Southeast Asia Study

Department of International Relations – University of Riau
2013
Unitary Republic of Indonesia
Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia

 Capital:
Jakarta
 Total area:
1,904,569 km2
 Total P...
History sejarah
Independence
Colonization

1. Old Orde
(1945-1965)

by:

Kingdoms
Period
1. Hindu and
Buddhist
kingdoms
2....
Ideology & Constitution
• Ideology of Indonesia is Pancasila (the five
principles):
1. Divinity / ketuhanan
2. Humanity / ...
Provinces in Indonesia

Aceh

North
Sumatra

Riau
Islands
Riau

West
Sumatra

West
Kalimantan

Jambi
South
Sumatra

Bengku...
Decentralisation desentralisasi
• Reformation era demand for decentralisation of
power and establishing of Regional Autono...
Executive

eksekutif

• Executive power headed by a president and
ministers (presidential system).
• President directly el...
The authorities of The President:
a) Make government regulations;
b) Submit bills (Rancangan UU);
c) Passing laws with DPR...
LEGISLATIVE

People’s Consultative Assembly
Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat

Upper House
House of Regional
Representative

...
House of Regional Representative
Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD)


DPD has legislation,
consideration, and supervision
func...
House of People Representative
Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR)


DPR has legislation, budgeting,
and oversight functions.

...
Judicative

Supreme

Constitutional

Judicial

Court

Court

Commission

Established:

Established:

August 1945
Chief:

A...
Judicative

Insignia of
“Mahkamah Agung”

• Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) sits
above the other courts and is the final
co...
Judicative

Hamdan Zoelva
new elected chief judge
of Constitutional Court

• Contitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi)
has...
http://www.pks.or.id/

www.partainasdem.o
rg/

http://pan.or.id/

http://partaigerindra.or.id/

Democrat Party (ruling par...
Election pemilihan
• The President is elected by absolute majority vote to serve a 5year term.
• In the DPD, 132 members a...
Military militer
• According to globalfirepower, Indonesia ranked 15th
in military strength in 2013.
• Government and mili...
Domestic
Issues:

Corruption
Commission of Corruption Eradication (KPK) building, Jakarta

• From Jan-Nov 2013, corruption...
Domestic
Issues:

Communal
conflict

Communal Conflict in Indonesia

• Indonesia is a very heterogen country and thus have...
Foreign Policy Kebijakan Luar Negeri
“a thousands friends – zero enemy”

(contemporary slogan of Indonesian foreign
polic...
• Indonesia maintaining its
doctrine of foreign policy
since independence,
namely, Bebas dan Aktif
(free and active).
• Ot...
Indonesia and ASEAN
Indonesia as Chairman of ASEAN and
host of ASEAN Summit 2011

 Indonesia is one of ASEAN’S
founding f...
Indonesia and ASEAN
 Indonesia actively encourage region
stabilisation and multidimension
cooperation to prepare ASEAN
Co...
Transnational Issues / Isu Transnasional
 Indonesia – Australia on illegal immigrant

issue.
 Indonesia – Malaysia on ma...
TERIMA
KASIH
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Politics and Government of Indonesia (Politik dan Pemerintahan Indonesia)

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Politics and Government of Indonesia (Politik dan Pemerintahan Indonesia)

