optic nerve atrophy chorior etinitis -The optic nerve shrinks following various types of disease. Atrophy of the optic nerve can be due to inflammatory or non-inflammatory causes -Atrophy of the optic nerve can be due to inflammatory or non-inflammatory causes. With time, the optic disc becomes pale with a profound reduction in retinal blood vessels, and an obvious rough appearance or granularity of the optic disc due to loss of the insulation material that normally surrounds each optic nerve fiber -Blindness and pupil dilation -The optic disk appears flattened and smaller than normal; it is often pale or white, with very noticeable reduction in the optic nerve and blood vessels of the retina ophthalmos cope -optic nerve hypopla sia -retinal detach ment, - glauco ma - cataract -there is no therapy for this condition. Optic nerve hypoplasia Optic nerve hypoplasia is a failure of the optic nerve to develop fully. It is a congenital disorder in horses. The condition may occur in only one eye or both -If the optic nerves of both eyes fail to develop, the foal will be blind -Visual disturbances history, signs, ophthalmos copy No available treatment Congenital in horses. Cannot be prevented.
  7. 7. Proliferati ve optic neuropath y -It is usually in one eye with no signs of pain. There is little to no effect on vision in most cases. -Old horses -a slowly enlarging white mass protruding from the optic disc into the vitreous . It is usually in one eye with no signs of pain. There is little to no effect on vision in most cases. -Presence of white mass protruding from the optic disc - 0pthalmosc ope No treatment Prolapse of the eye Slipping out of place of the eye It is usually cause by trauma . The chances of a good outcome depend on the severity of the injury, depth of the eye socket, the condition of the eye and how long it was displaced, and other damage near the eye. Without its blood supply, the equine eye quickly becomes damaged. -Prolapse eye - Ophthalmic exam Surgical procedure(suturing the eyelids together ) -Use of antiobiotics -Avoid fighting and fix facilities that can cause physical trauma. Eye worm disease Thelazi asis Eyeworms (Thelazia species) are common parasites of horses in many countries -Eyeworm larvae are ingested by the fly and become infective in 2 to 4 weeks. The infective larvae are then re-deposited in the horse's eye by the fly during feeding. -irritation and inflammation of the eye is likely due to the rough outer layer of the worms -Inflammation and swelling of the cornea - development of an opaque film, slow- healing sores, holes, and permanent fibrous tissue -Inspection of the eye. - Microscopic exam for the presence of egg or larvae -Manual removal with forceps and local anesthesia -good fly control measures directed especially against the face fly Squamous cell carcinoma -a common type of cancer that usually develops in the outer layer of the skin and sometimes in mucous membranes -Appal ooza -draft breeds - olders horses (8-11 years) -the etiology is multifactorial, heritability, sunlight, nutrition, eyelid pigmentation, perhaps viral involvement. The lesion usually berin as benign, smooth, white opaque on the conjuctival surfaces, they may progree into papillomaand then a -fleshy masses -Pink, with raised “cobblestone” ulcerative surface , and often have a white crust covering the pink surface. -biopsy - papillo ma -sarcoid - adenom a - mastoc y -surgey -cryotherapy -hyperthermia -radiation therapy -immunotherapy
  8. 8. squamous cell carcinoma. Lid lesion usually begin as either an ulcerative or a hyperkeratotic lesions. toma Equine sarcoids -a small, lumpy collection of fibrous tissue - Affects young horse -They appear initially as subcutaneous masses in the eyelids or canthi, they usually enlarged rapidly and may invade the skin, appearing as red , fleshy masses. reoccurrence rate is high. -red, fleshy masses just below the skin in the eyelids or at the corners of the eyelid -Histologically, sarcoids are characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibroplasia with pegs of hyperkeratotic epithelium extending into the depths of the dermal lesions. -Biopsy for histologic evaluation and confirmatio n -squam ous cell carcino ma -laser surgery or cryotherapy (freezing the tumor) to remove the sarcoid; -chemotherapy -radiation or a combination of these therapies.