Reading Comprehension of various Text types in Children with & without Hearing Impairment in Inclusive Schools Presented by:- Guide:-Devant Brahm Shah Dr. Varsha GathooM.Ed. [H.I.] 2010-2011 Reader & HeadAYJNIHH Mumbai Department of Education AYJNIHH Mumbai
INTRODUCTIONREADING COMPREHENSIONReading Comprehension is a complex process which involves understanding the word meaning & consequent verbal reasoning.In simple words, Reading Comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a writing.The ability to read the written language at a reasonable rate with good comprehension has long been recognized to be as important as oral skills, if not more important. (Eskey,1970)
PRE-REQUISITES OF READING COMPREHENSIONKnowledge of the general syntactic and semantic patterns of the language to translate from words to meaning.Knowledge of the conventions of communication such as new knowledge for the revision of the old. (Clark & Havilland, 1977)Knowledge of the methods of the communication of text structures, with specific knowledge of the topic being discussed & the style of the speaker or writer.
READING & THE TEXTS By providing learners with an explicit rhetorical understanding of texts and a metalanguage by which to analyze them, teachers can assist students to see texts as artifacts that can be explicitly questioned, compared and deconstructed, thereby revealing their underlying assumptions and ideologies. (Hyland,2003)
READING COMPREHENSION & THE HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDRENStudents who have serious hearing problems or who have impaired hearing at the pre-acquisition stage of language confront with problems while they are learning reading. (Girgin, 1999; Paul, 1997; Quigley & Paul, 1985)Hearing Impaired children employ the same reading skills and strategies as their hearing peers. (Moog & Geers, 1985; Schirmer, 2000)
REVIEW OF LITERATURE The severely and profoundly deaf child confronts with two main problems in learning to read, the first & underlying problem is that, most such children are severely deficient in their knowledge of verbal language. The second problem lies in perceiving the written words reflecting the language code. (Clark et al, 1982)
Reading Comprehension is an active and interactive process between the readers and the written materials in which readers attribute meanings to the text through their background knowledge. (Goodman, 1995; Lewis & Wray, 2000; Rasinski & Padak, 2004; Zwiers, 2004)
Some comprehension strategies may be better suited to narrative text than expository text because of structural differences between these genres. For example, a strategy in which children listen for known words, generate predictive inferences, and periodically confirm whether predictions are accurate may be useful in comprehending the narrative text. (Graham, Santos & Vanderplank, 2008; Palincsar & Brown, 1984)
Generation of inferences is crucial for understanding narratives. For example, good comprehenders tend to generate more explanatory or causal inferences during the comprehension of narratives than predictive or associative (knowledge-based) inferences or paraphrases. (Laing & Kamhi, 2002; Trabasso & Magliano, 1996a)
NEED OF THE PRESENT STUDYGood readers are active readers.Good readers read different kinds of text differently.In classrooms, the teacher is a motivator/stimulator.A teacher should foster students expectations about reading & arouse their interest to read.This can be done by addressing learning styles & provisions of different reading texts namely narrative , descriptive, expository and argumentative.
It was felt necessary to see whether in an Inclusive classroom, students with and without hearing impairment, have similar interest and aptitude for different types of reading texts?, hence the present study is aimed at reading comprehensions of various text types among them.
EXPLANATION OF KEY TERMSTYPES OF TEXTSDescriptive:- These are texts based on perception in space. Impressionistic descriptions of landscapes or persons are often to be found in these, such as novels and short stories.Narrative:- These are texts based on perception of time. Narration is a telling of stories, the succession of events is given in chronological order, with a purpose to entertain, to gain and hold a reader’s interest. The common structure or basic plan of narrative text is known as “Story Grammar”.
Expository:- It aims at explanation , that is , the cognitive analysis and subsequent synthesis of complex facts.Argumentative:- These texts are based on evaluation and the subsequent subjective judgment in answer to a problem. It refers to the reasons advanced for or against a matter.
INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS In the present study, the Inclusive Schools means those schools which facilitate the education of Children with Hearing Impairment together with Children without Hearing Impairment, providing instructions in Hindi medium, situated in and around the Suburbs of Mumbai.
