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Effective Pedagogy


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Three phases of college instruction. The pre-engagement phase. Countdown to course start. The engagement phase. The post-engagement phase. Phases of college instruction. Conceptualization. Relevance to the teaching-learning effort. Adult education perspective on activities. Educational psychology perspective on activities. Further research needed.

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Effective Pedagogy

  1. 1. Effective Pedagogy Milisa Sammaciccia Ismail, MEd. 19 December 2011
  2. 2. “Effective teaching strategies begin with realizing that there are multiple pathways to learning. Frequent and careful assessment aligned with observation determines the direction taken for optimal learning. Respect for all learners takes place. Varying teaching styles within a student-centered environment maximizes educational effectiveness.” - Mary Rose (2008)
  3. 3. Three Phases of College Instruction  Pre-Engagement Phase • Instructor prepares for teaching-learning interaction with their students • Elements include: – Needs assessment – Diagnostic activities – Development of instructional objectives – Instructional module development (p. 21)  Engagement Phase • Instructor engages students in teaching-learning • Elements include: – Situational assessment – Module implementation – Formative evaluation – Crises intervention (p. 21)
  4. 4. Three Phases of College Instruction Continued…  Post-Engagement Phase • Success is assessed after the completion of the teaching- learning effort. • Elements include: – Summative evaluation – Student remediation – Methodological revisions (p. 21-22)
  5. 5. Pre-Engagement Phase This phase is a critical aspect in the development of the teaching-learning process. During this phase instructors:  Develop objectives  Develop expectations & goals  Prepare the syllabus, course map and grading rubrics  Select a textbook(s)  Select supporting resource material  Select assessments
  6. 6. Countdown To Course Start Svinicki & McKeachie (2011) suggest the following timeline prior to the course start (pre-engagement phase):  Three Months Before • Write goals, objectives and desired outcomes. – Objectives should be specific and measurable – Objectives should retain focus on the student – “An effective learning objective will explain expectations for student behavior, performance, or understanding” (Mandernach, 2003, para. 5). • Select the textbook(s) and supplies needed. – Should fit the objectives outlined but the instructor – Winnow the possibilities down to two to five [books]. – Read a few chapters to understand the level of difficulty. – Select three to four key concepts to examine. Are they well explained? Are they interesting? – Be wary of curb appeal that distract from content.
  7. 7. Countdown To Course Start Continued…  Two Months Before • Draft the syllabus. It should contain the following elements: – Expectations and policies – Scheduled assignments & due dates – Assessments (pre-assessment, formative, summative) – Special rules • Svinicki & McKeachie (2011) suggest the following acronym for syllabus construction: – S = specific – M = measurable – A = agreed (clearly understood) – R = related, with a clear structure and links between assignments – T = time frame (p. 17)
  8. 8. Countdown To Course Start Continued…  One Month Before • Develop class session plans – Lecture: outline the content to engage students in the lesson. – Planning: advance planning allows for realignment in the event of deviating slightly off schedule. – Testing: plan for tests (p. 17-18) • Select teaching method – “The most successful teachers vary their methods to suit objectives” (p. 18). For example: » Lecture » Discussion » Cooperative Learning » Role playing techniques
  9. 9. Countdown To Course Start Continued…  Two Weeks Before • Check resources – Library policies to reserve books – Computer resources available – Photocopying of exams and/or course material – Technology available  One Week Before • Send students a welcoming email introducing ourselves to the students (if available)
  10. 10. Engagement Phase During this phase, the instructor engages the students in the teaching-learning effort. Generally instructors:  Instruct, lecture, discuss and interact with their students.  Provide support for any additional reinforcement, resources or guidance.  Conduct assessments such as: • Pre-Assessment – to assess prior knowledge; • Formative Assessment(s) – to determine the level of knowledge acquisition and allow for realignment, as necessary; • Summative Assessment – to determine the final level of content acquisition and evaluate overall learning for future course adjustments.  During this phase, instruction and activities can be adjusted accordingly to ensure the objectives and goals are being met and to realign deviation off established pathways.
  11. 11. Post-Engagement Phase During this phase, the instructor assesses the overall effectiveness of the teaching-learning effort that has been completed and will make any necessary adjustments to ensure the success of future courses that are within the same scope.  Summative assessments are analyzed for strengths and weaknesses of instruction and student learning.  Analysis of the pre-engagement and engagement phases are conducted to measure the level of success in the teaching-learning effort. • Adjustments are made for subsequent courses based on this analysis.
  12. 12. Phases of College Instruction Pre-Engagement Engagement Post-Engagement Needs Assessment Diagnostics Student learning readiness Instructor teaching readiness Instructional Objectives & Task Analysis Domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Test Development/Selection Validity, reliability Types of tests Teacher-made vs. published Norm vs. criterion-referenced Objectives-related test properties Assessment research design Pre-Testing & Grouping Situational Assessment & Final Module Adjustments Physical environment Materials Students Institutional support Module Implementation Execution Social-cognitive processes Modeling Encouragement Facilitation Rewards Formative Evaluation & Corrective Activity Targets Student performance Instructor performance Institutional support Assessment methods Observations Tests & quizzes Consultations Critical incident reports Summative Evaluation Targets Student performance Instructor performance School support Methodology Sources Administrators Students Instructors Assessment Observations Tests Questionnaires Consultations Critical incident reports Remediation Student performance Instructor performance Institutional support Methodology procedures Pre-engagement Engagement Post-engagement
