Orchestration:
The Next Frontier for Cloud Applications


         John Willis, Opscode Inc.
         Alex Honor, ControlT...
You worried about…
You worried about…
Now you worry about…
Now you worry about…
How do you make all of that work
    together in the cloud?
Orchestration!
The Path to Orchestration
The Path to Orchestration

1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view
   and practices into alignment
The Path to Orchestration

1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view
   and practices into alignment
        See als...
The Path to Orchestration

1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view
   and practices into alignment
        See als...
The Path to Orchestration

1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view
   and practices into alignment
        See als...
Agenda

                 John Willis (Opscode)

                 Alex Honor (ControlTier)

                 Mark Hinkle (Z...
Orchestration and
System Administration



         John Willis
VP of Services - Opscode, Inc.
Infrastructure is Hard
Fully Automated
Infrastructure is Hard!
1999
  Inventory, packaged file transfers and desktops
2005
  Unattended bare metal servers “very very” hard
  7k Nodes to...
Managing Infrastructure Is Hard
                              Has Always Been
Proprietary Solutions
                    • ...
Open Source Solutions
Cfengine
Started in 1993 by Mark Burgess. He created a scientific approach to
model systems and set ...
Industry Shifts
Infrastructure is changing
• Easier to get (good!)
     ...but harder to manage (bad!)

• Demand is dynamic

• Developers ...
Core Principles

• System Integration

• Infrastructure as Code

• Infrastructure API

• Community involvement

• Zero tou...
Infrastructure as Code
Nodes -- Where recipes are applied

Roles -- Allow you to group together nodes

Cookbooks -- Recipe...
Cookbooks

Distribution

Recipes, Attributes

Assets

Definitions, LWRP,
   Libraries

Metadata
Roles
Load Balancer Example
Orchestration and
     Application Administration



                  Alex Honor
Project Leader, ControlTier Open Source ...
Classic Application Administration Problem
Classic Application Administration Problem
Classic Application Administration Problem




                              Complexity!
Classic Application Administration Problem




                              Complexity!
                              Cha...
Classic Application Administration Problem




                              Complexity!
                              Cha...
Classic Application Administration Problem




                              Complexity!
                              Cha...
Clouds Make it Worse
Clouds Make it Worse




                       Complexity!
                       Changing procedures!
                  ...
Clouds Make it Worse




                       Complexity!
                       Changing procedures!
                  ...
Clouds Make it Worse




                       Complexity!
                       Changing procedures!
                  ...
Clouds Make it Worse




                       Complexity!
                       Changing procedures!
                  ...
Command Dispatcher
Command Dispatcher
Command Dispatcher
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
  – Nodes
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
  – Nodes
  – Services
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
  – Nodes
  – Services
  – Management Procedures
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
  – Nodes
  – Services
  – Management Procedures


• Sequence...
Command Dispatcher Provides

• Abstraction at several levels
  – Nodes
  – Services
  – Management Procedures


• Sequence...
Example: Cluster Management

• Coordinate actions within a larger procedure

• Roll sets of tasks across sets of nodes

• ...
Example: Scale Differences




                        Wednesday 04:00
Example: Scale Differences




                        Wednesday 04:00

                        Wednesday 11:00
Example: Self-Service
Command Dispatcher Projects

Example command dispatchers…

      • Capistrano (capify.org)

      • Fabric (fabfile.org)

...
Command Dispatcher Projects

Example command dispatchers (cont’d)…

      • ControlTier (controltier.org)
        –   Work...
Orchestration and
     Monitoring



        Mark Hinkle
VP of Community, Zenoss Inc.
Legacy IT




                                                                                     Different perspective, ...
Legacy Monitoring Perspective


Types of Monitoring                               Data Collection
•   Availability Monitor...
The Myth of the Nines

Availability %                    Downtime per Year            Downtime per Month              Down...
Legacy Systems Management:
                        Fragmented Awareness
   Global dashboard is a difficult mash-up of
    d...
Unlegacy Systems Management:
  Integrated Model, Interactive, Automated




                                        Applic...
Example – Broadcast Company

Large premium television content provider serves national cable network with
content served f...
Example - Geeknet

Hundreds of servers, serving web, databases, and other infrastructure for some
of the world’s most high...
Unlegacy Future: Devops


    Development   Operations
Orchestral Manoeuvres in
       the Cloud



    Duncan Johnston-Watt
  CEO, Cloudsoft Corporation
The Application Mobility Manifesto
• Application mobility is the ability to …
   – Dynamically change some or all of the i...
Demo: Application Mobility in Action

• EzBrokerage is implemented using CloudSoft’s
  Monterey middleware platform

• EzB...
John Willis (opscode.com)
    @botchagalupe


Alex Honor (controltier.org)
    @alexhonor


Mark Hinkle (zenoss.com)
    @...
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Orchestration Panel at Cloud Connect 2010

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Damon Edwards -- DTO Solutions
John Willis -- Opscode
Alex Honor -- ControlTier Project
Mark Hinkle -- Zenoss
Duncan Johnston-Watt -- Cloudsoft

http://www.cloudconnectevent.com/cloud-computing-conference/developing-for-the-cloud.php#Wednesday

