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CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define "nutrition." 2) On a given day, nearly 1/2 of people in the US do not e...
HOW DO YOU DEFINE NUTRITION? SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOODS TO OPTIMAL HEALTH & PERFORMANCE.
WHY IS GOOD NUTRITION IMPORTANT TO OVERALL HEALTH & WELL-BEING?
<ul><li>PROPER NUTRITION MEANS: </li></ul><ul><li>THAT A PERSON’S DIET SUPPLIES ALL THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS NEEDED TO CARR...
ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/2 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? FRUIT
ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/4 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? VEGETABLES
IF FOOD AVAILABILITY IS NOT THE PROBLEM, THEN WHAT IS? OVERCONSUMPTION OF THE WRONG FOODS
WHAT ARE AMONG THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE US? DISEASES OF DIETARY EXCESS & IMB...
UP TO WHAT % OF ALL CANCERS MAY BE DIET RELATED? 50%
<ul><li>NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-SUBSTANCES FOUND IN FOOD THAT PROVIDE ENERGY, REGULATE METABOLISM, AND HELP WITH GROW...
<ul><li>FUEL NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-THE ONLY SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO SUPPLY THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR WORK & NORMAL ...
<ul><li>REGULATORY NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-HAVE NO CALORIC VALUE, BUT ARE STILL NECESSARY FOR A PERSON TO FUNCTION NO...
<ul><li>MACRONUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-WE NEED THEM IN PROPORTIONATELY LARGE AMOUNTS DAILY. </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDR...
THE 7TH NUTRIENT FIBER: -VITAL FOR GOOD HEALTH. -PROVIDES PROTECTION AGAINST SEVERAL DISEASES, INCLUDING CARDIOVASCULAR DI...
NUTRITION DENSITY -A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS & CALORIES IN VARIOUS FOODS. HIGH NUTRIENT DENSITY: -FOODS THAT CO...
WHAT ARE THE 5 ESSENTIAL FOOD GROUPS IDENTIIFIED BY THE MYPYRAMID ICON?
WHAT ARE THE 5 FOOD GROUPS IDENTIFIED BY THE MYPLATE ICON?
WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE MAJOR SOURCE OF CALORIES THE BODY USES TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR WORK, MAINTAIN CELLS, & GENERATE HEAT? ...
-A CLASSIFICATION OF DIETARY NUTRITION CONTAINING CARBON, HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN. -THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE HUMAN BO...
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES “ SUGARS” -OFFER LITTLE NUTRITIVE VALUE. -DIVIDED INTO MONOSACCHARIDES & DISACCHARIDES A) MONOSACCHAR...
<ul><li>STARCH: CONVERTED TO GLUCOSE FOR BODY’S OWN ENERGY USE. </li></ul><ul><li>DEXTRINS: PROVIDE MANY VALUABLE NUTRIENT...
FIBER -A FORM OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE. -DECREASES THE RISK FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE & CANCER. -HIGH-FIBER DIET GIVES A P...
SOLUBLE VS INSOLUBLE FIBER SOLUBLE FIBER: -DISSOLVES IN WATER & FORMS A GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE THAT ENCLOSES FOOD PARTICLES. -...
<ul><li>FATS </li></ul><ul><li>“ LIPIDS” </li></ul><ul><li>-MOST CONCENTRATED SOURCE OF ENERGY. </li></ul><ul><li>-EACH GR...
<ul><li>SIMPLE FATS </li></ul><ul><li>-2 TYPES:  </li></ul><ul><li>SATURATED: ANIMAL ORIGIN </li></ul><ul><li>UNSATURATED:...
<ul><li>COMPOUND FATS </li></ul><ul><li>-COMBINATION OF SIMPLE FATS & OTHER CHEMICALS. </li></ul><ul><li>-LIPOPROTEINS: </...
DERIVED FATS -COMBINE SIMPLE & COMPOUND FATS -EXAMPLE: STEROLS -CHOLESTEROL IS BEST-KNOWN EXAMPLE
PROTEINS -THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO BUILD & REPAIR TISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, BLOOD, SKIN, HAIR, NAILS, & BONES. ...
<ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>-NECESSARY FOR NORMAL BODILY METABOLISM, GROWTH, & DEVELOPMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>-2 MA...
MINERALS -INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL BODY FUNCTIONS. -CRUCIAL TO MAINTAINING WATER BALANCE & THE ACID-BASE B...
 
WATER -THE MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT. -INVOLVED IN ALMOST EVERY VITAL BODY PROCESS: -DIGESTING & ABSORBING FOOD, PRODUCING  ...
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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define &quot;nutrition.&quot; 2) On a given day, nearly 1/2 of people in the US do not eat what? 3) On a given day, nearly 1/4 of people in the US do not eat what? 4) Food availability is not a problem, but what is? 5) What are among the leading causes of death in many developed countries, including the US? 6) Up to what % of all cancers may be diet related? 7) Define &quot;nutrients.&quot; 8) State the essential nutrients. 9) Define what &quot;fuel nutrients' are & state the fuel nutrients. 10) Define what &quot;regulatory nutrients&quot; are & state the regulatory nutrients. 11) According to most nutritionists, what is the 7th nutrient? 12) Define &quot;macronutrients&quot; & state the macronutrients. 13) Define &quot;micronutrients&quot; & state the micronutrients. 14) Define &quot;calorie.&quot; 15) What are the 5 food groups identified by the MyPyramid icon? 16) The MyPyramid icon identifies a seperate category for what? 17) What are the 5 food groups identified by the MyPlate icon? 18) How many calories does each gram of carbohydrates provide the human body? 19) Explain the difference between simple & complex carbohydrates. 20) A high-fiber diet gives a person a feeling of what without adding too many what to the diet? 21) What is the recommended fiber intake for male adults 50 years & younger? 22) What is the recommended fiber intake for female adults 50 years & younger? 23) What is another name for fats? 24) How many calories does each gram of fat provide the human body? 25) Explain the difference between saturated & unsaturated fats. 26) Why are enzymes important? 27) How many calories does each gram of protein provide the human body? 28) What are the 2 types of vitamins? 29) What crucial role do minerals play in the body functioning? 30) What is the most important nutrient? 31) What % of a male's body weight is water? 32) What % of a female's body weight is water? 33) What is the reason for the difference?
  2. 2. HOW DO YOU DEFINE NUTRITION? SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOODS TO OPTIMAL HEALTH & PERFORMANCE.
  3. 3. WHY IS GOOD NUTRITION IMPORTANT TO OVERALL HEALTH & WELL-BEING?
  4. 4. <ul><li>PROPER NUTRITION MEANS: </li></ul><ul><li>THAT A PERSON’S DIET SUPPLIES ALL THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS NEEDED TO CARRY OUT NORMAL TISSUE GROWTH, REPAIR, & MAINTENANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>THAT A PERSON’S DIET PROVIDES ENOUGH SUBSTRATES TO PRODUCE THE ENERGY NECESSARY FOR WORK, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, & RELAXATION. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/2 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? FRUIT
  6. 6. ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/4 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? VEGETABLES
  7. 7. IF FOOD AVAILABILITY IS NOT THE PROBLEM, THEN WHAT IS? OVERCONSUMPTION OF THE WRONG FOODS
  8. 8. WHAT ARE AMONG THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE US? DISEASES OF DIETARY EXCESS & IMBALANCE
  9. 9. UP TO WHAT % OF ALL CANCERS MAY BE DIET RELATED? 50%
  10. 10. <ul><li>NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-SUBSTANCES FOUND IN FOOD THAT PROVIDE ENERGY, REGULATE METABOLISM, AND HELP WITH GROWTH & REPAIR OF BODY TISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-REQUIRED BY THE HUMAN BODY </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>FAT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>MINERALS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>FUEL NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-THE ONLY SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO SUPPLY THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR WORK & NORMAL BODY FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>FAT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>REGULATORY NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-HAVE NO CALORIC VALUE, BUT ARE STILL NECESSARY FOR A PERSON TO FUNCTION NORMALLY & MAINTAIN GOOD HEALTH. </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>MINERALS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>MACRONUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-WE NEED THEM IN PROPORTIONATELY LARGE AMOUNTS DAILY. </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES 3) PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>FATS 4) WATER </li></ul><ul><li>MICRONUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-REQUIRED IN ONLY SMALL AMOUNTS. </li></ul><ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>MINERALS </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE 7TH NUTRIENT FIBER: -VITAL FOR GOOD HEALTH. -PROVIDES PROTECTION AGAINST SEVERAL DISEASES, INCLUDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE & SOME CANCERS.