  13. 13. Phases of College Instruction Continued… Pre-Engagement Engagement Post-Engagement Instructional Module Development & Debugging Module structure Lower Level: Delivery Introduction Demonstration/description Questions and answers Student enactment Feedback and corrective action Summary Higher Level: Collaboration Seminar and topic survey Instructor-student dialogue and course project
  14. 14. Conceptualization • Pre-Engagement Phase  A great deal of thought and planning goes into the pre- engagement phase of instruction. This is the period of development where the instructor makes important decisions that will resonate throughout the course ahead.  Conceptually, this phase can be divided up into two facets: • Investigation of the needs to be addressed in the effort; • Investigation of student & instructor characteristics relevant to the instructional goals; – Preparation of the instructional modules to be implemented to reach the goals.
  15. 15. Conceptualization Continued… • Engagement Phase  Conceptually, the engagement phase can be comprised of three facets: • Appraisal of the situation in which the instruction is about to take place; • Engagement of the students during the learning process/es; • A formative evaluation of the engagement effort. • Post-Engagement Phase  Conceptually, the post-engagement phase is the point in which the pre-engagement and engagement process are examined. It is at this point that summative evaluations are conducted, remediation(s) and, methodological revisions occur.
  16. 16. Relevance to the Teaching-Learning Effort • Pre-Engagement Phase  The relevance of this phase is significant. The pre-engagement phase will have a profound affect on the ease of instruction and, the level of learning and engagement on behalf of the students. If the learning materials such as: the textbook, syllabus, objectives, goals, expectations and lessons are not developed wholly and effectively, it will undoubtedly have a negative affect on teaching and learning overall. Increased and unnecessary stress and anxiety will be elevated by a lack of preparation at this phase. • Engagement Phase  The relevance of the teaching-learning effort during the engagement phase will have a dramatic impact on the overall effectiveness of: • The course design; • The level in which the goals and objectives were met; and, • Overall learning outcomes.
  17. 17. Relevance to Teaching-Learning Effort Continued… • Post-Engagement Phase  The relevance of the post-engagement phase is critical to understanding the success of the completed course and identifying areas of strength and weakness in the pre-engagement and engagement phases and processes. Acquisition and analysis of the this information is vital to any future courses that.
  18. 18. Adult Education Perspective on Activities By definition, adult education is concerned with the instruction of adults. • Pre-Engagement Phase  During this phase, adult education is concerned with the development of the curriculum, syllabus, objectives and goals as they relate to adult learners. • Is the syllabus designed to accentuate previous learning? • Are the objectives and goals conducive to adult learners? • Engagement Phase  During this phase, adult education is concerned with the delivery of instruction and assessment(s) as they relate to adult learners. • Is the method of delivery advantageous to adult learners? • Are the activities and projects planned for adult learners? • Are the learners able to utilize previous knowledge to build upon and deepen the content knowledge?
  19. 19. Adult Education Perspective on Activities • Post-Engagement Phase  During this phase, adult education is concerned with the overall effectiveness and outcomes of the pre-engagement and engagement phases. • How effective was the overall design, development, implementation, execution, acquisition and experience for the adult learners?
  20. 20. Educational Psychology Perspective on Activities By definition, educational psychology is concerned with exploring, through scientific research, the psychological, social and systemic dynamics involved in the three following phases of college instruction. • Pre-Engagement Phase  Student readiness  Instructor readiness  Validity and reliability of test development/selection • Engagement Phase  Physical environment  Instructional support  Social-cognitive process of module implementation • Post-Engagement Phase  Methodology  Assessment methods  Remediation
  21. 21. Further Research Needed • Pre-Engagement Phase  Pre-assessments  Grouping  Structure and development of lesson units or modules • Engagement Phase  Instruction delivery effectiveness and methodology  Effectiveness are materials  Effectiveness of extended resources  Formative and summative assessments • Post-Engagement Phase  Student performance  Instructor performance  Methodology  Remediation methods
  22. 22. “While the improvement of instruction can occur through training, coaching, critical friends groups, study groups, and other reflective processes, one of the most obvious and direct ways to improve teaching is to have teachers continuously work with others to improve the quality of their lessons and examine student work to determine whether those lessons are assisting all students to achieve at high levels” (p. 97). - Dennis Sparks (2002)
  23. 23. RESOURCES Mandernach, B. (2003). Writing quality learning objectives. Retrieved from Martinez-Pons, M. (2001). The psychology of teaching & learning: A three-step approach. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Continuum. Martinez-Pons, M. (2003). Overview of a pedagogy of college instruction. The continuum guide to successful teaching in higher education (pp. 10-23). New York, NY: Continuum. Rose, M. (2008). Differentiation. Teacher Scholastic, 1(3). Retrieved from %20proofed.pdf Sparks, D. (2002). Designing powerful professional development for teachers and principals. Retrieved from sparksbook.pdf Svinicki, M., & McKeachie, W.J. (2011). McKeachie's teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth.