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What is psychology


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general psychology

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What is psychology

  1. 1. Chapter one What is psychology?
  2. 2. Chapter one
  3. 3. Chapter one
  4. 4. Chapter one
  5. 5. TWO CL ASSIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR OVERT – behavior that can be seen / publicly observed. talking, dancing, crying, etc . COVERT – behavior that CANNOT be publicly observed. Concentrating, love feeling, glandular reaction Chapter one
  6. 6. FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIOR It follows an orderly pattern . Knowable. Knowledge of the Human Behavior Natural phenomena Nothing is self-evident. Chapter one
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  8. 8. Philosophical Contributions
  9. 9. Chapter one
  10. 10. Chapter one
  11. 11. Chapter one
  12. 12. Chapter one
  13. 13. Philosophical Contributions Aristotle: (384-322 BC) • Wrote “About the Psyche” covering topics such as personality, sensation, perception, thought, intelligence, needs, motives, feelings, emotions and memory. • A proponent of empiricism. (experimentation) • He outlined the laws of associationism. Chapter one
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  18. 18. TABUL A RASA – BL ANK SL ATE Chapter one
  19. 19. 19th Century Contributions
  20. 20. Chapter one
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  22. 22. Schools of Thought in Psychology • • • • • • • Chapter one Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychology Psychoanalytic Psychology Humanistic Psychology Cognitive Psychology
  23. 23. Chapter one
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  27. 27. Chapter one
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  29. 29. Chapter one
  30. 30. Behaviorism John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) • Considered to be the founder of American Behaviorism. • Believed that psychology should limit itself to observable, measurable events and behavior. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Believed organisms learn to behave in certain ways because of reinforcement. Chapter one
  31. 31. Chapter one
  32. 32. Gestalt Psychology: Making Psychology Whole • Gestalt translates to “pattern” or “organized whole”. • Demonstrated that learning is a accomplished by insight, not by mechanical repetition. • Founders included: • Wertheimer (1880-1943), • Koffka (1886-1941), and • Kohler (1887-1967). Chapter one
  33. 33. Gestalt Psychology
  34. 34. Gestalt Psychology
  35. 35. Gestalt Psychology
  36. 36. Critical Thinking Task Is square “A” and “B” the same color? Explain your answer.
  37. 37. Chapter one
  38. 38. Five Contemporar y Theoretical Perspective in Psychology • Psychodynamic • Behavioral Humanistic • Cognitive • Biological Chapter one
  39. 39. Psychodynamic Perspective Chapter one
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  41. 41. Chapter one
  42. 42. Sigmund Freud believed that behaviour and personality derives from the constant and unique interaction of conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness: the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious.   Chapter one
  43. 43. Many of us have experienced what is commonly referred to as a Freudian slip. These misstatements are believed to reveal underlying, unconscious thoughts or feelings. Consider this example: James has just started a new relationship with a woman he met at school. While talking to her one afternoon, he accidentally calls her by his ex-girlfriend's name. Chapter one
  44. 44. If you were in this situation, how would you explain this mistake? Chapter one
  45. 45. Many of us might blame the slip on distraction or describe it as a simple accident. wever, a psychoanalytic theorist might tell you tha this is much more than a random accident. he psychoanalytic view holds that there are nner forces outside of your awareness at are directing your behaviour. or example, a psychoanalyst might say that ames misspoke due to unresolved feelings for his ex or erhaps because of misgivings about his new relationship. Chapter one
  46. 46. According to Freud, the mind can be divided into three different levels: Chapter one
  47. 47. The CONCIOUS MIND  includes ever ything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memor y, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this the preconscious. Chapter one
  48. 48. PRECONCIOUS MIND is the part of the mind that represents ordinar y memor y. While we are not consciously aware of this information at any given time, we can retrieve it and pull it into consciousness when needed. Chapter one
  49. 49. UNCONCIOUS MIND  is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. Chapter one
  50. 50. Freud likened these three levels of mind to an iceberg. The top of the iceberg that you can see above the water represents the conscious mind. The part of the iceberg that is submerged below the water but is still visible is the preconscious. The bulk of the iceberg lies unseen beneath the waterline and represents the unconscious. Chapter one
  51. 51. Each person also possesses a certain amount of psychological energy that forms the three basic structures of personality: the id, the ego, and the superego. These three structures have different roles and operate at different levels of the mind. In the next article in this series, learn more about the functions of each of these structures. Chapter one
  52. 52. According to Freud, the mind can be divided into three different levels: Chapter one
  53. 53. Today’s Psychologists Evolutionary and Biological Perspectives • Focus on the evolution of behavior and mental processes. • Much like Darwin, believe that inherited tendencies move us in certain directions. Cognitive Perspective: Keeping Psychology “In Mind” • Mental processes to understand human nature • How we perceive, learn, remember problem solve, etc. (the mind) • Roots in Socrates, “know thyself” Humanistic-Existential Perspective • Humanistic – stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment • Existentialism – views people as free to choose and as being responsible for choosing ethical conduct. Carl Rogers – Abraham Maslow Chapter one
  54. 54. 1/24/11 Cognitive Perspective • Venture into the realm of mental processes to understand human nature. • Cognitive psychologists study those things we refer to as the mind. Chapter one
  55. 55. Humanistic-Existential Perspective Humanism • stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment. Existentialism • views people as free to choose and be responsible for choosing ethical conduct. Stress the importance of subjective experience. • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers; two prominent psychologists in this area. Chapter one
  56. 56. Evolutionary and Biological Perspectives • Focus on the evolution of behavior and mental processes. • Genes can be transmitted from generation to generation. • Biological perspective seek the links between the electrical and chemical activity of the brain. • Use of PET and CAT scans. Chapter one
  57. 57. Perspectives on Learning • Learning through repetition and reinforcement. • Social-cognitive theorists • • • formerly termed social learning theorists suggest that people can modify or even create their environments. Intentional learning by observing others. Chapter one
  58. 58. Sociocultural Perspective • Addresses the ways people differ from one another. • Studies the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on behavior and mental processes. Ethnicity • • Ethnic groups are united by their cultural heritage, race, language, and common history. Study cultural heritages and ethnic differences in vulnerability to problems. Gender • • Chapter one Refers to the culturally defined concepts of masculinity and femininity. Involves a complex web of cultural expectations and social roles.
  59. 59. What is Psychology? Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes . Chapter one
  60. 60. Chapter one
  61. 61. Psychology as a Science Theories: • Formulations of apparent relationships among observed events. • Theories allow for empirical prediction. 2 4 6 8 __ Chapter one
  62. 62. Question: What are the goals of psychology? Psychologists have the same goals as scientists. • Observe • Describe behavior • Explain • Predict • Control 63 Chapter one Chapter 1
  63. 63. Chapter one
  64. 64. Section 2: What do psychologists do? • Psychologists accept that something is true ONLY if the evidence shows it is so. • Some are interested in RESEARCH – investigating and forming theories – and finally testing those theories • Others apply knowledge through THERAPY to help people. • And finally there are those who TEACH in classrooms and workshops. 65 Chapter one Chapter 1
  65. 65. Chapter one What are the Fields or Branches of Psychology?
  66. 66. Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION • Clinical – the largest group – treat psychological problems. • Counseling – treat adjustment problems • School – deal with students who have problems that interfere with learning • Educational Psychologist – focus on course planning and instructional methods 67 Chapter one Chapter 1
  67. 67. Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (continued) • Personality Psychologist – identify characteristics or traits • Social Psychologist – concerned with people’s behavior in social situations • Experimental Psychologist – conduct research into basic processes 68 Chapter one Chapter 1
  68. 68. Section 2: What Psychologists Do Question: What are their areas of specialization? 69 • Industrial and Organizational Psychologist – focus on people in work and business • Environmental Psychologist – focus on ways in which people influence and are influenced by physical environment • Consumer Psychologist – study the behavior of shoppers to explain and Chapter one Chapter 1 predict behavior
  69. 69. Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (continued) • Forensic Psychologist – are concerned with how psychological problems give rise to criminal behavior. • Health Psychologist – study the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health 70 Chapter one Chapter 1
  70. 70. Fields of Psychology
  71. 71. Fields of Psychology Clinical psychologists: • • Help people with psychological disorders adjust to the demands of life Largest subgroup of psychologists Counseling psychologists: • • Chapter one Similar to clinical psychologist but clients typically have adjustment problems and not serious psychological disorders More than half of all doctoral students are in programs of clinical or counseling
  72. 72. Fields of Psychology School psychologists: • Employed by school systems to assist students with problems that interfere with learning. • One focus is that of placement of students in special classes Educational psychologists: • Like school psychologists. • Attempt to facilitate learning but focus on course planning, instructional methods. • Focus on motivation, intelligence, testing, and student and teacher behavior. Chapter one
  73. 73. Fields of Psychology Developmental psychologists: • Study the changes, physical, cognitive, social and personality, that occur throughout the life span. Personality psychologists: • Focus on identifying and measuring human traits, determining influences on human thought processes, feelings, and behavior and explaining psychological disorders. Social psychologists: • Primarily concerned with individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior in social situations. Chapter one
  74. 74. Fields of Psychology Environmental psychologists: • Study how people and environment influence each other and • Study ways to encourage recycling, for example. Experimental psychologists: • Conduct experiments, and • Specialize in basic processes such as the nervous system, sensation and perception, learning and memory, thought, motivation, and emotion. Industrial psychologists: • Focus on the relationship between people and work. Chapter one
  75. 75. Fields of Psychology Organizational psychologists : • Focus on the relationship between people and organizations such as business. Human factors psychologists: • Provide suggestions and create technical systems such as dashboards, computer keyboards, etc. to be more user friendly. Chapter one
  76. 76. Fields of Psychology Consumer psychologists: • Study the behavior of shoppers in an effort to predict and influence their behavior. Health psychologists: • Examine the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to health. Sport psychologists: • Help people improve their sports performance. Chapter one
  77. 77. The Scientific Method
  78. 78. The Scientific Method Scientific method is an organized way of using experience and testing ideas in order to expand and refine knowledge. Hypothesis: is a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research. • Test the hypothesis through controlled methods such as the experiment. • Replication: repeating a study to see if the findings hold up over time with different subjects. Chapter one •
  79. 79. The Scientific Method a. A systematic way of organizing and expanding scientific knowledge. b. Daily experiences, common beliefs, and scientific observations all contribute to the development of theories. c. Psychological theories explain observations and lead to hypotheses about behavior and mental processes. Chapter one d. Observations can confirm the theory or lead to its refinement or abandonment.
  80. 80. Methods of Obser vation The Case Study • • • Information collected about individuals and small groups. Anecdotes (Typically unscientific accounts of people’s behavior.) Compelling portraits but may have factual inaccuracies. The Survey • • Used to study individuals who cannot be observed in the natural setting or studied scientifically. Employs questionnaires and interviews or public records. Naturalistic Observation • Observe people in their natural habitats. • Unobtrusive measures are used to avoid interfering with the observed behaviors. Chapter one
  81. 81. Correlation • Investigates whether one observed behavior or trait is related to (correlated) with another. • Mathematically expressed as a correlation coefficient; a number the varies between +1.00 and -1.00. • Positive correlation: the higher scores on one variable tend to correspond with higher scores on the second variable. Low with low. (e.g. Intelligence test scores and academic performance). • Negative correlation: Higher scores on one variable tend to correspond with lower scores on the second. (e.g. Amount of stress experienced and functioning of the immune system). How things are Related Chapter one
  82. 82. Correlational Relationships, Cause, & Effect Correlational relationships may suggest but do not demonstrate cause and effect. Consider the examples of academic grades (X) and juvenile delinquency (Y) in part B. Do poor grades lead to delinquency, Does delinquency lead to poor grades, or do other variables such as broken home or peer influences contribute to poor grades and delinquency.
  83. 83. Experiments The preferred method for answering questions about cause and effect. Involves Independent and Dependent Variables. Independent variable: • manipulated by the experimenters so that the effects of various levels may be determined. Dependent variable: • the measured outcome or result. Experimental and Control Groups • Experimental groups obtain the treatment. • Control groups do not receive the treatment. Chapter one
  84. 84. Experiments • Placebo or “sugar pill” • Blind study: control for the expectations of effects by creating conditions where the subjects are unaware of the treatment • Double blind study: neither the subjects nor the experimenters know who has obtained the treatment Chapter one
  85. 85. Ethical Issues
  86. 86. Ethical Issues in Research & Basic standards Practice • • Intended to promote individual dignity, human welfare and scientific integrity. Do not undertake research methods that are harmful. Research with Humans • • • Ethics review committees review research according to ethical guidelines. Informed consent: individuals give consent before they can participate in research. Confidentiality is kept. Chapter one
  87. 87. Controversy in Psychology Is it ethical for psychologist to deceive research participants about the methods and objectives of their research? APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct • • • May deceive only when the benefits of the research outweigh the potential harm. The individuals would have been willing to participate if they had understood the benefits. Subjects are debriefed (the purposes and methods of the research are explained afterward.) Chapter one
  88. 88. Research with Nonhuman Animals • Psychologists generalize to humans the results of research conducted with animals. • Animals may be harmed only when there is no alternative; when the researchers believe that the benefits justify the harm. Chapter one
  89. 89. Questio ns & Comme Chapter one