Computer

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Computer

  1. 1. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEINTEGRETED CIRCUIT MICROPROCESSOR GENRATION OF COMPUTER TRANSISTERSVACCUM TUBES 1st gen. 2nd gen. 3rd gen. 4th gen. 5th gen.
  2. 2. Vacuum Tubes Advantages: 1. Vacuum tubes were the only electronic components available during those days. 2. Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers. 3. These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time. Disadvantages: 1. To bulky in size. 2. Unreliable. 3. Air conditioning required.
  3. 3. Transistor Advantages: 1. Smaller in size as compared to first generation computers. 2. More reliable. 3. Less heat generate. Disadvantages: 1.Frequent maintains required. 2. Manual assembly of individual components into a functioning unit was required. 3. Commercial production was difficult and costly.
  4. 4. Integrated Circuit Advantages- 1. Smaller in size as compared to previous generation computers. 2. Even more reliable then second generation computers. 3. Even lower heat generated tan second generation computers. Disadvantage- 1. Air conditioning required in many cases. 2. Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of IC chips.
  5. 5. Microprocessor Advantages- 1. Smallest in size because of high component density. 2. Very reliable. 3. Heat generated is negligible. Disadvantage- 1. Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI chips.
  6. 6. Artificial Intelligence Advantages- 1. A noninvasive probe that provides painless probing to the patient. 2. Guidance path is predetermined. 3. Computer shortage of data and printout or visual can be used for patient education. Disadvantage- 1.Expensive. 2. Operator needs to understand the images provided by the computer. 3. Requires a learning curve.
  7. 7. Block Diagram of Computer C.P.U A.L.U CONTROL UNIT MEMORY INPUT DEVICE OUTPUT DEVICE
  8. 8. Characteristics Of Computer 1- Speed 2- Accuracy 3- Reliability 4- Storage Capacity 5- Versatility 6- Reduction in man power 7- Reduction in paper work 8- Never gets tired
  9. 9. Application Areas Of Computer 1- Banks 12- Criminal Identification 2- Defense 13- Automation 3- Research 14- Sports 4- Education 15- Shopping Complex 5- Communication 16- Medical Sciences 6- Weather Forecasting 17- Government Centers 7- Media 18- Electronic Voting System 8- Edutainment 19- Hotels & Restaurant 9- Business 20- Airlines/Railways Reservation 10- Animation & Films 21- Library 11- Book Publishing
  10. 10. Functioning Of Computer (i) Input- Computer accepts the input given by the user it can be in the form of instructions or commands to do computer to operate on the data it could be a single command to do a task or a set instructions to preforms a series of steps this set of instructions is called a programme. (ii) Storage and Retrieval- The input is stored in the memory of computer and it can be Retrieved whenever required. (iii) Processing- The execution of instructions given to the computer is called processing. (iv) Output- Final result or output, available to the user, either on the monitor (soft copy) or as a print out (hard copy) is called output.
  11. 11. Computer Hardware's C.P.U CD Drive Monitor Scanner Floppy Disk MODEM Printer Floppy Laptop Bar Code ReaderJoystick
  12. 12. Computer Hardware’s Speaker Mouse Keyboard
  13. 13. Fastness Of C.P.U Fastness of C.p.u depends on the Processor . The speed of C.P.U is determine by the number of instructions executed per second by Processor
  14. 14. Motherboard 1. It is an Electronic board found at the bottom of the C.P.U. 2. It is the largest circuit board. 3. A Motherboard has a processor chip, memory chips and many other logic circuits. 4. It is also called system board, and it is the most important computer hardware.
  15. 15. Processor Processor is a chip where a large number of circuit elements are integrated onto a very small piece of silicon. e.g. : Intel
  16. 16. Control Unit 1. This unit controls of each and every component of the computer system. 2. It controls the transfer of data and instructions among other units of computer. 3. It is also called the Central Nervous System of computer.
  17. 17. Memory Unit Primary Memory Temporary Secondary Memory Permanent
  18. 18. 1.RAM [Random Access Memory] It is a volatile memory as instruction and data stored temporarily, during its processing and lost forever when the computer is switched off. 2.RAM [Random Access Memory] (i) It is non-volatile memory as it stores information. Permanently and cannot be changed. (ii) The primary use of ROM is during booting. BOOTING: It is initial program to start up the computer, when power is switched on. 3. Cache Memory It is a special high speed memory. It stores frequently used instruction, so that the CPU can access them quickly and easily.
  19. 19. Units Of Memory Nibble- Group of 4-bits Byte- Group of 8-bits Kilo Byte- 1KB=1024 bits Mega Byte- 1MB=1024 KB Giga Byte- 1GB= 1024 MB Tera Byte- 1TB= 1024 GB
  20. 20. C.P.U C.P.U INTLE MOTHERBOARD PROCESSOR
  21. 21. SOFTWARE Software- The set of information when executed in a particular sequence perform. The collection of such types of programs are called software. Software increases capability of hardware and directs the computer to perform operations like inputs, processing and output. Software Software System Application Software System Software Its acts as interface between user and system. It is collection of one or more program. It is installed by the manufacturer. Its designed to control the overall operations and performance of the computer system.
  22. 22. PLEASE WATCH IN SLIDE SHOW Thank U

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