CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) What is the 2nd leading cause of preventable death in the US each year?2) What are health...
DOES THE TIME OF DAY WHEN CALORIES ARE CONSUMED    MATTER WHILE ON A WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM?•WHEN ATTEMPTING TO LOSE WEIGHT, ...
ARE SOME DIET PLANS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN OTHERS?•DIET: A NEGATIVE CALORIC BALANCE.     -CONSUMING FEWER CALORIES THAN THOSE...
WHY IS IT SO DIFFICULT TO CHANGE DIETARY HABITS?•   TWO MAIN REASONS:4) OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD5) UNLIMITED NUMBER OF FOOD C...
1) WHAT IS THE 2ND LEADING CAUSE OF PREVENTABLE DEATH IN THE UNITED STATES EACH                                       YEAR...
THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO ARE OBESE & OVERWEIGHT IN THE U.S. HAS       INCREASED DRAMATICALLY IN THE PAST FEW YEARS BECAUSE...
QuickTimeª and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY STATISTICS•AN ESTIMATED 35% OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS ISOBESE.•THE AVERAGE WE...
THE EPIDEMIC OF OBESITY•OBESITY & UNHEALTHY LIFESTYLE HABITS ARE THE MOST CRITICAL PUBLICHEALTH PROBLEMS THE U.S. FACES IN...
2) OBESITY & HEALTH CONSEQUENCES1) CORONARY HEART DISEASE  -OBESITY IS 1 OF 6 MAJOR RISK FACTORS FOR  CORONARY HEART DISEA...
OBESITY AS ARESULT OF A  LACK OF PHYSICAL                       QuickTimeª and a  ACTIVITY               decompressor     ...
FITNESS ILLUSION”MONEY BEING SPENT ON FITNESS GOES UP BUT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE EXERCISING GOES                            ...
3) WHAT IS YO-YO DIETING?
YO-YO DIETING-CONSTANTLY LOSING & GAINING WEIGHT-IT CARRIES AS GREAT A HEALTH RISK AS BEING OVERWEIGHT & REMININGOVERWEIGH...
WEIGHT LOSS DILEMMA-ABOUT 10% OF ALL PEOPLE WHO BEGIN A TRADITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS   PROGRAM WITHOUT EXERCISE ARE ABLE TO LOS...
EATING DISORDERS“MEDICAL ILLNESSES THAT INVOLVE CRUCIAL DISTURBANCES IN EATINGBEHAVIORS THOUGHT TO STEM FROM SOME COMBINAT...
4) WHAT IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA?     “AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY SELF-IMPOSED    STARVATION TO LOSE & MAINTAIN VERY L...
4) WHAT IS BULIMIA NERVOSA?“AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY A PATTERN OF BINGE EATING &PURGING IN AN ATTEMPT TO LOSE W...
4) WHAT IS BINGE-EATING DISORDER?“AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY UNCONTROLLABLE EPISODES OF EATING EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS ...
4) WHAT IS EMOTIONAL EATING?   “THE CONSUMPTION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF FOOD TO SUPPRESS                     NEGATIVE EMOTI...
7) SLEEP DEPRIVATION & WEIGHT MANAGEMENT-SLEEP DEPRIVATION INTERFERES WITH THE BODY’SCAPABILITY TO LOSE WEIGHT.-INDIVIDUAL...
ENERGY-BALANCING EQUATION-IF CALORIC INPUT EQUALS CALORIC OUTPUT, THEPERSON WILL NOT GAIN/LOSE WEIGHT.-IF CALORIC INTAKE E...
ESTIMATED ENERGY REQUIREMENT (EER)“THE AVERAGE DIETARY ENERGY (CALORIC) INTAKE THAT ISPREDICTED TO MAINTAIN ENERGY BALANCE...
MY EERWEIGHT: 170 POUNDS / 2.2046 = 77.111HEIGHT: 69 INCHES X .0254 = 1.7526EER = 662 - (9.53 X 33) + (15.91 X 77.111) + (...
