CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define: strength training, activities of daily living,   sarcopenia, one repetition maxim...
WHAT IS STRENGTH TRAINING?-A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH&/OR ENDURANCE THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVETR...
WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF         PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE OLDER POPULATION?-STRENGTH MAY BE T...
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR   STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE?
MUSCULAR STRENGTH-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT MAXIMUM FORCEAGAINST RESISTANCE.-WHAT IS ONE REPITION MAXIMUM (1RM)?-TH...
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT SUBMAXIMAL FORCEREPEATEDLY OVER TIME-TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE NUMBE...
WHY DO WOMEN NOT ACHIEVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MUSCLE SIZE                        AS MEN?-THE QUALITY OF MUSCLE IN MEN & WOME...
WHAT ARE THE 5 PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN STRENGTH                     TRAINING?1) MODE2) RESISTANCE3) SETS4) FREQUENCY5) VOLUME
MYTHS OF WOMEN’S STRENGTH TRAINING1) WEIGHT LIFTING MAKES WOMEN BULKY       -BECAUSE TESTOSTERONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A MUS...
1) MODE-2 TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ARE USED TO   IMPROVE STRENGTH3) ISOMETRIC4) DYNAMIC
2) RESISTANCE-AMOUNT OF WEIGHT LIFTED-TO STIMULATE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT THEGENERAL RULE OF THUMB IS TO USE ARESISTANCE OF ...
3) SETS-A FIXED NUMBER OF REPITITIONS-10 SECONDS OF MAXIMAL EXERCISE NEARLY DEPLETESTHE ENERGY FROM THE MUSCLE-ENERGY IS R...
4) FREQUENCY-DEPENDED ON THE AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE, NUMBEROF SETS PERFORMED, & PERSON’S ABILITY TO RECOVER-TOTAL BODY WORKO...
5) VOLUME-THE SUM OF ALL THE REPITIONS PERFROMED MULTIPLIEDBY THE RESISTANCES USED DURING A STRENGTH-TRAINING SESSION FOR ...
FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH1) NEURAL STIMULATION2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER3) OVERLOAD4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING
1) NEURAL STIMULATIONMOTOR NEURONS-NERVES CONNECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMTO THE MUSCLEMOTOR UNIT-THE COMBINATION OF ...
2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER1) SLOW-TWITCH FIBERSMUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER AEROBIC POTENTIAL & SLOW  SPEED OF CONTRACTION2) F...
3) OVERLOADSTRENGTH GAINS ARE ACHIEVED IN 2 WAYS:3) THROUGH INCREASED ABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE   FIBERS TO GENERATE A ...
HOW CAN YOU OVERLOAD IN SRENGTH-TRAINING?-INCREASE RESISTANCE-INCREASE REPITITIONS-INCREASE/DECREASE SPEED OF REPITITION-I...
4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING-TRAINING MUST BE DONE WITH THE SPECIFIC MUSCLETHE PERSON IS ATTEMPTING TO IMPROVEWHAT IS SPECIF...
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Chapter 7

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define: strength training, activities of daily living, sarcopenia, one repetition maximum.2) What are some of the benefits of strength training?3) Why do women not achieve the same amount of muscle size as men?4) What is the difference between muscular strength & muscular endurance?5) What is the difference between slow-twitch & fast-twitch muscle fibers?6) What does the overload principle state?7) What is specific adaptation to imposed demand (SAID) training?8) What are the 5 principles involved in strength training?
