Ciett economic report_2011

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Ciett economic report_2011

  1. 1. ECONOMIC REPORT The agency work industry around the world2011 Edition(based on figures available for 2009)
  2. 2. The agency work industryaround the world ECONOMIC REPORT 2011 Edition (based on figures available for 2009)
  3. 3. IntroductionIn 2009, the global agency work impact of the economic crisis on the jobs that would not otherwise exist,industry continued to feel the impact of labour market in general, and the enhancing companies’ competitivenessthe economic downturn that started in agency work sector in particular, began and workers’ employability, therebythe USA in 2007, and quickly spread to in spring 2008 and accelerated in 2009. promoting a labour market thatthe rest of the world. Certain countries This report goes on to begin to describe corresponds better to peoples’ - andwere hit harder than others, while some the strong recovery made by the agency companies’ - needs and aspirations.continued to grow. The trends in this work sector in the first half of 2010.report go some way to showing that In global markets emerging from crisis,the openness and the socio-economic In 2009, some markets such as the agency work industry’s capacity tofabric of national economies and Brazil and South Africa continued anticipate and match labour marketthe flexibility of their labour markets to grow, boosted by their rapidly needs with the required skills is evenaccount for the difference across expanding economies, which were more crucial, as agencies serve ascountries. only temporarily set back by the impresarios for workers, immediately crisis. However, most mature markets identifying job vacancies, providingOverall, the total number of agency continued the declines which began in training, and facilitating the transitionworkers worldwide fell 6% in 2009, the previous year. from unemployment to work, from onecompared to 2008, amounting to assignment to the next. In addition,nearly 9 million full-time equivalents Agency work plays - and still has the agency work prepared the ground for aon a daily basis. In parallel, global total potential to play further - a valuable job-creating economic upturn, helpingannual sales revenues also fell by 16%, role in easing transitions within and into companies face the ongoing globalamounting to €203 billion. The negative the labour market. Agency work creates competitive pressure, increasing labour4
  4. 4. market participation, and furthermore,accelerating and increasing the numberof jobs created as the economyrecovers.Now more than ever, the agency workindustry plays a key role in improvingthe functioning of the labour market,by facilitating the match betweensupply and demand of labour, bysecuring upwards transitions for agencyworkers, and by providing more workopportunities for more people. 5
  5. 5. 6
  6. 6. Content1. The players 112. Agency workers in numbers 193. The profile of agency workers 28 a. General trends b. Agency workers’ motives & satisfaction4. Agency work’s contribution to a better functioning labour market 46 a. Transitions b. Job creation c. Inclusion & diversity5. Companies’ rationale to use agency work 656. Agency work and the economic recovery 72 7
  7. 7. The key facts & figuresThe players• There are 72,000 private employment The profile of agency workers agencies and 169,000 branches worldwide, employing 741,000 internal • Nearly three in five agency workers are staff Agency workers aged less than 30• In 2009 the total annual sales revenues of in numbers • Three in four agency workers have at best the top 10 private employment agencies finished their secondary education worldwide accounted for 29% of the total • In 2009 nearly 9 million agency workers • A significant proportion of agency agency work market in full-time equivalents were employed workers do not seek a permanent• In 2009 the global total annual sales by private employment agencies across employment revenues amounted to €203 billion, the globe, down 6% from 2008 • The motive to work via an agency is down 16% from 2008 • The agency work penetration rate is 1.7% usually to find a permanent job• Japan is the world leader with 24% of total in Japan and 1.5% in Europe and 1.3% in annual sales. The USA represents 22% of the USA the global agency work market, followed • The average number of hours worked by the UK at 12% by an agency worker during one year is• Europe is the leading regional entity by nearly half as much as a full time worker total annual sales revenues, accounting • Most agency work assignments are more for 40% of global total annual sales than one month long revenues8