OBJECTIVESTo ascertain the achievement in Reading Comprehension of narrative text in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.To ascertain the achievement in Reading Comprehension of descriptive text in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.To ascertain the achievement in Reading Comprehension of expository text in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.To ascertain the achievement in Reading Comprehension of argumentative text in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.To compare the achievement in Reading Comprehension of all the four text types in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS1- What percentage of Children with Hearing Impairment benefits from- text type percentage of students a) Descriptive passage ………?……………. b) Narrative passage …………?………….. c) Expository passage ………?……………. d) Argumentative passage …………?…………..2- Which is the most beneficial text of all the four, for Children with Hearing Impairment ?3- Which is the most beneficial text of all the four, for Children with Hearing Impairment ?
HYPOTHESIS The Narrative and Descriptive types will be highly beneficial for Reading Comprehension among all the four types of texts in Children with Hearing Impairment.
METHODOLOGYResearch Type: SurveySample : 2 Groups of students. Group A &BGroup A: 15 Children with Hearing Impairment from various Inclusive schools studying in class 7th.Group B: 15 children without hearing impairment from various Inclusive schools, in equal proportion to their hearing impaired peers, studying in class 7th.Medium of instruction: Hindi.Gender: Both boys & girls in almost equal numbers.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The study will use three-stage sampling technique:- Stage 1:- At the first stage, Inclusive Schools will be selected using stratified random sampling where strata includes name of the Schools located in and around the Suburbs of Mumbai. Stage 2:- At the second stage, Children with Hearing Impairment will be selected, studying in class 7th , from those schools. Stage 3:- And at the third stage, Children without Hearing Impairment will be selected randomly from same classes of the same schools, in equal numbers, strictly in accordance with the Children with Hearing Impairment selected.
TOOL OF THE STUDY Researcher-made-test tools in the form of grid, having different parameters based on Bloom’s Taxonomy will be used in order to measure the achievement in Reading Comprehension of four different passages. The text passages and grid will be validated with the help of experts .TECHNIQUES OF THE DATA ANALYSES t- Test will be used for statistical analyses.
SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe present study enables the researcher to help generate better Reading Comprehension and thereby enhances the competencies of language in Children with & without Hearing Impairment.The present study identifies the similarities and differences, if any, in comprehension of various types of texts among Children with & without Hearing Impairment.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThe present study includes only those children, with & without Hearing Impaired, who are instructed in Hindi medium only and not in any other language.The present study includes the Hearing Impaired & Hearing children studying in class 7th.The present study includes the children only from Inclusive schools and not from Special schools.The present study confines itself in the geographical constraints of the several Suburbs of Mumbai only.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThe study would be helpful in assessing comprehension, in diagnostic processes, to estimate the level of materials that are appropriate for instruction and serve as backdrop against which the comprehension skills and knowledge of the students may be evaluated.The study would be helpful to Children with Hearing Impairment in employing strategies for the enhanced comprehension of written texts through effective reading.
The study would prove effective to parents of Children with Hearing Impairment in promotion of reading activities, by facilitating the selection of written texts and other print materials.The study would also contribute to the enhancement of effectiveness of Inclusive classrooms for facilitating increased Reading Comprehensions in Children with Hearing Impairment.
REFERENCESBOOKSBarr R., Blachowitch C.L.Z. & Marrilyn W.S., Reading diagnosis for teachers , 3rd ed.John R.B. & Singleton c., The psychological Assessment of Reading.Nicolson R., Reading skills & Dyslexia.Dean G., Teaching Reading in Secondary schools, 2nd ed.
WEBSITES & OTHER RESOURCEShttp://www.wikipedia.org/http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1465/MR1465. pdfhttp://www4.pucsp.br./isfc/proceedings/artigos pdf/06ad_ienkins_155a170.pdfhttp://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1465/MR 1465.pdfPressley M. (2000), Comprehension Instruction: What Work, http://www.readingrockets.org/article/68Zwiers, J. (2004). Building reading comprehension habits in grades 6-12: A toolkit of classroom activities, Newark: International Reading Association.