Obsessive Compulsive Disorder


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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

  1. 1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Who, What and How of OCD
  3. 3. Symptoms developing within their teenage years <ul><li>Symptoms usually developing within their teens </li></ul><ul><li>Can effect family life </li></ul><ul><li>Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Retard Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Can start as young as toddlers </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect adults </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3% of the American population or an estimated 7 million people, between the ages of 15-30, suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not a discriminating disorder. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crosses all socio-economic levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where they live </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affects men, women children equally </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will affect 1 out of every 50-100 people within their lifetime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% will suffer from both obsessions and compulsions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% will have one or the other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( www.athealth.com ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding OCD is just the beginning <ul><li>OCD is the result of having two disorders in one: </li></ul><ul><li>OBSESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>An Obsession is having disturbing, recurrent and unwanted thoughts that are uncontrollable and unable to be suppressed which result in high anxiety for an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>a) may become worried about germs or disease </li></ul><ul><li>b) worry about becoming violent or </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>c) thoughts concerning religion </li></ul><ul><li>d) distasteful sexual thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>e) overly obsessed with order and symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, pg.17) </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMPULSIONS <ul><li>In order to ease the anxiety associated with the obsessions ritualistic behaviors will manifest in compulsions. </li></ul><ul><li>A compulsion is the ritualistic behavior that is performed to ease the anxiety and usually mimicking the person’s obsession. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, pg.17) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Worry about germs or disease <ul><li>Some may become worried about germs or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Washing their hands till raw and cracked </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly cleaning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Worry about becoming violent or aggressive
  9. 9. Thoughts concerning religion <ul><li>Constant prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Reading of religious material </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding of religious symbols </li></ul>
  10. 10. Distasteful sexual thoughts
  11. 11. Order and symmetry <ul><li>Having to count things or repeat rituals before every task. </li></ul><ul><li>When they are interrupted they feel that they must start over again. </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6…. </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 … </li></ul>
  12. 12. They Know!! <ul><li>Many sufferers of OCD know that their obsessions make no sense </li></ul><ul><li>no practical reason for them </li></ul><ul><li>based upon unfounded fears. </li></ul><ul><li>they cannot control these fears </li></ul><ul><li>These fears are completely valid to them </li></ul><ul><li>(American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4 theories at the root cause of OCD <ul><li>an abnormality within the basil ganglia and the cingulum located within the frontal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune Neurological Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>chemical imbalance within the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>heredity </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, 2004, pg.26-28) </li></ul><ul><li>( American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Basil Ganglia <ul><li>The basal ganglia are in control of routine behaviors, like grooming or brushing teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontal lobe is in control of organizational behaviors and planning abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cingulum <ul><li>Cingulum which is located deep within brain near the frontal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>The cingulum controls communication in the brains behavioral and emotional messages. </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Autoimmune Neurological Disorder <ul><li>This theory links children and teenage OCD was reported by the National Institute of Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>They linked similar childhood autoimmune diseases with the same symptoms as OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerative nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Language disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Movement disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chemical imbalance within the nervous system. <ul><li>Research also found that too little activity of certain neurotransmitters was correlated to OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Other behaviors related to chemical imbalance among OCD sufferers. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>(Fenske, J., & Schwenk, T., 2009) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Heredity <ul><li>Heredity plays a large part in OCD </li></ul><ul><li>OCD patients close family members had higher incidents of OCD </li></ul><ul><li>Other bipolar disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Severe phobias </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, 2004, pg.26-28) </li></ul><ul><li>(Abramowitz, J., Taylor, S., & McKay, D.(2009) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Understand the Treatments <ul><li>80% of those treated within 8-10 week greatly improve </li></ul><ul><li>20% drug therapy alone does not help </li></ul><ul><li>Daily use of drug therapy can last a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>(Stewart .2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapeutic medication or serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI’s) has been extremely effective </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin levels are increased reducing the obsessive thought patterns and compulsions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy <ul><li>Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) needs to be incorporated when meds do not work. </li></ul><ul><li>It internalizes a strategy to resist the onset of OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>It restructures behavioral patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>A patient is over exposed to the source of their anxiety to reduce their anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>reduce the person’s ritualistic behavior </li></ul><ul><li>( American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Future Treatment Concerns <ul><li>The future directions of OCD treatments have numerous barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest concern is the lack of trained CBT therapists. </li></ul><ul><li>With few professionally trained CBT therapists pharmacotherapy is the main course of action. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 17 years <ul><li>17 years is the average time from their first symptoms to proper treatment that they </li></ul><ul><li>Limited exposure to a qualified psychotherapist resulting in limited success </li></ul><ul><li>Few professionally trained CBT therapists available </li></ul><ul><li>( www.ocfoundation.org ) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Role of Psychologist <ul><li>Doctors not to blame </li></ul><ul><li>The stigma that society has placed on OCD </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the cause of it </li></ul><ul><li>Course of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>psychologist beginning to be properly trained </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can be devastating </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a preventable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>More research needs to be developed into the causes </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing that needs to be realized is that OCD is treatable </li></ul>