  8. 8. The contribution of agencywork to a better functioning Agency work and the economiclabour market recovery Companies’ rationale to use• Agency work facilitates transitions in the agency work • Agency work is a bellwether of the labour market economic situation• Agency work contributes to reducing • Agency work improves companies’ • As a cyclical business - and a forecasting unemployment especially by serving as a competitiveness indicator - agency work has suffered from stepping-stone into the labour market • Agency work is not a substitute for the economic crisis, but agency workers• The higher the agency work penetration permanent employment have been the first ones to be hired when rate the lower the level of undeclared • Reasons to use agency work are generally the economy recovers work to meet peaks in demand or to fill in for • Agency work limits the risk and duration• Private employment agencies contribute absent employees of unemployment to upgrading the skills of agency workers • The private employment agency industry• Vulnerable target groups use agency has rebounded sharply since the work as a means of entering the labour recession market 9
  9. 9. 10
  10. 10. 1. The players• There are 72,000 private employment agencies [PrEAs] worldwide, with 169,000 branches and 741,000 persons as internal staff• Total annual sales revenues for the top 10 PrEAs account for 29% of the global agency work market• Global total annual sales revenues amounted to €203 billion in 2009• Japan is the world leader with 24% of total annual sales. The USA represents 22% of the global agency work market, followed by the UK with 12%• Europe is the leading regional entity by total annual sales revenues, accounting for 40% of global total annual sales revenues 11
  11. 11. There are 72,000 privateemployment agencies...From 2008 to 2009 the number Number of private employment agenciesof private employment agencies Japan 20,000 UK 11,500[PrEAs] increased by 1% to reach Germany 9,078 USA72,000. Europe accounts for 48% of Netherlands 3,640 6,000 Australiaall PrEAs, the Asia/Pacific region for South Africa 3,500 3,00034%, North America for 8% and Africa Brazil South Korea 1,611 1,419for 4%. Japan, Germany and the UK Denmark France 1,347 1,200are the top three countries in terms Austria Poland 1,200 1,086of number of PrEAs, accounting Canada Peru 945 722collectively for 56% of all agencies Hungary Colombia 667 610worldwide. As recognised by the ILO: Sweden Mexico 500 500“Private employment agencies play Finland 450 Norway 400an important role in the functioning Spain* 363 Slovakia 355of contemporary labour markets. Turkey 283 Portugal 265For the past three decades, the Czech Republic 215 Chile 179increasing need to provide workers Belgium 140 Romania 129and services to a rapidly growing Argentina 92 Italy 85and flexible labour market has led Slovenia 59 Macedonia 27to the spectacular development of Greece 9these agencies.” ** 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 * figures for 2008 ** ILO - Private employment agencies, temporary agency workers and their contribution to the labour market | 200912
  12. 12. ... with 169,000branches worldwide ThE PlAyErSFrom 2008 to 2009 the number of Number of branchesbranches increased by 1% to attain Japan 83,808169,000; the Asia/Pacific region USA UK 20,000 17,000accounting for 55%, Europe for Germany 7,064 Australia 7,00028%, and North America for 12%. South Africa 7,000Japan, the USA, and the UK are the France 6,500 Netherland 5,285top three countries by number of Canada 3,616 Italy 2900branches, accounting together for Poland 2,94172% of all branches worldwide. Czech Republic 2,069 South Korea 1,983 Spain* 1,700The “branch to PrEA” ratio varies Austria 1,500 Belgium 1,234greatly from country to country, from Hungary 977a staggering 34.5 branches per PrEA Sweden 850 Norway 700in Italy to fewer than one per private Brazil 489 Slovakia 465employment agency