Material handling


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Material handling

  2. 2. Material Handling is the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. The focus is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and services required to implement material handling systems. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS). Material handling can also consist of sorting and picking, as well as automatic guided vehicles.
  3. 3. MATERIAL HANDLING Material handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost.
  4. 4. MATERIAL HANDLING A material-handling system can be simply defined as an integrated system involving such activities as handling, storing, and controlling of materials.  The word material has very broad meaning, covering all kinds of raw materials, work in process, subassemblies, and finished assemblies.
  5. 5. Objectives Main objective is to reduce the number of handlings as well as the overall cost of material handling equipment and reducing the distances through which the materials are handled. 1) Reduced Costs 2) Increased Capacity 3) Improved Working Condition 4) Value Addition to Products In brief, the primary objectives of Material Handling are; 1. To save money 2. To save time 3. To save men
  6. 6. objectives The primary objective of using a material handling system is to ensure that the material in the right amount is safely delivered to the desired destination at the right time and at minimum cost.
  7. 7. Objectives The material handling system is properly designed not only to ensure the minimum cost and compatibility with other manufacturing equipment but also to meet safety concerns. The cost of MH estimates 20-25 of total manufacturing labor cost.
  8. 8. Other Objectives  Lower unit material handling costs  Reduction in manufacturing cycle time through faster movement of materials and by reducing the distance through which the materials are moved. Reduction in manufacturing cycle time results in reduced work –in – progress inventory costs.  Improved working conditions and greater safety in movement of materials  Contribute to better quality by avoiding damage to products by inefficient handling  Increased storage capacity through better utilisation of storage areas  Higher productivity at lower manufacturing cost
  9. 9. GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING The primary goal is to reduce unit costs of production Maintain or improve product quality, reduce damage of materials Promote safety and improve working conditions
  10. 10. GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Promote increased use of facilities Reduce tare weight (dead weight) Control inventory
  11. 11. GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING Promote productivity material should flow in a straight line use gravity! It is free power move more material at one time mechanize material handling automate material handling
  12. 12. GOALS OF MATERIAL HANDLING  Material handling equipment includes: Transport Equipment: industrial trucks, Automated Guided vehicles (AGVs), monorails, conveyors, cranes and hoists. Storage Systems: bulk storage, rack systems, shelving and bins, drawer storage, automated storage systems. Unitizing Equipment: palletizers Identification and Tracking systems
  13. 13. Scope of Material handling: o Manufacturing o Processing o Construction o Mining o Power o Machine Tools o Truck building o Rail road car builders o Barge and Ship building o Aircraft
  14. 14. Importance of M H  Efficient material handling is important to manufacturing operations. Materials sent by vendors must be unloaded, moved through inspections and production operations to stores and finally to the shipping department. These movements do not add value to the product but they do add value to the cost Material handling is an integral part of any industrial activity. With growing business, a greater emphasis is laid on productivity, profitability as well as resource conservation and ecological preservation. Material handling plays a very crucial role in sustaining efficiency in financial and human resources.
  15. 15. Importance of M H • Material handling analysis is a subset of plant layout. Method study, plant layout and material handling are all part of the design of a production facility • Material handling system and plant layout enhance effectiveness of each other. • Efficient operation of appropriate material handling methods reduces costs and enables maximum capabilities to be derived from a given production facility
  16. 16. CONSIDERATIONS IN MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN 1. Material Characteristics Category Physical state Size Weight Shape Condition Safety risk and risk of damage Measures Solid, liquid, or gas Volume; length, width, height Weight per piece, weight per unit volume Long and flat, round, square, etc. Hot, cold, wet, etc. Explosive, flammable, toxic; fragile, etc.
  17. 17. 2. Flow rate Quantity of material moved High Conveyors Manual handling Low Hand trucks Short Conveyors AGV train Powered trucks Unit load AGV Long Move Distance
  18. 18. 3. Plant Layout Layout Type Characteristics Typical MH Equipment Fixed – position Large product size, low production rate Cranes, hoists, industrial trucks Process Variation in product and processing, low and medium production rates Hand trucks, forklift trucks, AGVs Product Limited product variety, high production rate Conveyors for product flow, trucks to deliver components to stations.