  1. 1. Southeast Asia Study Department of International Relations – University of Riau 2013
  2. 2. Unitary Republic of Indonesia Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia  Capital: Jakarta  Total area: 1,904,569 km2  Total Population: 249.6 million (2012)  Gross Domestic Product: US$ 878.2 billion (2012)  GNI/capita: US$ 3420 (2012) Brief Profile “Garuda Pancasila” Official symbol of Indonesia “Red-White” Official flag of Indonesia
  3. 3. History sejarah Independence Colonization 1. Old Orde (1945-1965) by: Kingdoms Period 1. Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms 2. Rise of Islamic States 2. New Orde 1. Portuguese (1966-1998) 2. British 3. Reformation 3. Dutch (1999-now) 4. Japan
  4. 4. Ideology & Constitution • Ideology of Indonesia is Pancasila (the five principles): 1. Divinity / ketuhanan 2. Humanity / kemanusiaan 3. Unity / persatuan 4. Deliberation / permusyawaratan 5. Social Justice / keadilan sosial. • Indonesian constitution established in 1945
  5. 5. Provinces in Indonesia Aceh North Sumatra Riau Islands Riau West Sumatra West Kalimantan Jambi South Sumatra Bengkulu East Kalimantan Lampung Banten BangkaBelitung Central Kalimantan West Sulawesi South Kalimantan Jakarta Central West Java East Java Java Yogyakarta South Sulawesi Bali West Nusa Tenggara Gorontalo Central Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi East Nusa Tenggara North Sulawesi North Maluku West Papua Papua Maluku
  6. 6. Decentralisation desentralisasi • Reformation era demand for decentralisation of power and establishing of Regional Autonomy (Otonomi Daerah) by 1999. • Today, Indonesia has 34 provinces that consists of: Jakarta Capital Territory (DKI Jakarta), 31 Regional Autonomies, and 2 Special Regional Autonomies (Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam & Papua) • North Kalimantan (Kalimantan Utara) is newestablished province (since 2012).
  7. 7. Executive eksekutif • Executive power headed by a president and ministers (presidential system). • President directly elected by people for 5 years term and can be re-elected for one period. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Indonesia’s current president • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) is current (6th) president that re-elected for second period (2009-2014) and also leader of Democrat Party.
  8. 8. The authorities of The President: a) Make government regulations; b) Submit bills (Rancangan UU); c) Passing laws with DPR to reach an agreement; d) Supreme leader of army force and declare war; Presidential Seal e) Appoint Ambassador and consul; f) Appoint supreme judges as nominated by Judicial Commission and confirmed by DPR. Merdeka Palace the official residence of the President
  9. 9. LEGISLATIVE People’s Consultative Assembly Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Upper House House of Regional Representative Lower House House of People Representative • 1 term (5 years) • Speaker: Irman Gusman • Established: 2001 (first term: 2004-2009) • unlimited (5 years) • Speaker: Marzuki Alie • Established: 1945 (de facto: 1915) http://dpd.go.id/ http://dpr.go.id/
  10. 10. House of Regional Representative Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD)  DPD has legislation, consideration, and supervision functions.  DPD power limited to several fields of work: 1. regional autonomy 2. central and local relations 3. Formation and expansion 4. financial balancing and implementation 5. tax, education, and religion DPD Session in Parliament Complex, Jakarta
  11. 11. House of People Representative Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR)  DPR has legislation, budgeting, and oversight functions.  DPR has power to: 1. submit and passess law. 2. Produces annual budget together with President (taking into consideration DPD). 3. Designate member of Financial Auditor Body (BPK), taking into consideration DPD. 4. Accept and discuss bills submitted by DPD. MPR/DPR Building
  12. 12. Judicative Supreme Constitutional Judicial Court Court Commission Established: Established: August 1945 Chief: August 2003 Chief: M. Hatta Ali Hamdan Zoelva Established August 2005 Chief: Suparman M.
  13. 13. Judicative Insignia of “Mahkamah Agung” • Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) sits above the other courts and is the final court of appeal (kasasi). • There are 4 types courts below the Supreme Court: 1. General Courts (pengadilan negeri) 2. Religious Courts (pengadilan agama) 3. Military Courts (pengadilan militer) 4. Administrative Courts (pengadilan tata usaha negara). • . Both of Supreme Court and Constitutional Court have right to Judicial Review (level of review is different)