  15. 15. NUTRITION DENSITY -A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS & CALORIES IN VARIOUS FOODS. HIGH NUTRIENT DENSITY: -FOODS THAT CONTAIN FEW OR A MODERATE NUMBER OF CALORIES BUT ARE PACKED WITH NUTRIENTS. LOW NUTRIENT DENSITY (JUNK FOODS): -FOODS THAT HAVE A LOT OF CALORIES BUT FEW NUTRIENTS. CALORIE: -THE AMOUNT OF HEAT NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE. -USED TO MEASURE THE ENERGY VALUE OF FOOD & COST OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.
  16. 16. WHAT ARE THE 5 ESSENTIAL FOOD GROUPS IDENTIIFIED BY THE MYPYRAMID ICON?
  17. 17. WHAT ARE THE 5 FOOD GROUPS IDENTIFIED BY THE MYPLATE ICON?
  18. 18. WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE MAJOR SOURCE OF CALORIES THE BODY USES TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR WORK, MAINTAIN CELLS, & GENERATE HEAT? CARBOHYDRATES
  19. 19. -A CLASSIFICATION OF DIETARY NUTRITION CONTAINING CARBON, HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN. -THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE HUMAN BODY. -THEY HELP REGULATE FAT & METABOLIZE PROTEIN. -EACH GRAM OF CARBOHYDRATES PROVIDES THE HUMAN BODY WITH 4 CALORIES. -2 CATEGORIES: SIMPLE & COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
  20. 20. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES “ SUGARS” -OFFER LITTLE NUTRITIVE VALUE. -DIVIDED INTO MONOSACCHARIDES & DISACCHARIDES A) MONOSACCHARIDES 1) GLUCOSE: NATURAL SUGAR 2) FRUCTOSE: FRUIT SUGAR 3) GALACTOSE: MILK SUGAR B) DISACCHARIDES 1) SUCROSE: GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE 2) LACTOSE: GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE 3) MALTOSE: GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE
  21. 21. <ul><li>STARCH: CONVERTED TO GLUCOSE FOR BODY’S OWN ENERGY USE. </li></ul><ul><li>DEXTRINS: PROVIDE MANY VALUABLE NUTRIENTS & CAN BE AN EXCELLENT SOURCE OF FIBER. </li></ul><ul><li>GLYCOGEN: FOUND IN SMALL QUANTITY IN MEATS, BUT FOR THE MOST PART WE MANUFACTURE IT; WE DON’T CONSUME IT. </li></ul>COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES “ POLYSACCHARIDES”
  22. 22. FIBER -A FORM OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE. -DECREASES THE RISK FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE & CANCER. -HIGH-FIBER DIET GIVES A PERSON A FEELING OF FULLNESS WITHOUT ADDING TOO MANY CALORIES. -RECOMMENDED INTAKE FOR MALES 50 YEARS & YOUNGER: -38 GRAMS/DAY -RECOMMENDED INTAKE FOR FEMALES 50 YEARS & YOUNGER: -25 GRAMS/DAY
  23. 23. SOLUBLE VS INSOLUBLE FIBER SOLUBLE FIBER: -DISSOLVES IN WATER & FORMS A GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE THAT ENCLOSES FOOD PARTICLES. -THIS PROPERTY ALLOWS SOLUBLE FIBER TO BIND & EXCRETE FATS FROM THE BODY. -LOWERS BLOOD CHOLESTEROL. INSOLUBLE FIBER: -NOT EASILY DISSOLVED IN WATER & THE BODY CAN’T DIGEST IT. -BINDS WATER & INCREASES PERISTALSIS, THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE CONTRATIONS OF INTESTINAL WALLS THAT ENABLES QUICKER EXCRETION OF FOOD RESIDUES. -SPEEDING THE PASSAGE OF FOOD RESIDUES THROUGH THE INTESTINES LOWERS THE RISK OF COLOR CANCER.