11) WHAT IS THE TARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT FORMULA?          TOTAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE - (WEI...
MY TARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT                         TOTAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE - (170 X 5)GO...
Chapter 5
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Chapter 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) What is the 2nd leading cause of preventable death in the US each year?2) What are health consequences of obesity (Not the ones in the box. Look at the paragraph that starts: The American Heart Association...)?3) What is yo-yo dieting & why is it bad?4) Explain the following eating disorders:G) Anorexia NervosaH) Bulimia NervosaI) Binge-Eating DisorderJ) Emotional Eating5) Define each of the 3 basic components of the total daily energy requirement.6) When diet is combined with exercise, close to 100% of the weight loss is in the form of what?7) What is ghrelin & leptin?8) On the average, starting at age 25, the typical American gain how many pounds of weight per year?9) What is the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) formula?10) What is your EER?11) What is the target caloric intake to lose weight formula?12) What is your target caloric intake to lose weight?13) What is the caloric expenditure (cal/lb/min) of the following activities:A) BaseballB) GolfC) Running (7 min/mile)D) SkatingE) SoccerF) Wrestling
  2. 2. DOES THE TIME OF DAY WHEN CALORIES ARE CONSUMED MATTER WHILE ON A WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM?•WHEN ATTEMPTING TO LOSE WEIGHT, DAILY CALORIEINTAKE SHOULD CONSIST OF: -MINIMUM 25% FOR BREAKFAST. -50% FOR LUNCH. -25% OR LESS FOR DINNER.•DO NOT EAT WITHIN 3 HOURS OF GOING TO BED(METABOLISM IS THE SLOWEST).
  3. 3. ARE SOME DIET PLANS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN OTHERS?•DIET: A NEGATIVE CALORIC BALANCE. -CONSUMING FEWER CALORIES THAN THOSE REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN YOUR CURRENT WEIGHT.•WHEN ENERGY OUTPUT SURPASSES ENERGY INTAKE,WEIGHT LOSS WILL OCCUR.•NO MATTER WHAT THE DIET, FOR HEALTH REASONS YOUSHOULD NOT CONSUME LESS THAN 1,500 CALORIES/DAY.
  4. 4. WHY IS IT SO DIFFICULT TO CHANGE DIETARY HABITS?• TWO MAIN REASONS:4) OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD5) UNLIMITED NUMBER OF FOOD CHOICES.• MOST AMERICANS DO NOT HAVE THE WILLPOWER TO OVERCOME THESE.
  5. 5. 1) WHAT IS THE 2ND LEADING CAUSE OF PREVENTABLE DEATH IN THE UNITED STATES EACH YEAR? EXCESSIVE BODY WEIGHT COMBINED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY = OBESITY OBESITY IS:•A BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) OF 30 OR HIGHER.•THE POINT AT WHICH EXCESS BODY FAT CAN LEAD TO SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS.
  6. 6. THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO ARE OBESE & OVERWEIGHT IN THE U.S. HAS INCREASED DRAMATICALLY IN THE PAST FEW YEARS BECAUSE:1) PHYSICAL INACTIVITY2) POOR DIETARY HABITS-BEFORE 1990, NOT A SINGLESTATE REPORTED AN OBESITY QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.RATE ABOVE 15% OF THESTATE’S TOTAL POPULATION.BY 2007, ONLY COLORADOHAD AN OBESITY RATEBELOW 20%.