  14. 14. Judicative Hamdan Zoelva new elected chief judge of Constitutional Court • Contitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) has jurisdiction over the cases of: 1. constitutional review of legislation 2. dispute over authority of state institution 3. dissolution of political parties 4. dispute over election results 5. impeachment of the president • Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) has authority to: 1. nominating chief for Supreme Court 2. maintain judges dignity and behavior 3. establish code of conduct of judges
  15. 15. http://www.pks.or.id/ www.partainasdem.o rg/ http://pan.or.id/ http://partaigerindra.or.id/ Democrat Party (ruling party) http://www.pkb.or.id/ http://www.golkar.or.id/ http://www.demokrat.or.id/ http://ppp.or.id http://www.pdiperjuangan.or. http://hanura.com/10/
  16. 16. Election pemilihan • The President is elected by absolute majority vote to serve a 5year term. • In the DPD, 132 members are elected by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms. • In the DPR 560 members are elected by open list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies to serve 5-year terms. • Presidential Threshold: 20%, 25% of votes in the last DPR election • Parliamentary Threshold: 2.5% • Voting is not compulsory.
  17. 17. Military militer • According to globalfirepower, Indonesia ranked 15th in military strength in 2013. • Government and military conducting Revolution of Military Affairs (RMA) to improve and increase national defence through concept of Kekuatan Pokok Minimum (Minimum Essential Force) by 2019. • Nowadays, Indonesia doing cooperations with many countries to reduce defence dependency with several state.
  18. 18. Domestic Issues: Corruption Commission of Corruption Eradication (KPK) building, Jakarta • From Jan-Nov 2013, corruption in Indonesia have been involved senior police officer, judge of Constitutional Court, ministers, governors, and cader of ruling party • Commission of Corruption Eradication (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi – KPK) become most respected and trusted government’s legal institution by public after dismantling many cases of corruption.
  19. 19. Domestic Issues: Communal conflict Communal Conflict in Indonesia • Indonesia is a very heterogen country and thus have very big potential of communal conflict. • Other causes of this communal conflict are: – – – – – – – Disobedience of local wisdom (pengabaian kearifan lokal) Legal uncertainty (ketidakpastian hukum) Economic trouble (himpitan ekonomi) Indecisiveness leadership (ketidaktegasan pemerintah) Decentralisation (desentralisasi) Democratisation process (proses demokratisasi) Crisis of public confidence (kepercayaan publik) in government
  20. 20. Foreign Policy Kebijakan Luar Negeri “a thousands friends – zero enemy” (contemporary slogan of Indonesian foreign policy)  Indonesia active in participating and organizing international conferences on security, economic and trade, democracy, and environmental issues.  As the most populous muslim country, Indonesia shows more attention to muslim-invoved issues. ex: Palestine, Rohingya, Arab Spring.
  21. 21. • Indonesia maintaining its doctrine of foreign policy since independence, namely, Bebas dan Aktif (free and active). • Other focus of foreign policy: a. investment policy b. migrant workers (TKI) c. national unity d. international justice and order e. regional integration President SBY and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon Indonesia Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa
  22. 22. Indonesia and ASEAN Indonesia as Chairman of ASEAN and host of ASEAN Summit 2011  Indonesia is one of ASEAN’S founding fathers.  ASEAN is Indonesia’s foreign policy priority.  The host of ASEAN annual meeting for 3 times (1976, 2003, 2011) and also the country where ASEAN secretariat located. ASEAN Secretariat Building Jakarta - Indonesia
  23. 23. Indonesia and ASEAN  Indonesia actively encourage region stabilisation and multidimension cooperation to prepare ASEAN Community 2015.  Indonesia plays role in many issues in southeast Asia: - Phillipine – MNLF reconciliation - conflict and democratisation in Myanmar - East Timor membership in ASEAN - South China Sea disputes
  24. 24. Transnational Issues / Isu Transnasional  Indonesia – Australia on illegal immigrant issue.  Indonesia – Malaysia on maritim boundary issue.  Indonesia – Singapore on maritim boundary issue. etc.
  25. 25. TERIMA KASIH

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