in Germany. This Argentina 430difference can be explained by the Portugal* 427 Romania 194very high concentration of the Italian Slovenia 140 Chile 102agency work market, characterised by Greece 16a small number of large companies 0 10.000 20.000 30.000 40.000 50.000 60.000 70.000 80.000 90.000with an extensive network. This isin contrast to highly fragmented * figures for 2008markets, such as Germany, single local branch (some German of dormant, non active agenciescharacterised by a large number companies operate without any influencing this number). The globalof PrEAs, often operating from a branches, while there is also a number average is 2.3 branches per PrEA. 13
  13. 13. 741,000 people were employedas internal staff by PrEAs in 2009From 2008 to 2009 the number Internal staff employedof internal staff [HR consultants Japan 185,000and back-office people working Brazil 169,635in branches] decreased by 10% to USA 120,000 UK 108,833reach 741,000. Europe accounts for Germany 44,70030%, the Asia/Pacific region for 26%, Netherlands 34,000 France 23,000and South America for 25%. The top Sweden 11,000three countries in terms of internal Italy Belgium 9,000 6,482staff are Japan, Brazil, and the USA, Mexico 6,100 South Africa 5,500accounting together for 65% of all Poland 4,100internal staff worldwide. ArgenPna 3,550 Australia 3,500 Finland 3,000The global average is 4 people Hungary 2,885 Norway 2,340employed as internal staff per South Korea 2,032 Romaniabranch, and 10 per PrEA. This Czech Republic 1,472 1,440illustrates that the agency work Chile 1,348 Slovakia 1,254industry is still mostly composed of Portugal* 750small and medium-sized companies, Slovenia 420 Luxembourg* 307despite the presence of several large Greece 183multinationals operating worldwide. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 * figures for 200814
  14. 14. The top 10 PrEAs worldwide accountedfor 29% of global annual sales revenues in 2009 ThE PlAyErSIn 2009 some of the main global Top 10 staffing companies in billions of $players continued to feel the impact 25.0of the economic crisis. Adecco, with$21.3 billion in total annual salesrevenues, remains the market leader. 21.3 20.0Randstad is the second largest PrEAwith $17.3 billion, followed by 17.3 16.7Manpower with $16.7 billion. 15.0 10.0 5.0 4.9 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.2 2.7 0 Adecco Randstad Manpower Allegis Kelly Recruit USG People Hays PLC Advantage Robert Half Group Services Staffingand Resourcing StaffService* Source: Staffing Industry Analysts 2009 - www.staffingindustry.com *Consolidated figures for Recruit Staffing and Staff Service 15
  15. 15. Global total annual sales revenuestotaled €203 billionIn 2009, the global total annual Global annual sales revenues in billions of € *sales revenues for the agency workindustry amounted to €203 billion, 300a decline of 16% compared to 2008,reflecting the ongoing of the impactof the crisis on major economies, 250 256such as the USA and the UK. 243 233 200 203 191 150 157 160 147 150 130 100 83 50 0 1996 1998 1999 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: Ciett national federations16
  16. 16. In 2009 Japan and the USA are global agencywork market leaders by total annual sales revenues ThE PlAyErSIn 2009, Japan is the world leader Agency work sales revenues split per countrywith 24% of global annual sales. TheUSA represents 22% of the global Rest of Worldagency work market. The UK remains 15%the third largest market worldwidewith 12% of global total annual sales Japan 24%revenues. Europe accounts for 40% Brazil 4%of global total annual sales revenues,Asia/Pacific for 35%, and North Australia 4%America for 22%. Netherlands 5% Germany 6% USA 22% France 8% UK 12% Source: Ciett national federations 17