  19. 19. THE PLANNING PRINCIPLE Large-scale material handling projects usually require a team approach. Material handling planning considers every move, every storage need, and any delay in order to minimize production costs. The plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization as well as the more immediate needs.
  20. 20. THE SYSTEMS PRINCIPLE MH and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated, operational system that spans receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly…, shipping, and the handling of returns. Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities. Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products, for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain.
  21. 21. SIMPLIFICATION PRINCIPLE simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, or combining unnecessary movement and/or equipment. Four questions to ask to simplify any job: Can this job be eliminated? If we can’t eliminate, can we combine movements to reduce cost? (unit load concept) If we can’t eliminate or combine, can we rearrange the operations to reduce the travel distance? If we can’t do any of the above, can we simplify?
  22. 22. GRAVITY PRINCIPLE Utilize gravity to move material whenever practical. SPACE UTILIZATION PRINCIPLE The better we use our building cube, the less space we need to buy or rent. Racks, mezzanines, and overhead conveyors are a few examples that promote this goal.
  23. 23. UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE Unit loads should be appropriately sized and configured at each stage of the supply chain. The most common unit load is the pallet cardboard pallets plastic pallets wooden pallets steel skids
  24. 24. AUTOMATION PRINCIPLE MH operations should be mechanized and/or automated where feasible to improve operational efficiency, increase responsiveness, improve consistency and predictability, decrease operating costs.
  25. 25. THE STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE standardize handling methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipment too many sizes and brands of equipment results in higher operational cost. A fewer sizes of carton will simplify the storage.
  26. 26. EQUIPMENT SELECTION PRINCIPLE Why? What? Where? When? How? Who? If we answer these questions about each move, the solution will become evident. THE MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLE  Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment.  Pallets and storage facilities need repair too.
  27. 27. THE DEAD WEIGHT PRINCIPLE  Try to reduce the ratio of equipment weight to product weight. Don’t buy equipment that is bigger than necessary.  Reduce tare weight and save money. THE CAPACITY PRINCIPLE  use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity  i.e. material handling equipment can help to maximize production equipment utilization.
  28. 28.      
  29. 29. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  Industrial trucks include hand trucks such as two-wheeled, four-wheeled, hand lift, and forklift and powered trucks such as forklift, tractor-trailer trains, industrial crane trucks, and side loaders.  Conveyors such as belt, chute, roller, wheel, slat, chain, bucket, t rolley, tow, screw, vibrating, and pneumatic.  Monorails, hoists, and cranes such as bridge, gantry, tower, and stacker.
  30. 30. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Automated guided vehicle systems such as unit load carriers, towing, pallet trucks, fork trucks, and assembly line. Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) such as unit load, mini-load, person-on-board, deep lane, and storage carousel systems.
  31. 31. 1.   
  32. 32.  Flat Conveyors  Roller Conveyors  Wheel Conveyors  Trolley Conveyors  Bridge Crane  Electricity Hoist  Jib Crain  Chain Hoist  Gantry Crane
  33. 33. 3. Vehicles  Pallets Trucks  Fork lift trucks  Industrial Vehicles
  34. 34. Pros and Cons of Using Material Handling Equipment  PROS:  CONS:  Lessen manual labor.  Require fast data tracking and processing.  Less shipping errors.   Minimal damage on goods and materials. Require reliable and fool-proof inventory management system.  Require more free floor spaces so that equipment can move properly.  Buying your own material handling equipment may require you to raise bigger funds or initial capital.   Less shipping and production costs. Lessen employees compensation claims therefore allows you to save more in the long run.  Require you to set aside funds for maintenance and repair.
  35. 35. Factors Affecting the selection of Material Handling Equipment  Adaptability  Flexibility  Load capacity  Power  Speed  Space requirements  Supervision required  Ease of maintenance  Environment  Cost