  7. 7. QuickTimeª and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  8. 8. OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY STATISTICS•AN ESTIMATED 35% OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS ISOBESE.•THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF AMERICAN ADULTS (20-74) HAS INCREASED BY 25+POUNDS SINCE 1965.•IN THE LAST DECADE ALONE THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF U.S. ADULTS HASINCREASED BY 15 POUNDS.•MORE THAN 1/2 OF ALL ADULTS IN THE U.S. DO NOT ACHIEVE THE MINIMUMRECOMMENDED AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.•IN 2004: -U.S. WOMEN CONSUMED 335 MORE CALORIES/DAY THAN THEY HAD IN 1984. -U.S. MEN CONSUMED 170 MORE CALORIES/DAY THAN THEY HAD IN 1984.•32% OF U.S. ADULTS (20+) ARE OBESE (30 MILLION).•FROM 1960-2002 ADULT OBESITY INCREASED FROM 13% TO 30%.
  9. 9. THE EPIDEMIC OF OBESITY•OBESITY & UNHEALTHY LIFESTYLE HABITS ARE THE MOST CRITICAL PUBLICHEALTH PROBLEMS THE U.S. FACES IN THE 21ST CENTURY.•HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED BODY WEIGHT START AT ABMI OVER 25 & ARE ENHANCED GREATLY AT A BMI OVER 30.•EXCESSIVE BODY WEIGHT COMBINED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS THE 2NDLEADING CAUSE OF PREVENTABLE DEATH IN THE U.S.•MORE THAN 112,000 DEATHS EACH YEAR.•OBESITY IS MORE PREVALENT THAN: -SMOKING (19%) -POVERTY (14%) QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. -PROBLEM DRINKING (6%)
  10. 10. 2) OBESITY & HEALTH CONSEQUENCES1) CORONARY HEART DISEASE -OBESITY IS 1 OF 6 MAJOR RISK FACTORS FOR CORONARY HEART DISEASE.2) CANCER -14% OF ALL CANCER DEATHS IN MEN & 20% IN WOMEN ARE RELATED TO OBESITY7) LOWER MENTAL HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE -OBESITY IS IMPLICATED IN PSYCHOLOGICAL MALADJUSTMENT
  11. 11. OBESITY AS ARESULT OF A LACK OF PHYSICAL QuickTimeª and a ACTIVITY decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  12. 12. FITNESS ILLUSION”MONEY BEING SPENT ON FITNESS GOES UP BUT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE EXERCISING GOES DOWN.”•PEOPLE PURCHASE FITNESS RELATED MERCHANDISE & SERVICES BELIEVING THAT MERELYOWNING THESE GOODS & SERVICES WILL MAKE THEIR BODIES FIT.•2000: -MORE THAN 50% OF AMERICANS DID NOT EXERCISE. -FITNESS CLUB INDUSTRY: $10.6 BILLION. -50% OF NEW FITNESS CLUB MEMBERSHIPS QUIT WITHIN 6 MONTHS.•TODAY: -PEOPLE SPEND $40 BILLION/YEAR ATTEMPTING TO LOSE WEIGHT. -$10 BILLION TO MEMBERSHIPS IN WEIGHT REDUCTION CENTERS & $30 BILLION TO DIET FOOD SALES. -ABOUT 44% OF ALL WOMEN & 29% OF ALL MEN ARE ON A DIET AT ANY GIVEN MOMENT.
  13. 13. 3) WHAT IS YO-YO DIETING?
  14. 14. YO-YO DIETING-CONSTANTLY LOSING & GAINING WEIGHT-IT CARRIES AS GREAT A HEALTH RISK AS BEING OVERWEIGHT & REMININGOVERWEIGHT IN THE FIRST PLACE.-FREQUENT FLUCTUATIONS IN WEIGHT (UP OR DOWN) MARKEDLY INCREASETHE RISK FOR DYING FROM CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.
  15. 15. WEIGHT LOSS DILEMMA-ABOUT 10% OF ALL PEOPLE WHO BEGIN A TRADITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM WITHOUT EXERCISE ARE ABLE TO LOSE THE DESIRED WEIGHT.-5 IN 100 PEOPLE ARE ABLE TO KEEP THE WEIGHT OFF.-WHY?-THE BODY IS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO PERMANENT WEIGHT CHANGES THROUGH CALORIC RESTRICTIONS ALONE.-THE $40 BILLION DIET INDUSTRY TRIES TO CAPITALIZE ON THE FALSE IDEA THAT A PERSON CAN LOSE WEIGHT QUICKLY WITHOUT CONSIDERING:• THE CONSEQUENCES OF FAST WEIGHT LOSS.• THE IMPORTANCE OF LIFETIME BEHAVIORAL CHANGES TO ENSURE PROPER WEIGHT LOSS & MAINTENANCE.