  24. 24. <ul><li>FATS </li></ul><ul><li>“ LIPIDS” </li></ul><ul><li>-MOST CONCENTRATED SOURCE OF ENERGY. </li></ul><ul><li>-EACH GRAM OF FAT SUPPLIES 9 CALORIES TO THE BODY. </li></ul><ul><li>-3 CATEGORIES: </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE FATS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND FATS </li></ul><ul><li>DERIVED FATS </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>SIMPLE FATS </li></ul><ul><li>-2 TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>SATURATED: ANIMAL ORIGIN </li></ul><ul><li>UNSATURATED: FOUND IN PLANT PRODUCTS </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>COMPOUND FATS </li></ul><ul><li>-COMBINATION OF SIMPLE FATS & OTHER CHEMICALS. </li></ul><ul><li>-LIPOPROTEINS: </li></ul><ul><li>-MOST IMPORTANT COMPOUND FAT </li></ul><ul><li>-COMBINATION OF LIPIDS & PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>-2 MAJOR FORMS </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH DENSITY (HDL): HIGH LEVELS LOWER RISK FOR CORONARY HEART DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>LOW DENSITY (LDL): HIGH LEVELS INCREASE RISK FOR CORONARY HEART DISEASE </li></ul>
  27. 27. DERIVED FATS -COMBINE SIMPLE & COMPOUND FATS -EXAMPLE: STEROLS -CHOLESTEROL IS BEST-KNOWN EXAMPLE
  28. 28. PROTEINS -THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO BUILD & REPAIR TISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, BLOOD, SKIN, HAIR, NAILS, & BONES. -HELP MAINTAIN THE NORMAL BALANCE OF BODY FLUIDS. -ENZYMES: “ CATALYSTS THAT FACILITATE CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE BODY.” -ALL ENZYMES ARE FORMED BY PROTEINS. -EACH GRAM OF PROTEIN YIELDS 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY.
  29. 29. <ul><li>VITAMINS </li></ul><ul><li>-NECESSARY FOR NORMAL BODILY METABOLISM, GROWTH, & DEVELOPMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>-2 MAIN TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>FAT SOLUBLE (A, D, E, K) </li></ul><ul><li>2) WATER SOLUBLE (B COMPLEX & C) </li></ul>
  30. 30. MINERALS -INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL BODY FUNCTIONS. -CRUCIAL TO MAINTAINING WATER BALANCE & THE ACID-BASE BALANCE. -REGULATE MUSCULAR & NERVOUS TISSUE IMPULSES, BLOOD CLOTTING, & NORMAL HEART RHYTHM.
  31. 32. WATER -THE MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT. -INVOLVED IN ALMOST EVERY VITAL BODY PROCESS: -DIGESTING & ABSORBING FOOD, PRODUCING ENERGY, REGULATING BODY HEAT, REMOVING WASTE PRODUCTS, BUILDING & REBUILDING CELLS. -WHAT % OF A MALE’S BODY WEIGHT IS WATER? -61% -WHAT % OF A FEMALE’S BODY WEIGHT IS WATER? -56% -THE DIFFERENCE IS DUE PRIMARILY TO THE HIGHER AMOUNT OF MUSCLE MASS IN MEN.

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