  17. 17. Japan, the USA, and the UKare the three largest agency work markets in 2009Japan, the USA, and the UK togetheraccount for 52% of PrEAs worldwide, Comparison of the 3 largest agency work markets in the world72% of branches, 54% of internal Japan USA UKstaff, 61% of total annual salesrevenues, and 47% of agency workers Number of PrEAs 20,000 6,000 11,500in full-time equivalents. Number of branches 83,808 20,000 17,000 Number of agency workers 1,098,191 2,010,000 1,068,197The UK has the lowest “branchto PrEA ratio” and the highest Number of internal staff 185,000 120,000 95,865“internal staff to branch ratio”. Branch to PrEA ratio 4.2 3.3 1.5This can be explained by the highlevel of fragmentation of the UK Internal staff to branch ratio 3 6 5.6agency work market, characterised Agency worker to branch ratio 13 100.5 6.3by a majority of small privateemployment agencies that operate Agency worker to internal staff ratio 6 16.8 11.1locally. Japan has the lowest “agency Country’s share of total global annual sales revenues 24% 22% 12%worker to branch” and “agency AW penetration rate 1.7% 1.3% 3.6%worker to internal staff” ratios,and the USA the largest. Thesefigures must be assessed carefully,bearing in mind that there might This difference can also be partially 76% of the average annual hoursbe a significant amount of dormant explained by the fact that Japanese worked by a Japanese employee withagencies and branches in Japan. agency workers work an exceptional a full-time open-ended contract.18
  18. 18. 2. Agency workers in numbers• nearly 9 million agency workers in full-time equivalents were employed in 2009.• The number of agency workers has risen by over 3.8 million since 1999.• In 2009 the European average penetration rate of agency work was 1.5% and the South American average 0.8%.• In 2009 the Japanese and American agency work penetration rates were respectively 1.7% and 1.3%.• Agency workers work nearly half as much as full- time permanent employees.• Most agency work assignments are more than one month long. 19
  19. 19. 9 million agency workerswere employed in 2009In 2009 the total number of agency Daily average number of FTEs °workers worldwide amounted USA 2,010,000to nearly 9 million in full-time Japan UK 1,098,191 1,068,197equivalents, a decrease of 6% South Africa Brazil 924,499 902,000compared to 2008. Europe accounts Germany Colombia 625,000 530,000 France 447,348for 34%, North America for 23%, and Netherlands 212,651 Italy 162,000the Asia/Pacific region for 14%. Spain* 141,064 Australia 100,000 South Korea 83,775 Argentina 76,454The USA employs nearly as many Poland 71,914 Belgium 71,759agency workers in full-time Austria 57,230 Switzerland 56,950equivalents [2.01 million] than the Sweden 46,000 Macedonia 45,230second and third biggest suppliers Portugal* 45,000 Peru 42,500of agency workers combined, Czech Republic 35,625 Chile 29,112respectively Japan [1.1 million], and Romania 22,153 Hungary 22,153the UK [1.07 million]. Together, the Denmark Norway 21,227 20,186USA, Japan, and the UK account for Finland Uruguay* 20,000 15,00047% of all agency workers assigned Slovakia Bulgaria* 14,492 5,400worldwide. South Africa is the Greece Luxembourg* 5,087 4,300fourth largest market in the world Slovenia Lithuania 2,828 823with 924,499 agency workers in 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000full-time equivalents, ahead of Brazil[902,000], Germany [625,000] and ° Full-time equivalents defined as the total number of hours worked by all agency workers in a country over a period of one year divided by the average number of hours worked over a period of one year by a worker with a full-time job with an open-ended contractColombia [550,000]. * figures for 200820
  20. 20. The number of agency workershas increased by 3.8 million since 1999 AGEnCy worKErS In nUMbErSThe number of agency workers Number of agency workers [in daily FTEs / 1.000]worldwide increased from close to 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Austria 21 24 30 33 31 38 44 47 59 67 68 575.2 million full-time equivalents in Belgium 60 63 71 68 66 66 73 78 88 95 92 72 Bulgaria na na na na na na na na na na 5 51999 to nearly 9 million in 2009. Czech Republic Denmark na 7 na 7 na 8 na 10 na 10 na 11 na 13 na 17 na 21 na 17 35 21 36 18 Finland 9 8 9 11 11 12 14 16 18 28 32 20 France 458 515 604 602 570 555 570 586 603 638 604 447In the last ten years, the number of Germany Greece 246 na 276 na 328 na 341 na 318 na 330 na 385 na 444 na 580 na 715 8 760 8 625 5agency workers in Europe has greatly Hungary Ireland ns 9 ns 10 ns 25 ns 25 30 25 39 25 53 25 54 25 55 30 55* 35 55* 35* 22 35*increased, partially as a result of the Italy 10 26 69 67 82 132 154 157 184 222 225 162 EUroPE Lithuania na na na na na na na na na na na 1progressive liberalisation of certain Luxembourg Macedonia 2 na 3 