CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define "play." 2) For each of the following play theories (Surplus Energy, Rec...
PLAY <ul><li>“A form of enjoyable recreation consisting of spontaneous activities participated in for their own sake.” </l...
<ul><li>PLAY THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RECREATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><l...
1) THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY A) DEFINITION -Primary motivation for play is the need to expend surplus  energy. B) EXAMPLES...
2) THE RECREATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is the need to restore energy. ...
3) THE RELAXATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is relaxation. </li></ul><ul><l...
4) THE COMPENSATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Leisure behavior is influenced by the desire to meet need...
5) THE GENERALIZATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Play is caused by the transference to leisure of behavi...
6) THE CATHARSIS THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Views play as a positive, safe outlet for the release of pen...
7) OPTIMAL AROUSAL <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Explains leisure behavior as a quest to attain an optimal level o...
8) PLAY AS AN ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL REALITY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Describes play as a means of escaping from ...
MASLOW’s HIERARCHY OF NEEDS <ul><li>5) Self-Actualization:  Realizing one’s full potential </li></ul><ul><li>4) Self-Estee...
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MEETING THE NEEDS OF MASLOW’S HIERARCHY 1) Physiological:   -Running (exercise)...
NASH’S PYRAMID OF LEISURE SUBZERO: Acts performed against society 0: Retardation of self-development 1: Entertainment, sim...
4) Creativity:   -Artwork, creating music, scrap booking 3) Active Participation:   -Engaging in participant sports, any f...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 5

713 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define &quot;play.&quot; 2) For each of the following play theories (Surplus Energy, Recreation, Relaxation, Compensation, & Generalization): A) Explain what the theory states. B) Give examples of activities that would fit into the theory. C) State a drawback to the theory. 3) Explain Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and how recreational activities can contribute to meeting each of the needs levels. 4) Explain Nash's Pyramid of Leisure and how recreational activities are categorized in the pyramid.
  2. 2. PLAY <ul><li>“A form of enjoyable recreation consisting of spontaneous activities participated in for their own sake.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindergartners: Playing with a friend or toy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College Males: Sports/Activities involving physical movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College Females: Social interactions & events. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of play: </li></ul>1) Must be fun. 2) Can be done alone or as social interaction. 3) Can be physical in nature: Sports 4) Can be sedentary in nature: Video Games
  3. 3. <ul><li>PLAY THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RECREATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RELAXATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE COMPENSATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE GENERALIZATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE CATHARSIS THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE OPTIMAL AROUSAL THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>PLAY AS AN ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL REALITY THEORY </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1) THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY A) DEFINITION -Primary motivation for play is the need to expend surplus energy. B) EXAMPLES -Recess period for school children. -College students “letting loose” on weekends. -Working adults working out after work. C) DRAWBACKS -After long hours of sedentary work, one might feel tired & need a leisure activity to restore energy rather than to use excess energy.