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Orchestration Panel at Cloud Connect 2010

  1. 1. Orchestration: The Next Frontier for Cloud Applications John Willis, Opscode Inc. Alex Honor, ControlTier Project Mark Hinkle, Zenoss Inc. Duncan Johnston-Watt, CloudSoft Corporation Damon Edwards, DTO Solutions Inc.
  2. 2. You worried about…
  3. 3. You worried about…
  4. 4. Now you worry about…
  5. 5. Now you worry about…
  6. 6. How do you make all of that work together in the cloud?
  7. 7. Orchestration!
  8. 8. The Path to Orchestration
  9. 9. The Path to Orchestration 1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view and practices into alignment
  10. 10. The Path to Orchestration 1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view and practices into alignment See also: #DevOps
  11. 11. The Path to Orchestration 1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view and practices into alignment See also: #DevOps 2. Fully automated infrastructure
  12. 12. The Path to Orchestration 1. Bring “Dev”, “Ops”, and “Biz” points-of-view and practices into alignment See also: #DevOps 2. Fully automated infrastructure See also: “Infrastructure as Code”
  13. 13. Agenda John Willis (Opscode) Alex Honor (ControlTier) Mark Hinkle (Zenoss) Duncan Johnston-Watt (CloudSoft) Q&A with Panel Damon Edwards (DTO Solutions) Moderator
  14. 14. Orchestration and System Administration John Willis VP of Services - Opscode, Inc.
  15. 15. Infrastructure is Hard
  16. 16. Fully Automated Infrastructure is Hard!
  17. 17. 1999 Inventory, packaged file transfers and desktops 2005 Unattended bare metal servers “very very” hard 7k Nodes took 5 days w/90 success 2007 Unattended bare metal in under 10 minutes Fully configured in under 3 mins 2008 Unattended server in 2 minutes 5000 servers in a week 2010 10k Nodes in under 5 minutes
  18. 18. Managing Infrastructure Is Hard Has Always Been Proprietary Solutions • Solve very little of the problem... 1980 • Reach just a handful of large, enterprise customers 1989 • Require custom implementations with large professional services 1999 • Deployed exclusively on-premise 2001 • Acquired by companies with large consulting organizations (IBM, HP, CA)
  19. 19. Open Source Solutions Cfengine Started in 1993 by Mark Burgess. He created a scientific approach to model systems and set a new paradigm for CM. DSL based, declarative, abstract, convergent and self documenting configuration management. Puppet Founded in 2005 by Luke Kanies. Frustrated with Cfengine syntax and ability to adapt to real world configuration management, he made a quantum leap in making a DSL easier to use for declarative, abstract, convergent and self documenting configuration management. Chef Founded in 2008 by Adam Jacob. A community leader working with Puppet on massively scalable fully automated infrastructures, Saw the problem as a “systems Integration” problem first and configuration management as a subcomponent.
  20. 20. Industry Shifts
  21. 21. Infrastructure is changing • Easier to get (good!) ...but harder to manage (bad!) • Demand is dynamic • Developers are crucial to Operations • Web / Cloud services are proliferating ...and Enterprise is following along • Manual configuration no longer a crutch • Few tools to solve a ubiquitous problem
  22. 22. Core Principles • System Integration • Infrastructure as Code • Infrastructure API • Community involvement • Zero touch
  23. 23. Infrastructure as Code Nodes -- Where recipes are applied Roles -- Allow you to group together nodes Cookbooks -- Recipes, Definitions, Attributes, Libraries, Files and Templates Resources -- The basic unit of work in Chef - a resource might be a package, file or service Providers -- A provider takes actions on resources. A node decides what provider should be used by default. Metadata -- Defines cookbook dependencies and additional parts.
  24. 24. Cookbooks Distribution Recipes, Attributes Assets Definitions, LWRP, Libraries Metadata
  25. 25. Roles
  26. 26. Load Balancer Example
  27. 27. Orchestration and Application Administration Alex Honor Project Leader, ControlTier Open Source Project
  28. 28. Classic Application Administration Problem
  29. 29. Classic Application Administration Problem
  30. 30. Classic Application Administration Problem Complexity!
  31. 31. Classic Application Administration Problem Complexity! Changing procedures!
  32. 32. Classic Application Administration Problem Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences!
  33. 33. Classic Application Administration Problem Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences! Lack of repeatability!
  34. 34. Clouds Make it Worse
  35. 35. Clouds Make it Worse Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences! Lack of repeatability! +
  36. 36. Clouds Make it Worse Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences! Lack of repeatability! + Transient infrastructure!
  37. 37. Clouds Make it Worse Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences! Lack of repeatability! + Transient infrastructure! Dynamic scale!
  38. 38. Clouds Make it Worse Complexity! Changing procedures! Environment differences! Lack of repeatability! + Transient infrastructure! Dynamic scale! Multiple providers!
  39. 39. Command Dispatcher
  40. 40. Command Dispatcher
  41. 41. Command Dispatcher
  42. 42. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels
  43. 43. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels – Nodes
  44. 44. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels – Nodes – Services
  45. 45. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels – Nodes – Services – Management Procedures