  16. 16. EATING DISORDERS“MEDICAL ILLNESSES THAT INVOLVE CRUCIAL DISTURBANCES IN EATINGBEHAVIORS THOUGHT TO STEM FROM SOME COMBINATION OFENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES.”-THESE DISORDERS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY AN INTENSE FEAR OFBECOMING FAT, WHICH DOES NOT DISAPPEAR EVEN WHEN THE PERSON ISLOSING WEIGHT IN EXTREME AMOUNTS.-EATING DISORDERS ARE MOST PREVALENT AMONG 25-50 YEAR OLDS.-WOMEN ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO EATING DISORDERS.-AS MANY AS 40% OF COLLEGE-AGE WOMEN STRUGGLE WITH AN EATINGDISORDER. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  17. 17. 4) WHAT IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA? “AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY SELF-IMPOSED STARVATION TO LOSE & MAINTAIN VERY LOW BODY WEIGHT.”-APPROXIMATELY 1% OF THE U.S. POPULATION HAS ANOREXIANERVOSA.-ANOREXIC INDIVIDUALS SEEM TO FEAR WEIGHT GAIN MORE THANDEATH FROM STARVATION.-THEY HAVE A DISTORTED IMAGE OF THEIR BODIES & THINK OFTHEMSELVES AS BEING FAT EVEN WHEN THEY ARE EMACIATED.-THEY DEVELOP OBSESSIVE & COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS & AREPREOCCUPIED WITH FOOD, MEAL PLANNING, & GROCERY SHOPPING.
  18. 18. 4) WHAT IS BULIMIA NERVOSA?“AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY A PATTERN OF BINGE EATING &PURGING IN AN ATTEMPT TO LOSE WEIGHT & MAINTAIN LOW BODY WEIGHT.”-MORE PREVALENT THAN ANOREXIA NERVOSA.-AS MANY AS 1 IN 5 WOMEN ON COLLEGE CAMPUSES MAY BE BULIMIC.-PEOPLE WITH BULIMIA USUALLY ARE HEALTHY LOOKING, WELL EDUCATED,& NEAR RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT.-BULIMICS WILL HAVE A LARGE & UNCONTROLLABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION,DURING WHICH TIME THEY MAY EAT SEVERAL THOUSAND CALORIES.-AFTER A SHORT PERIOD OF RELIEF & SATISFACTION, FEELING OF GUILT,SHAME, & A FEAR OF GAINING WEIGHT EMERGE.-PURGING SEEMS TO BE THE EASY ANSWER FOR THE BINGING.
  19. 19. 4) WHAT IS BINGE-EATING DISORDER?“AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY UNCONTROLLABLE EPISODES OF EATING EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS OF FOOD WITHIN A RELATIVELY SHORT TIME.”-MOST COMMON EATING DISORDER.-ABOUT 2% OF AMERICAN ADULTS ARE AFFLICTED WITH BINGE-EATINGBINGE-EATING DISORDER IN ANY 6-MONTH PERIOD.-UNLIKE BULIMICS, BINGE-EATERS DO NOT PURGE, THUS MOST PEOPLE WITHTHIS DISORDER ARE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE.
  20. 20. 4) WHAT IS EMOTIONAL EATING? “THE CONSUMPTION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF FOOD TO SUPPRESS NEGATIVE EMOTIONS.”-PEOPLE WHO EMOTIONALLY EAT USUALLY EAT “COMFORT” & JUNK FOODS.-SOME PALATABLE FOODS (CHOCOLATE) CAUSE THE BODY TO RELEASEMOOD-ELEVATING OPIATES. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  21. 21. 7) SLEEP DEPRIVATION & WEIGHT MANAGEMENT-SLEEP DEPRIVATION INTERFERES WITH THE BODY’SCAPABILITY TO LOSE WEIGHT.-INDIVIDUALS WHO GET LESS THAN 6 HOURS OF SLEEP PERNIGHT HAVE A HIGHER BMI (28.3) THAN THOSE WHO AVERAGE 8HOURS PER NIGHT (24.5).-LACK OF SLEEP DISRUPTS NORMAL BODY HORMONALBALANCES. GHRELIN: -HORMONE THAT STIMULATES APPETITE. LEPTIN: -HORMONE THAT LET’S BRAIN KNOW WHEN YOU ARE FULL.-SLEEP DEPRIVATION ELEVATES GHRELIN LEVELS &DECREASES LEPTIN LEVELS.
  22. 22. ENERGY-BALANCING EQUATION-IF CALORIC INPUT EQUALS CALORIC OUTPUT, THEPERSON WILL NOT GAIN/LOSE WEIGHT.-IF CALORIC INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT, THE PERSONGAINS WEIGHT.-IF CALORIC OUTPUT EXCEEDS INPUT, THE PERSONLOSES WEIGHT. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  23. 23. ESTIMATED ENERGY REQUIREMENT (EER)“THE AVERAGE DIETARY ENERGY (CALORIC) INTAKE THAT ISPREDICTED TO MAINTAIN ENERGY BALANCE IN A HEALTHY ADULT OFDEFINED AGE, GENDER, WEIGHT, HEIGHT, & LEVEL OF PHYSICALACTIVITY, CONSISTENT WITH GOOD HEALTH.”9) WHAT IS THE ESTIMATED ENERGY REQUIREMENT (EER) FORMULA?MEN: EER = 662 - (9.53 X AGE) + (15.91 X WEIGHT) + (539 X HEIGHT)WOMEN: EER = 354 - (6.91 X AGE) + (9.36 X WEIGHT) + (726 X HEIGHT)HEIGHT IS IN KILOGRAMS (DIVIDE WEIGHT IN POUNDS BY 2.2046)HEIGHT IS IN METERS (MULTIPLE HEIGHT IN INCHES BY .0254)
  24. 24. MY EERWEIGHT: 170 POUNDS / 2.2046 = 77.111HEIGHT: 69 INCHES X .0254 = 1.7526EER = 662 - (9.53 X 33) + (15.91 X 77.111) + (539 X 1.7526)EER = 662 - 314.49 + 1,226.84 + 944.65EER = 2,519 CALORIES PER DAY
  25. 25. 11) WHAT IS THE TARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT FORMULA? TOTAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE - (WEIGHT X 5) 13) CALORIC EXPENDITURE (CAL/LB/MIN)A) BASEBALL.031B) GOLF.030C) RUNNING (7 MIN/MILE).102D) SKATING.038E) SOCCER.059F) WRESTLING.085
  26. 26. MY TARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT TOTAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE - (170 X 5)GOLF (.030 CAL/LB/MIN).030 X 170 = 5.1 CALORIES/MIN5.1 X 240 (BASED ON A 4 HOUR ROUND) = 1,224 CALORIESDAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE2,519 (EER) + 1,224 = 3,743 CALORIESTARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT3,743 - (170 X 5)3,743 - 850 = 2,893 CALORIESWRESTLING (.085 CAL/LB/MIN).085 X 170 = 14.45 CALORIES/MIN14.45 X 6 (BASED ON A 6 MIN MATCH) = 86.7 CALORIESDAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT WITH EXERCISE2,519 (EER) + 86.7 = 2,605.7 CALORIESTARGET CALORIC INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT2,605.7 - (170 X 5)2,605.7 - 850 = 1,755.7 CALORIES

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