  5. 5. 2) THE RECREATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is the need to restore energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>-After hours of a boring lecture class (not this one) going back to dorm & studying would be counterproductive. Taking a break from class work by taking a nap might help. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sedentary work (studying/computers) can cause fatigue. A physical recreational activity (going for a run/walk) can produce renewed energy & motivation and re-focus the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Physical activity can cause fatigue & deplete energy rather than restore it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3) THE RELAXATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Stress related illness/disease is a major problem in society. </li></ul><ul><li>-Recreation can be a deterrent to a buildup of negative stress by relaxing the mind/body. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Businesses allowing employees to recreate during lunch breaks may reduce tension built up during the high-stress workday. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Some recreation activities (Golf) may cause more stress, instead of relieving stress. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4) THE COMPENSATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Leisure behavior is influenced by the desire to meet needs not met through work or other activities. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-People working in undemanding/noncompetitive jobs (clerical work) may be likely to seek competitive leisure activities (sports league). </li></ul><ul><li>-People in highly competitive jobs (sales) may seek more relaxing forms of leisure activities (music, tv). </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Some people are competitive/noncompetitive by nature & will choose similar work & play activities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5) THE GENERALIZATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Play is caused by the transference to leisure of behaviors rewarded at work or another setting. </li></ul><ul><li>-Skills acquired to deal with stressful situations through work can be used in recreational activities. </li></ul><ul><li>-Answer to why people in stressful/demanding jobs choose stressful/demanding activities </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-A lawyer may take the skills he/she uses to win court cases & choose similar recreation activities such as competitive sports. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Not everyone that has a high stress/demanding job chooses similar leisure activities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6) THE CATHARSIS THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Views play as a positive, safe outlet for the release of pent-up emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>-Negative emotions (aggression) need to be given a safe outlet for release otherwise will be built up and let out in a harmful way (road rage). </li></ul><ul><li>-Study: college students that participate in physical activity significantly decreased aggressions, especially for females. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Physical Activity: Lifting weights, not to build muscle, but as a way to release built up tension. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sedentary Activity: Getting a massage to release built up tension. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Play sometimes increases negative emotions instead of releasing them. </li></ul><ul><li>-Spectators at sporting events when team is losing (Yanks/Sox). </li></ul><ul><li>-Athletes when they are losing (attacks on refs). </li></ul>
  10. 10. 7) OPTIMAL AROUSAL <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Explains leisure behavior as a quest to attain an optimal level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>-Arousal refers to physiological & psychological stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Different optimal arousal levels lead to different pursuits of recreational activities (person to person, time to time). </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-The same activity can cause a high level of of arousal for one person, but a low level in another. </li></ul><ul><li>-Skiing/Snowboarding: Ability & slope type </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-When arousal level is too low or too high, activity is not enjoyable. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 8) PLAY AS AN ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL REALITY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Describes play as a means of escaping from social reality. </li></ul><ul><li>-“Escaping” is emphasized as a marketing tool in many forms of recreation/leisure activities (Movies, Resorts, Vacation Destinations). </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Sports/Recreational Activities provide an effective/positive escape </li></ul><ul><li>-Professional sports after 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>-MLB night games during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Time (Classes, Homework, Job), </li></ul><ul><li>2) $ </li></ul>
  12. 12. MASLOW’s HIERARCHY OF NEEDS <ul><li>5) Self-Actualization: Realizing one’s full potential </li></ul><ul><li>4) Self-Esteem: Recognition & Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>3) Love & Belongingness: Socialization & Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>2) Safety: Protection from danger </li></ul><ul><li>1) Physiological: Water, Food, Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level needs can only bet once the lower level needs are met </li></ul>
  13. 13. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MEETING THE NEEDS OF MASLOW’S HIERARCHY 1) Physiological: -Running (exercise) Dining Out (food, water) 2) Safety: -Organized Sports (anything with rules/regulations, contributing to the need for existing under a set of rules/boundaries) 3) Love & Belongingness: -Volunteer work, club/organization membership (anything that incorporates social interaction) 4) Self-Esteem: -Competitive sports (any activity where you would receive praise/compliments and boost self- esteem) 5) Self-Actualization: -Almost any activity that would improve/develop a variety of skills & abilities
  14. 14. NASH’S PYRAMID OF LEISURE SUBZERO: Acts performed against society 0: Retardation of self-development 1: Entertainment, simple amusement 2: Emotional participation 3: Active participation 4: Creativity
  15. 15. 4) Creativity: -Artwork, creating music, scrap booking 3) Active Participation: -Engaging in participant sports, any form of recreation activity involving physical & mental effort 2) Emotional Participation: -Attending a concert, dance recital, sports event, any non-active participation activities 1) Simple Amusement & Entertainment: -Watching TV, movies, listening to music, participant is entertained but not moved to a significant level of emotional involvement 0) Retardation of Self-Development: -Gambling, binge drinking, drug abuse, any leisure activity done in excess -0) Acts Performed Against Society: -Juvenile delinquency and vandalism

×