<ul><li>CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Our environment is not conducive to a healthy, physically active ...
OUR ENVIRONMENT IS NOT CONDUCIVE TO A HEALTHY, PHYSICALLY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE.  WHY?
WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCES. LULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY.
2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTURE. REINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS.
3) SEDENTARY JOBS. MOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
4) SEDENTARY LEISURE. LIKE OUR JOBS, OUR LEISURE TIME IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
5) OUR COMMUNITIES DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH PRIORITY.
WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES? -INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THE PEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON DIET & NUTRITION?
1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD. INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TO ADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY THEIR P...
2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING.
3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE.
4) FOOD PORTIONS. PARTICULARLY IN RESTAURANTS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE.
WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?” -OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FOR ONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY.  WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR PEOPLE MAKING ...
<ul><li>LACK OF CORE VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>PROCRASTINATION </li></ul><ul><li>PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS </li></ul>...
LOCUS OF CONTROL -THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CAN INFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INTERNAL LOCUS OF C...
<ul><li>3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES </li></ul><ul><li>1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE </li...
2-STAGE MODEL OF UNHEALTHY & HEALTHY BEHAVIOR EITHER YOU DO IT OR YOU DON’T.
<ul><li>BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL </li></ul><ul...
LEARNING THEORIES -MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDER COMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES...
PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL -MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS AS WE SEEK TO CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR. -THE P...
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY -BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIO...
RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL -PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS & DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT APSES & R...
TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL -CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPING WITH A PERSON’S READINESS...
SMART GOALS SPECIFIC:   -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO  ACCOMPLISH. MEASURABLE:   -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEASURABL...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter2

980 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
980
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter2

  1. 1. <ul><li>CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Our environment is not conducive to a healthy, physically active lifestyle. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What environmental factors influence physical activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What environmental factors influence diet & nutrition? </li></ul><ul><li>4) What is &quot;traffic-calming?” </li></ul><ul><li>5) What is &quot;value marketing?” </li></ul><ul><li>6) Define &quot;locus of control.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>7) Describe a person with an internal locus of control. </li></ul><ul><li>8) Describe a person with an external locus of control. </li></ul><ul><li>9) What are the 3 impediments that can keep people from taking control of their lives? </li></ul><ul><li>10) What does the 2-stage model of unhealthy & healthy behavior state? </li></ul><ul><li>11) Summarize each of the following behavior change theories: </li></ul><ul><li>A) Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>B) Problem-Solving Model </li></ul><ul><li>C) Social Cognitive Theory </li></ul><ul><li>D) Relapse Prevention Model </li></ul><ul><li>E) Transtheoretical Model </li></ul><ul><li>12) Summarize the acronym: SMART. </li></ul>
  2. 2. OUR ENVIRONMENT IS NOT CONDUCIVE TO A HEALTHY, PHYSICALLY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE. WHY?
  3. 3. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
  4. 4. 1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCES. LULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY.
  5. 5. 2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTURE. REINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS.
  6. 6. 3) SEDENTARY JOBS. MOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
  7. 7. 4) SEDENTARY LEISURE. LIKE OUR JOBS, OUR LEISURE TIME IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
  8. 8. 5) OUR COMMUNITIES DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH PRIORITY.
  9. 9. WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES? -INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THE PEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
  10. 10. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON DIET & NUTRITION?
  11. 11. 1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD. INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TO ADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY THEIR PRODUCTS.
  12. 12. 2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING.
  13. 13. 3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE.
  14. 14. 4) FOOD PORTIONS. PARTICULARLY IN RESTAURANTS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE.
  15. 15. WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?” -OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FOR ONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
  16. 16. IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR PEOPLE MAKING UNHEALTHY CHOICES?
  17. 17. <ul><li>LACK OF CORE VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>PROCRASTINATION </li></ul><ul><li>PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS </li></ul><ul><li>GRATIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>RISK COMPLACENCY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEXITY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIFFERENCE & HELPLESSNESS </li></ul><ul><li>RATIONALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>ILLUSIONS OF INVINCIBILITY </li></ul>
  18. 18. LOCUS OF CONTROL -THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CAN INFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: -PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THEY HAVE CONTROL OVER EVENTS IN THEIR LIVES. -GENERALLY ARE HEALTHIER & HAVE AN EASIER TIME INITIATING & ADHERING TO A WELLNESS PROGRAM. EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: -PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THAT WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM IS A RESULT OF CHANCE OR THE ENVIRONMENT & IS UNRELATED TO THEIR BEHAVIOR. -AT GREATER RISK FOR ILLNESS.
  19. 19. <ul><li>3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES </li></ul><ul><li>1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>-LACKING THE SKILLS TO GET A GIVEN TASK DONE LEADS TO REDUCED COMPETENCE. </li></ul><ul><li>2) PROBLEMS OF CONFIDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>-ARISE WHEN YOU HAVE THE SKILL BUT DON’T BELIEVE YOU CAN GET IT DONE. </li></ul><ul><li>3) PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>-INDIVIDUALS HAVE COMPETENCE & CONFIDENCE BUT BUT ARE UNWILLING TO CHANGE BECAUSE THE REASONS TO CHANGE ARE NOT IMPORTANT TO THEM. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES OF UNWILLINGNESS TO CHANGE: </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF GOALS </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2-STAGE MODEL OF UNHEALTHY & HEALTHY BEHAVIOR EITHER YOU DO IT OR YOU DON’T.
  21. 21. <ul><li>BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>RELAPSE PREVENTION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>TRANTHEORETICAL MODEL </li></ul>
  22. 22. LEARNING THEORIES -MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDER COMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES. -THE PROCESS FOR LEARNING A NEW BEHAVIOR REQUIRES MODIFYING MANY SMALL BEHAVIORS THAT SHAPE THE NEW PATTERN BEHAVIOR.
  23. 23. PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL -MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS AS WE SEEK TO CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR. -THE PROCESS OF CHANGE REQUIRES CONSCIOUS ATTENTION, THE SETTING GOALS, & DESIGNING A SPECIFIC PLAN OF ACTION.
  24. 24. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY -BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIOR ITSELF. -YOU CAN INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY BY EDUCATING YOURSELF ABOUT THE BEHAVIOR, DEVELOPING THE SKILLS TO MASTER THE BEHAVIOR, PERFORMING SMALLER MASTERY EXPERIENCES SUCCESSFULLY, & RECEIVING VERBAL REINFORCEMENT & VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES.
  25. 25. RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL -PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS & DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT APSES & RELAPSES. -FACTORS THAT DISRUPT BEHAVIOR CHANGE: -NEGATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES (STRESS, ILLNESS) -SOCIAL PRESSURE -LACK OF SUPPORT -LIMITED COPING SKILLS -CHANGE IN WORK CONDITIONS -LACK OF MOTIVATION
  26. 26. TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL -CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPING WITH A PERSON’S READINESS TO CHANGE. -STAGES: 1) PRECONTEMPLATION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS UNWILLING TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR. 2) CONTEMPLATION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS CONSIDERING CHANGING BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE NEXT 6 MONTHS. 3) PREPARATION: -THE INDIVIDUAL IS GETTING READY TO MAKE A CHANGE WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH. 4) ACTION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS ACTIVELY CHANGING A NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR OR ADOPTING A NEW, HEALTHY BEHAVIOR. 5) MAINTENANCE -THE INDIVIDUAL MAINTAINS BEHAVIORAL CHANGE FOR UP TO 5 YEARS. 6) TERMINATION/ADOPTION -THE INDIVIDUAL HAS MAINTAINED A BEHAVIOR MORE THAN 5 YEARS.
  27. 27. SMART GOALS SPECIFIC: -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH. MEASURABLE: -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEASURABLE. ACCEPTABLE: -GOALS THAT YOU SET FOR YOURSELF ARE MORE MOTIVATIONAL THAN GOALS SOMEONE ELSE SETS FOR YOU. REALISTIC: -GOALS SHOULD BE WITHIN REACH. TIME-SPECIFIC: -A GOAL SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE A SPECIFIC DATE SET FOR COMPLETION.

×