Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define the following terms:A) Body compositionB) Percent body fatC) Lean body massD) Recommended body weightE) OverweightF) Obesity2) Explain the differencee between essential fat & storage fat?3) What % of the total weight in men & women does essential fat constitute?4) What 3 functions does storage fat serve?5) Where do men & women tend to store storage fat differently?6) In terms of assessing body composition, what is a standard error of estimate (SEE)?7) What is the most accurate technique presently available in fitness laboratories for assessing bodycomposition?8) How does hydrostatic weighing assess body composition?9) What are some drawbacks to hydrostatic weighing?10) How does air displacement assess body composition?11) Why is the Bod Pod not readily available in fitness centers & exercise laboratories?12) How does skinfold thickness assess body composition?13) What body areas are used on men & women for the skinfold thickness technique?14) What is the most common technique used to determine thinness & excessive fatness?15) A BMI above what is defined as obese?16) A BMI below what is defined as underweight?
  2. 2. 1) WHAT IS BODY COMPOSITION?
  3. 3. A) BODY COMPOSITION-THE FAT & NON-FAT COMPONENTS OF THE HUMAN BODY-IMPORTANT IN ASSESSING RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHTHUMAN BODY CONSISTS OF FAT & NONFAT COMPONENTSB) PERCENT BODY FAT (FAT COMPONENT):-PROPORTIONAL AMOUNT OF FAT IN THE BODY BASED ONTHE PERSON’S TOTAL WEIGHT. ALSO CALLED FAT MASS.C) LEAN BODY MASS (NON-FAT COMPONENT):-BODY WEIGHT WITHOUT FAT MASS
  4. 4. 2) TOTAL FAT IN THE HUMAN BODY IS CLASSIFIED INTO WHAT 2 TYPES?
  5. 5. A) ESSENTIAL FAT:-NEEDED FOR NORMAL PHYSIOLGICAL FUNCTION-FOUND WITHIN TISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, NERVE CELLS, BONE MARROW, INTESTINES, HEART, LIVER, LUNGS3) WHAT % OF THE TOTAL WEIGHT IN MEN/WOMEN DOES ESSENTIAL FAT CONSTITUTE?• 3% OF TOTAL WEIGHT IN MEN & 12% FOR WOMEN-WHY IS IT HIGHER IN WOMEN?B) STORAGE FAT:-FAT STORED IN ADIPOSE TISSUE, MOSTLY JUST BENEATH THE SKIN & AROUND MAJOR ORGANS4) WHAT 3 FUNCTIONS DOES STORAGE FAT SERVE?10) AS AN INSULATOR TO RETAIN BODY HEAT11) AS ENERGY SUBSTRATE FOR METABOLISM12) AS PADDING AGAINST PHYSICAL TRAUMA TO THE BODY5) WHERE DO MEN & WOMEN TEND TO STORE STORAGE FAT DIFFERENTLY?-SAME % IN MEN & WOMEN BUT MEN TEND TO STORE FAT AROUND WAIST & WOMEN AROUND HIPS & THIGHS
  6. 6. 1D) WHAT IS RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT?
  7. 7. D) RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT (HEALTHY WEIGHT):-BODY WEIGHT AT WHICH THERE SEEMS TO BE NO HARM TO HUMANHEALTH.•WHAT IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT?-WHAT % OF TOTAL BODY WEIGHT IS FAT & WHAT AMOUNT IS LEANTISSUE?
  8. 8. 1EF) WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY?
  9. 9. E) OVERWEIGHT:-AN EXCESS AMOUNT OF WEIGHT AGAINST A GIVENSTANDARDS, SUCH AS HEIGHT OR RECOMMENDED % BODYFATF) OBESITY:AN EXCESSIVE ACCUMULATION OF BODY FAT, USUALLY ATLEAST 30% ABOVE RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT
  10. 10. 6) IN TERMS OF ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION, WHAT IS A STANDARD ERROR OF ESTIMATE (SEE)? A MEASURE OF THE ACCURACY OF THE PREDICTIONMADE THROUGH THE REGRESSION EQUATION FOR THAT SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE.-IF THE SEE FOR A GIVEN TECHNIQUE IS +/- 3.0 & THEINDIVIDUAL TESTS AT A FAT % OF 18.0, THE ACTUAL FAT% MAY RANGE FROM 15-21%.
  11. 11. 7) WHAT IS MOST ACCURATE TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION? HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING
  12. 12. 8) HOW DOES HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING ASSESS BODY COMPOSITION?-A PERSON’S REGULAR WEIGHT IS COMPARED WITH A WEIGHT TAKENUNDERWATER.-BECAUSE FAT IS MORE BUOYANT THAN LEAN TISSUE, COMPARINGTHE 2 WEIGHTS CAN DETERMINE A PERSON’S % OF FAT.-THE SEE FOR HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING IS +/- 2.5%. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  13. 13. 9) WHAT ARE SOME DRAWBACKS TO HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING?1) NOT FEASIBLE WHEN TESTING A LOT OF PEOPLE. -EACH INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT CAN TAKE AS LONG AS 30 MIN.2) DIFFICULT TO ADMINISTER TO AQUAPHOBIC PEOPLE. -AQUAPHOBIC: HAVING A FEAR OF WATER.
  14. 14. HOW DOES AIR DISPLACEMENT ASSESS BODY COMPOSITION?-AN INDIVIDUAL SITS INSIDE A SMALL CHAMBER (BODPOD).-COMPUTERIZED PRESSURE SENSORS DETERMINE THEAMOUNT OF AIR DISPLACED BY THE PERSON INSIDE THECHAMBER.-BODY VOLUME IS CALCULATED BY SUBTRACTING THEAIR VOLUME WITH THE PERSON INSIDE THE CHAMBERFROM THE VOLUME OF THE EMPTY CHAMBER.-BODY DENSITY & % BODY FAT THEN ARE CALCULATEDFROM THE OBTAINED BODY VOLUME.-THE SEE OF AIR DISPLACEMENT IS +/- 2.2%.
  15. 15. 11) WHY IS THE BOD POD NOT READILY AVAILABLE IN FITNESS CENTERS & EXERCISE LABORATORIES? HIGH COST
  16. 16. 12) HOW DOES SKINFOLD THICKNESS ASSESS BODY COMPOSITION?-BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE THAT THE AMOUNT OFSUBCUTANEOUS FAT IS PROPORTIONAL TO TOTAL BODYFAT.-SUBCUTANEOUS FAT: DEPOSITS OF FAT DIRECTLYUNDER THE SKIN.-THE SKINFOLD TEST IS DONE WITH THE AID OFPRESSURE CALIPERS.-THE SEE FOR SKINFOLD THICKNESS IS +/- 3.5%.
  17. 17. 13) WHAT BODY AREAS ARE USED ON MEN & WOMEN FOR THE SKINFOLD THICKNESS TEST?A) MEN-CHEST, ABDOMEN, THIGHB) WOMEN-TRICEPS, SUPRAILIUM, THIGH QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  18. 18. 14) WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE TO DETERMINE THINNESS & EXCESSIVE FATNESS? BODY MASS INDEX
  19. 19. BODY MASS INDEX:-INCORPORATES HEIGHT & WEIGHT (NOT GENDERSPECIFIC) TO ESTIMATE CRITICAL FAT VALUES AT WHICHTHE RISK FOR DISEASE INCREASES-IN RECENT YEARS HAS BECOME THE MEDICAL STANDARDUSED TO MEASUE OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY-BMI 18.5-25 IS CONSIDERED NORMAL-LOWEST RISK FOR CHRONIC DISEASE IS BMI 22-25-OVERWEIGHT: BMI 25-3015) A BMI ABOVE WHAT IS DEFINED AS OBESE?•3016) A BMI BELOW WHAT IS DEFINED AS UNDERWEIGHT?•18.5
  20. 20. BMI CALCULATION:-MULTIPLYING BODY WEIGHT BY 705 & DIVIDINGTHIS FIGURE BY THE SQUARE OF THE HEIGHT ININCHES170LBS X 705 = 119,850119,850 / (69)2 = 119,850/4,761 = 25.17 BMI

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