na 4 na 4 na 4 na 4 na 4 na 4 na 5 2 5 2* 4 2* 4 5tightly regulated labour markets, Netherlands Norway 180 11 186 11 183 11 178 12 169 11 154 10 157 12 176 15 207 24 233 25 242 26 213 20notably in Italy, Germany, and the Poland Portugal ns 33 ns 45 ns 45 ns 45 ns 45 19 45 25 45 27 45 35 45 60 45 90 45 72 45Nordic countries, and the opening Romania Slovakia na ns na ns na ns na ns na ns na ns na 11 na na na na na na 30 14 22 14up of new markets in Central and Slovenia Spain na 110 na 133 na 133 na 126 na 123 na 123 na 124 na 130 na 141 na 160 3 141 3 141*Eastern Europe. Sweden Switzerland 18 30 24 34 42 39 38 38 37 37 29 36 30 41 32 49 37 61 59 70 59 69 46 57 UK 696 761 1,027 1,027 1,036 1,111 1,175 1,219 1,265 1,378 1,220 1,068 Subtotal Europe 1,900 2,126 2,629 2,625 2,605 2,739 2,955 3,120 3,460 3,917 3,885 3,214Outside Europe the number of Argentina 47 46 48 47 34 54 70 81 88 96 96 76 Australia na na na na na na na na na na na 100agency workers has nearly doubled Brazil na na na na na na na na 800 859 876 902 rEST oF worlD Chile na na na na na na na na 86 33 30 29between 1999 and 2009, on Colombia na na na na na na na na na na na 550 Japan 307 395 537 612 693 743 890 1,060 1,220 1,330 1,400 1,098account of the gradual deregulation Mexico na na na na na na na na na 25 24 24* Peru na na na na na na na na na na na 43of the Japanese labour market, and South Africa ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 300 300 300 500 924 South Korea ns ns ns ns ns ns 50 57 66 75 78 84the advent of emerging markets, Uruguay USA na 2,530 na 2,600 na 2,700 na 2,300 na 2,160 na 2,380 na 2,670 na 2,910 na 2,960 na 2,960 15 2,660 na 2,010such as Brazil and South Africa, on Subtotal rest of world 2,884 3,041 3,285 2,959 2,887 3,177 3,680 4,408 5,520 5,678 5,679 5,775the global scene. ToTAl worlD 4,784 5,167 5,914 5,584 5,492 5,916 6,635 7,528 8,980 9,595 9,564 8,989 ns = non significant; nlr = not legally recognised; na = not available; * = estimated 21
  21. 21. Outside Europe agencywork penetration rates vary widelyAgency work penetration rates are Agency work penetration rates outside Europe in 2009*determined by the level of maturityof the market in which they evolve. 7.0%Mature agency work markets are 6.5%characterised by high penetration 6.0%rates, indicating a potent blend oflarge user bases, strong economic 5.0%growth, and generally relevantlyregulated markets. At a mere 1.1% 4.0%of the total regional active workingpopulation, the relatively lowpenetration rate of agency work in 3.0% 2.8%South American countries revealsthe region’s considerable potential 2.0% 1.7%for growth. 1.3% 1.5% 1.0% 1.0% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.0% South Africa Colombia Japan USA Brazil Chile Argentina South Korea EU Average * Defined as the number of full-time equivalents - as supplied by Ciett National Federations - divided by the total active working population - as published by the ILO22
  22. 22. The average European agencywork penetration dipped from 2007 to 2009 AGEnCy worKErS In nUMbErSIn Europe, the level of regulation and Agency work penetration rates in Europe since 1998degree of economic development 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009explain the differences in pace of Austria 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.2% 1.2% 1.5% 1.7% 2.0% 1.4%growth of the agency work industry. Belgium 1.6% 1.6% 1.7% 1.7% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8% 1.9% 2.1% 2.2% 2.1% 1.7% Bulgaria na na na na na na na na na na 0.2% naRecently, countries such as Germany Czech Republic na na na na na na na na na na 0.7% 0.7%and Poland have revealed their Denmark 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% 0.6%potential, but each for very different Finland 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 1.1% 1.3% 0.8% France 2.1% 2.3% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 1.7%reasons: Germany as a heavily- Germany 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.3% 1.6% 2.0% 1.6%industrialised economy, slowly Greece na na na na na na na na na 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% Hungary ns ns ns ns 0.8% 1.0% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 0.6%freeing itself of very strict regulatory Ireland 0.6% 0.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.5% 1.7% 1.7% nameasures, and Poland as a budding Italy 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7%regional leader, rapidly catching up Luxembourg 1.2% 1.7% 1.9% 2.0% 2.2% 2.3% 2.1% 2.3% 2.4% 2.4% 2.0% na Netherlands 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 2.2% 2.1% 1.9% 1.9% 2.2% 2.5% 2.8% 2.9% 2.5%its Western European counterparts. Norway 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.8%The steady growth from 1996 Poland ns ns ns ns ns 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.3% Portugal 0.7% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% nato 2007 halted abruptly in 2008 Romania na na na na na na na na na na 0.3% 0.2%and continued its decline with a Slovakia na na na na na na na na na na 0.6% 0.6%penetration rate drop of 0.2% across Slovenia na na na na na na na na na na 0.3% 0.3% Spain 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% naEurope in 2009. Sweden 0.5% 0.6% 1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 1.3% 1.3% 1.0% Switzerland 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2% 1.5% 1.7% 1.7% 1.4% UK 2.6% 2.8% 3.8% 3.8% 3.8% 4.0% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 4.8% 4.1% 3.6% weighted average 1.1% 1.2% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.5% 1.6% 1.7% 1.8% 2.0% 1.7% 1.5% ns = non significant ; nlr = not legally recognised ; na = not available 23
  23. 23. The European average agencywork penetration rate was 1.5% in 2009The European average agency work Agency work penetration rates in Europe in 2009*penetration rate fell from 1.7% in2008 to 1.5% in 2009, notably dueto the sustained impact of the 4.0%economic crisis. Nevertheless, this 3.6%average hides enormous differences 3.5%from country to country, ranging 2.9%from 3.6% in the UK to 0.1% in 3.0%Greece. Mature markets in Western 2.5%Europe, namely the UK, France,Germany and the Benelux countries, 2.0% 1.7% 1.7% 1.6%are all above average; whereas the 1.4% 1.4% European average penetration rate : 1.5% 1.5%newer markets in Southern and 1.0%Eastern Europe are all below average, 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7%indicating that they still have room 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5%to grow. 0.3% 0.29% 0.1% 0.0% UK Netherlands France Belgium Germany Austria Switzerland Sweden Portugal Norway Finland Macedonia Czech Republic Italy Denmark Slovakia Hungary Poland Slovenia Romania Greece * Defined as the number of full-time equivalents - as supplied by Ciett National Federations - divided by the total active working population - as published by the ILO24
  24. 24. Penetration ratein major markets fell in 2009 AGEnCy worKErS In nUMbErSIn 2009, the European and American Comparison of European, Japanese andpenetration rates fell to 1.4% and American agency work penetration rates1.3% respectively, reflecting the 2.2%sustained impact of the economic 2.1%crisis on these markets, whilst the 2.0% 1.9% 2.0%Japanese penetration also fell 1.7%, 1.8% 1.8% 1.7%although it entered the crisis later 1.7% 1.6% 1.7% 1.6% 1.5%than the USA and Europe. 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 US Japan Europe Source: Ciett national federations 25
  25. 25. Agency workers work nearly half as many hourson a yearly basis as full-time permanent employeesAgency workers tend to work less Average number of hours worked *during one year than a worker Sweden 1,625 1,627with a full-time, open-ended Argentina 1,820 1,589contract - except for the notable Japan 1,772 1,354exception of Sweden. From country Brazil 1,320 1,689to country, the average number of Australia 1,200 1,721hours worked by an agency worker Mexico 1,120 1,893compared to the average number Slovakia 1,021 1,769of hours worked by a permanent Hungary 840 1,989 2,121full-time employee varies greatly, Greece 730 1,389from less than 15% in the Czech Netherlands 697 1,902Republic to equivalent in Sweden. Chile 690 Switzerland 1,643 465 Italy 1,802 450 1,422 Norway 419 1,969 Poland 382 1,542 France 370 1,992 Czech Republic 288 1,568 Belgium 251 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Average per full-time permanent employee Average per agency worker * By an individual during one year Sources : Ciett National Federations, ILO 200926

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