  2. 2. WHAT IS STRENGTH TRAINING?-A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH&/OR ENDURANCE THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVETRAINING EXERCISES THAT OVERLOAD THE MUSCLE SYSTEM& CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BENEFITS?1) OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES(HOUSEWORK, WALKING, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES) -HEART RATE & BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSE TOLIFTING HEAVY OBJECTS DECREASES WHICHREDUCES THE DEMAND ON THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM WHEN PERFORMING ACTIVITIES (CARRYING ACHILD, CARRYING GROCERIES, SHOVELING SNOW)2) DECREASES RISK OF DIABETES BY HELPING CONTROLBLOOD SUGAR3) IMPROVES POSTURE, PERSONAL APPEARANCE, SELF-
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE OLDER POPULATION?-STRENGTH MAY BE THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATEDCOMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS WHAT IS SARCOPENIA?-AGE-RELATED LOSS OF LEAN BODY MASS, STRENGTH, & FUNCTION WHAT ARE ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING?-EVERYDAY BEHAVIORS THAT PEOPLE NORMALLY DO TO FUNCTION INLIFE (CARRY GROCERIES, DO LAUNDRY, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES)
  4. 4. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE?
  5. 5. MUSCULAR STRENGTH-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT MAXIMUM FORCEAGAINST RESISTANCE.-WHAT IS ONE REPITION MAXIMUM (1RM)?-THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE AN INDIVIDUAL ISABLE TO LIFT IN A SINGLE EFFORT.
  6. 6. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT SUBMAXIMAL FORCEREPEATEDLY OVER TIME-TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OFREPETITIONS AN INDIVIDUAL CAN PERFORM AGAINST ASUBMAXIMAL RESISTANCE OR BY THE LENGTH OF TIME AGIVEN ACTION SUSTAINED-DEPENDED UPON MUSCULAR STRENGTH: WEAK MUSCLESCANNOT REPEAT AN ACTION SEVERAL TIMES OR SUSTAINIT
  7. 7. WHY DO WOMEN NOT ACHIEVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MUSCLE SIZE AS MEN?-THE QUALITY OF MUSCLE IN MEN & WOMEN IS THE SAME, BUT ENDOCRINOLOGICALDIFFERENCES DO NOT ALLOW WOMEN TO ACHIEVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MUSCLEHYPERTROPHY (SIZE) AS MEN.-MEN ALSO HAVE MORE MUSCLE FIBERS, & BECAUSE OF THE SEX-SPECIFIC MALEHORMONES, EACH INDIVIDUAL FIBER HAS MORE POTENTIAL FOR HYPERTROPHY.-ON AVERAGE, AFTER 6 MONTHS OF TRAINING, WOMEN CAN ACHIEVE UP TO A 50%INCREASE IN STRENGTH BUT ONLY A 10% INCREASE IN MUSCLE SIZE.
  8. 8. WHAT ARE THE 5 PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN STRENGTH TRAINING?1) MODE2) RESISTANCE3) SETS4) FREQUENCY5) VOLUME
  9. 9. MYTHS OF WOMEN’S STRENGTH TRAINING1) WEIGHT LIFTING MAKES WOMEN BULKY -BECAUSE TESTOSTERONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A MUSCLE’S BULK, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR WOMEN TO GAIN HUGE AMOUNTS OF MUSCLE MASS.2) IF YOU STOP WORKING OUT YOUR MUSCLES WILL TURN TO FAT -MUSCLE & FAT ARE 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE & ONE CANNOT BE TURNED INTO THE OTHER. WHEN YOU STOP LIFTING WEIGHTS THE MUSCLE- FAT RATIO RATIO CHANGES.3) WOMEN SHOULD CONCENTRATE MORE ON CARDIO -WOMEN NEED TO LIFT WEIGHTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT LOSS OF MUSCLE TISSUE.4) WOMEN SHOULD ONLY LIFT LIGHT WEIGHTS -MUSCLE RESPONDS TO RESISTANCE & IF THE RESISTANCE IS TOO LIGHT THERE WILL BE NO REASON FOR THE BODY TO CHANGE. WOMEN LOSE 10% OF STRENGTH PER DECADE OF LIFE. WEIGHT TRAINING CAN SLOW THIS.
  10. 10. 1) MODE-2 TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ARE USED TO IMPROVE STRENGTH3) ISOMETRIC4) DYNAMIC
  11. 11. 2) RESISTANCE-AMOUNT OF WEIGHT LIFTED-TO STIMULATE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT THEGENERAL RULE OF THUMB IS TO USE ARESISTANCE OF ABOUT 80% OF THE MAXIMUMCAPACITY (1 RM)
  12. 12. 3) SETS-A FIXED NUMBER OF REPITITIONS-10 SECONDS OF MAXIMAL EXERCISE NEARLY DEPLETESTHE ENERGY FROM THE MUSCLE-ENERGY IS REPLENISHED IN ABOUT 3 MINUTES-CIRCUIT TRAINING & SUPERSETTING
  13. 13. 4) FREQUENCY-DEPENDED ON THE AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE, NUMBEROF SETS PERFORMED, & PERSON’S ABILITY TO RECOVER-TOTAL BODY WORKOUTS VS SPLIT-BODY WORKOUTS-RECOVERY TIME
  14. 14. 5) VOLUME-THE SUM OF ALL THE REPITIONS PERFROMED MULTIPLIEDBY THE RESISTANCES USED DURING A STRENGTH-TRAINING SESSION FOR ALL EXERCISES PEFORMED-4 SETS OF 10 REPS WITH 185 POUNDS (BENCH PRESS)-4 SETS OF 10 REPS WITH 95 POUNDS (CURLS)(4 X 10 X 185) + (4 X 10 X 95) = 7,400 + 3,800 = 11,200
  15. 15. FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH1) NEURAL STIMULATION2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER3) OVERLOAD4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING
  16. 16. 1) NEURAL STIMULATIONMOTOR NEURONS-NERVES CONNECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMTO THE MUSCLEMOTOR UNIT-THE COMBINATION OF A MOTOR NEURON & THE MUSCLEFIBERS THE NEURON STIMULATES TO ACTION-MOTOR NEURON INNERVATES FEW FIBERS IN MUSCLESTHAT REQUIRE PRECISE CONTROL (EYE MUSCLES), &MANY FIBERS IN MUSCLES THAT DO NOT PERFORMPRECISE MOVEMENTS (QUADS)-AS THE # OF FIBERS INNERVATED & FREQUENCY OF
  17. 17. 2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER1) SLOW-TWITCH FIBERSMUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER AEROBIC POTENTIAL & SLOW SPEED OF CONTRACTION2) FAST-TWITCH FIBERSMUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER ANAEROBIC POTENTIAL & FAST SPEED OF CONTRACTION-DURING MUSCULAR CONTRACTION SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS ARE RECRUITED FIRST-FAST-TWITCH FIBERS ARE ACTIVATED WHEN THE ACTIVITY IS INTENSE & POWERFUL-THE PROPORTION OF EACH ARE DETERMINED GENETICALLY-TRAINING INCREASES THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY OF BOTH
  18. 18. 3) OVERLOADSTRENGTH GAINS ARE ACHIEVED IN 2 WAYS:3) THROUGH INCREASED ABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS TO GENERATE A STRONGER CONTRACTION4) BY RECRUITING A GREATER PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE FIBERS FOR EACH CONTRACTIONWHAT IS THE OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE?TRAINING CONCEPT THAT THE DEMANDS PLACED ON A SYSTEM (CARDIORESPIRATORY OR MUSCULAR) MUST BE INCREASED PROGRESSIVELY OVER TIME TO CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION (DEVELOPMENT OR IMPROVEMENT)
  19. 19. HOW CAN YOU OVERLOAD IN SRENGTH-TRAINING?-INCREASE RESISTANCE-INCREASE REPITITIONS-INCREASE/DECREASE SPEED OF REPITITION-INCREASE/DECREASE REST INTERVAL-INCREASE VOLUME (SUM OF REPITITIONS MULTIPLIED BYRESISTANCE)
  20. 20. 4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING-TRAINING MUST BE DONE WITH THE SPECIFIC MUSCLETHE PERSON IS ATTEMPTING TO IMPROVEWHAT IS SPECIFIC ADAPTATION TO IMPOSED DEMAND (SAID)TRAINING?STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES SHOULD RESEMBLE ASCLOSELY AS POSSIBLE THE MOVEMENT PATTERNSENCOUNTERED IN THAT PARTICULAR ACTIVITY OR SPORT

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