  46. 46. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels – Nodes – Services – Management Procedures • Sequenced or parallel execution
  47. 47. Command Dispatcher Provides • Abstraction at several levels – Nodes – Services – Management Procedures • Sequenced or parallel execution • Plug-in control modules
  48. 48. Example: Cluster Management • Coordinate actions within a larger procedure • Roll sets of tasks across sets of nodes • Manage as whole or logical slices
  49. 49. Example: Scale Differences Wednesday 04:00
  50. 50. Example: Scale Differences Wednesday 04:00 Wednesday 11:00
  51. 51. Example: Self-Service
  52. 52. Command Dispatcher Projects Example command dispatchers… • Capistrano (capify.org) • Fabric (fabfile.org) • Func (fedorahosted.org/func)
  53. 53. Command Dispatcher Projects Example command dispatchers (cont’d)… • ControlTier (controltier.org) – Workflow system on top of dispatcher – Web-based GUI and command line tools – Fine-grain access controls – Logging and reporting framework – Integrated with CMDB
  54. 54. Orchestration and Monitoring Mark Hinkle VP of Community, Zenoss Inc.
  55. 55. Legacy IT Different perspective, lack of coordination Cartoon originally copyrighted by the authors; G. Renee Guzlas, artist
  56. 56. Legacy Monitoring Perspective Types of Monitoring Data Collection • Availability Monitoring – Binary, Moment in Time • SNMP • Performance Monitoring – Two Dimensions, Time and State • SSH • Change Management – Comparisons of states in Time • WMI • Event Management – Normalizing • Syslog Randomness • Synthetic Transactions – Simulated • Proprietary Agents Experiences • Business Service Management (BSM) – $$$ Consequences of IT Performance
  57. 57. The Myth of the Nines Availability % Downtime per Year Downtime per Month Downtime per Week 99.9% (three nines) 8.76 hours 43.2 minutes 10.1 minutes 99.95% 4.38 hours 21.56 minutes 5.04 minutes 99.99% (four nines) 52.6 minutes 4.32 minutes 1.01 minutes 99.999% (five nines) 5.26 minutes 25.9 seconds 6.05 minutes 99.9999% (six nines) 31.5 seconds 2.59 seconds .0605 seconds •Average polling interval for monitoring? 5 minutes? •Even super human operations people can’t be alerted and take action in under 5 minutes. •One outage per year could drop service level to three nines.
  58. 58. Legacy Systems Management: Fragmented Awareness Global dashboard is a difficult mash-up of disparate systems or doesn’t exist. No communication, No automation database Provisioning Configuration Management Performance & Availability Management Analytics Analytics server server Process server Process server Configurtation Process server database database Database Multiple data models across disciplines with no Each management discipline common object model managed has its own Agent Agent Agent separate product (UI, process, database, and Multiple agents required for each domain specific language) discipline and platform
  59. 59. Unlegacy Systems Management: Integrated Model, Interactive, Automated Application Application Op. System Op. System Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Physical/Virtual/Cloud Infrastructure
  60. 60. Example – Broadcast Company Large premium television content provider serves national cable network with content served from Linux servers. • Servers are automatically built using configuration management software • As servers are brought into service configuration management inserts hosts into CMDB used by monitoring database • One way interaction between configuration management and monitoring system • Reports are generated to determine which systems are compliant
  61. 61. Example - Geeknet Hundreds of servers, serving web, databases, and other infrastructure for some of the world’s most highly trafficked websites – over 40 million visitors per month. • Servers are automatically built using configuration management software • Discovery tool finds infrastructure and populates a CMDB then spits out information to scripts that translate information to BIND configurations for DNS • Monitoring tool adds hosts to polling tool to start monitoring servers for availability • As infrastructure changes systems are updated automatically • Servers can be spun up and managed in minutes, not hours automatically with little or no human interaction
  62. 62. Unlegacy Future: Devops Development Operations
  63. 63. Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Cloud Duncan Johnston-Watt CEO, Cloudsoft Corporation
  64. 64. The Application Mobility Manifesto • Application mobility is the ability to … – Dynamically change some or all of the infrastructure that an application is using without any disruption of service – Optimize the location of application components in the cloud – Bridge the gap between your private cloud and trusted third party cloud services providers • Application mobility is achieved by orchestrating the cloud • Application mobility is the “Missing Link” in Cloud Computing
  65. 65. Demo: Application Mobility in Action • EzBrokerage is implemented using CloudSoft’s Monterey middleware platform • EzBrokerage benefits from two complementary policies – Workload policy: ensures the service is adequately resourced based on server demand by managing the size of a pool and distribution of workload across it – Geolocation policy: ensures the service is hosted in the right region based on client demand by managing the overall distribution of workload across multiple resource pools or clouds
  66. 66. John Willis (opscode.com) @botchagalupe Alex Honor (controltier.org) @alexhonor Mark Hinkle (zenoss.com) @mrhinkle Duncan Johnston-Watt (cloudsoftcorp.com) @duncanjw Damon Edwards (dtosolutions.com) @damonedwards

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